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of the British navy, anchored the Samarang but more or less in several of the southsloop here, within the entrance of the main eastern portions of the Visayas ; are espestreet, the piles on which the houses there cially numerous in Mindanao, and exist in stood being driven in four fathoms water.* It their probably greatest strength among the is like Brune city, in Borneo; the chief busi- Sooloo Isles. These men are superior both ness is piracy

in physical organization and mental capacity Palawan is another terra incognita. The to all the others, and are possessed with a Spaniards tell us that it produces cowries, spirit of unparalleled ferocity and fondness gold, also ebony and other fine woods, in its for warfare. They make war for its own mountainous interior, and they have two sake. Their weapons are superior, and reor three small settlements on the island. markably well adapted for their purposes, beIt is inhabited centrally by the everlasting tokening no mean knowledge in the workNegrito; on the coast by tribes of doubt- ing of materials, though their acquaintance ful Malay origin, called Maanos, and with firearms is very slight. Their main Duüsuns or Eran people, from Eran bay reliance in battle on a light but remarkably (where may be seen the strange pheno- effective axe, similar at all points to the remenon of a tide, and a half-tide, alternately, nowned “Lochaber-axe,” which the heavy once in twenty-four hours), whence sail an- armed Scotch soldier of the middle ages nual piratical expeditions, oftentimes in wielded (according to Logan, “with one great force. The Royalist, English survey. hand, the thumb being extended along the ing vessel, which visited this island in 1851, shaft, and so forcibly that no mail could sometimes found it hard work to save her resist it),* and which they use with almost boats from these fierce and treacherous superhuman skill. people.

These axes have a lance-head projecting All the Philippine Islands, excepting from the top of the shaft, and on the back, set Luzon, bear the collective title of Visayas, at right angles to the latter, is a slender steel and the tribes inhabiting their shores are spike, square at the end, and about six generally spoken of as Visayan, from the inches long, not unlike a chain punch. With language, called the Visaya, which has this they perforate the severed skulls of many dialects, and differs essentially from their victims, for the purpose of expelthe Tegala, or native language of the coast ling the brains, fill the cavity with aromatic of Luzon, which is markedly Malaysian. gums and spices, then smoke to preserve Portions of these, again, are subdivided into them, and display in their huts as trophies. the Itas and the Pintados, or painted peo- For this sole purpose they make expediple, and in the interior of almost all are tions by land and sea, making “loot” on found those puzzling Oceanic Negroes. They such occasions but a secondary consideraare termed in Spanish Negritos, from their tion. diminutive size, their average height being It is a striking fact that this same horrible about five feet. Though so low of stature, custom is also practised by the Maories of they are tolerably symmetrical. They New Zealand, as everybody knows, and also use a large and formidable bow, and to the habit of decorating their weapons with their skill in the use of this weapon, they human hair. The dreaded Bornean Dyaks, doubtless owe the independence which they the bloodthirsty Luconian Igorrotos, and a have maintained for an unknown period, ferocious tribe found among the New Heagainst races of superior intelligence and brides, are also head takers.

So also were physical organization. The island of Negros, the Balinini, whom the Spaniards, it is said lying parallel with that of Zebu, near its -I record it to their credit-have exterwestern coast, derives its name from this minated. strange race, being peopled by it exclusively Captain Andrew Cheyne, who spent fifwhen first discovered.

teen years among the Pellew and Caroline The most dreaded and warlike of all these Islands, once in conversation about this tribes are a mysterious people, neither Ma- singular people, assured me that he had met, lay nor Negrito, whom the Spanish call in the former group, individuals physically Moros." These are not found in Luzon, resembling them, as also somewhat in arms

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and habits. He was but a short time after- quently found allied with the Illanoswards murdered in his house on one of the another predatory race, issuing from Illana Pellews, which he had leased from the king, Bay in the south side of Mindanao—with and at the time was engaged in cultivating whom the Moros at this day sometimes an experimental crop of cotton from Sea confederate, though generally making war Island seed, which promised most satisfac- on their own account. tory results. According to the report of The Moros are of the Mahometan faith, Captain Torm, who visited the island sub- and have stood the Spaniards a particularly sequently, by order of the British Vice-Con- tough tug of warfare, especially during the sul at Manila, and brought away the unfor- last half-century, and, for the most part, tunate Cheyne's vessel, the circumstances of have succeeded in holding their own-two his death would indicate the observance of reasons amply sufficient in Spanish eyes for the custom among his assassins. He was bestowing upon them the appellation proper decapitated, and the head was found in the to those fiery warriors of Africa, those vagarden surrounding the house, with the back lient true believers in the prophet, who conpart of the skull punctured, probably aban- quered and held the fairest half of Old Spain doned in some sudden alarm.

for a period of almost eight centuaries. So, too, those every way kindred spirits, They also possess an aptitude for building the terrible “ Sea Gipsies," -scarce twenty fortifications, rather formidable works, too, years since a name of fear through all the comparatively; and many a sharp and wellSunda Isles, and circumjacent waters; even contested fight has of late years taken place yet a scourge in the eastern portions of the between the Spanish gun-boats and Moro Molucca and Banda Seas ; sometimes now, water-batteries, defended by their rude but rarely, encountered in the Straits of cannon. Macassar ; indomitable rovers that, like the But the most remarkable feature of their old Buccaniers of the West Indies, took ac- savage strategy is what I may term their count of no disparity of circumstances, arms, pontooning tactics. The limits of an article numbers, or armament,--of whom so little of this nature forbid descending to particudefinite and certain is known, and so much lars, but I will endeavour to convey a correct of the horrible and mysterious is surmised, general idea, premising that it is a subject but at last, happily for the well-being of worthy the closest attention of our military commerce, extinct hereabouts, at least as a geniuses, who may draw from it lessons of naval organization, having disappeared much importance. since the day when Sir James Brooke Boats of a small size, constructed of strong, crushed their allies, the Sarebas, and the light, and elastic materials, which are fitted sea Dyaks of Borneo.

together without nail, treenail, spike, or screw, I have my suspicions that these were not (being bound together instead in a very inmerely kindred, but perhaps identical with genious and effective manner by means of the Moros. It has been surmised that they thongs, nipa leaf being inserted into the are the same as the “Bajows,” but this lacks seams before they are brought to a state of confirmation ; and, on the other hand, Baj- tension, just as barrel staves are interleaved ows are to-day found as peaceful fishermen with flags to render them perfectly wateralong the Bornean side of the Straits of tight) are combined to constitute their Carimata. But our knowledge of them is 'pontoons." These, separated into their only sufficient for provoking instead of ap- ultimate parts—“taken down,” as our technipeasing our curiosity. Beyond the fact that cal phrase would be-into planks, timbers, they were, as their sobriquet implies, wan- thwarts, paddles, etc., a man to each single derers, Bedouins of the sea, without any portion, and each as light and convenient fixed home or property besides their prohus, of portage as their swords or lances, are nothing definite concerning them has been borne in sufficient numbers in every enterestablished. It is said that they were guided prise. Every warrior is a pontonier, to whom by no special plan of cruising, beyond that is assigned one particular part, and whose of scudding before each monsoon. But there special responsibility for which ends only with is some reason to suppose that they came life. In addition they are thoroughly drilled from and returned to some part of the Sooloo into a regular, systematic performance of the Archipelago ; and that they were not infre- process of putting together and taking apart

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their well adapted craft, being taught to large but exceedingly light shields, formed render confusion impossible by a strict of interwoven rattan-confoundedly impeneadherence to the grand principle of all evo- trable things, too tough to be cut or pierced lutions, that of being in the right place, to any damaging extent, but admirably at the right moment, with the right thing. adapted to catch and jam the point of a With these boats, and the combinations they pike or sword. They are also proof against are accustomed to make with them, they | light pistols, nothing less than the calibre of bridge, raft, or ferry across stream, river, or Colt's navy pattern, at close range, being lake, according to necessities and circum- effective against them. Undoubtedly they are stances, with a celerity that is truly marvel- the best shields ever invented. These people lous; then they again “take them down,” have an exceedingly awkward trick, too, of and push on their flying marches without slashing at the sword-arm of an antagonist. involving any loss of time.

In this way they meet and overcome, singleI have elsewhere endeavoured to show handed, the gigantic club-wielding Sooloo that the theory herein involved, by which ape, a more formidable creature, it is said, every soldier is a pontonier, is capable of than the terrible African gorilla, concerning most advantageous adaptation in our armies, which we have been, for some years past, , by the simple means of utilizing the buoy- treated to such tremendously exaggerated ancy of the common canteen.

For ex

accounts, wherein travelled credulity has ample with the emptied and stoppered adopted as fact, and in some cases embelcanteens of a corps of ten thousand lished, the creations of native mendacity. men, if made something stouter, and fitted Their fire-arms are used only as naval weawith proper clamps or other simple means pons, or in their fortifications, and though of attaching one to another, can be con- the metal of which they are made appears structed a pontoon of ten thousand water- to be good, they are rude, clumsy, and intight compartments, or cells, which almost accurate. Probably their iron is naturally no practicable amount of battering could of superior fineness. sink, and which would carry three compan- In closing this paper I venture to put ies fully accoutred, with three boat howit- forward an opinion concerning the ethnozers and fifty rounds of shell and shrapnel logical position of these nations. Such of for each, reckoning only five pounds avoir- them as are tolerably known are classed, dupois as the power of flotation of each erroneously, I think, with the Malays. My canteen.

observations lead me to suppose that they Other tribes, notably the Igorrotos of are scattered portions of a great race, Luzon and the mountain Dyaks of Borneo, perhaps once, if not now, equal to the who are also adepts in the art, practise it Malays. The customs herein mentioned, with more or less skill and modification. notably, their pontooning and their head Like them, too, they carefully foster the taking, with others too numerous to describe growth of their hair, not as a feature of within these limits, the Malays know personal ornamentation, but to constitute a. nothing of. The differences of physique defence, for they twist and knot it upon

the from the latter are also telling. They are cranium in every conceivable and incon- bearded, the Igorrotos of Luzon strongly ceivable manner; braiding it sometimes so; while the Malays pure never show a with bands of cotton cloth and tough grasses trace; and their stature and bodily conforuntil it forms a helmet that requires a mation differ broadly. Between Dyak, Igorstrong arm, keen blade, and well-judged roto, Moro, Sea Gipsy, and the rest, the distance, to cut it through, and even then differences are very slight, and not to be the only result is to lodge the blade without compared with those existing between them inflicting, at best, immediately fatal injury collectively, and the Malays. upon the warrior. This fact is so well known The extent over which they are scattered to the experienced biche-le-mer” and other may be due to emigration, or may give suptraders in these regions, that whenever an port to the theory now received by most encounter with any of these tribes takes geologists, that the islands of Oceanica are place, the crew are invariably instructed not the mountain-tops of a submerged continent. to strike at their heads.

Either would account for their presence in Besides this, they carry on the left arm the less remotely separated localities. The

Philippine Isles have two easily practicable head-taker, and his resemblance to them lines of communication for even the rudest in general physique is much closer than that canoes, one by the Soloo Archipelago on of the Malay; while his traditions tell how the east; while Palawan, at the south-west- his ancestors came to the country after long ern extremity of their group, has a stepping- wandering in their canoes, at a period which stone, so to speak, on the Island of Bassilan

seems to correspond with that at which the to the northern shores of Borneo. The Malays sallied forth from their cradle home reader will observe that these lines are oc- in Sumatra on their career of conquest cupied more or less fully by the tribes of throughout the vast archipelago, and drove head-takers, hence the connection between forth on the waters the thousands from many the Igorrotos of Luzon on the north, and the a peaceful island coast, who preferred to seek Dyaks of Borneo on the south of their range new homes in the unknown ocean to reof habitat, is maintained. But their existence, maining in subjugation to the ferocious inor their traces, scattered through Melanesia vader. Did the Moro and his congeners and Polynesia, even to New Zealand, is in turn possess the art of tatooing, the proof more difficult to account for The Maori of sameness of origin would be established. of the latter country, be it remarked, is a Manila, 1866.

AT THE WATER SIDE.

BY W. P. DOLE., ST. JOHN, N. B.

(From the French of Sully-Prudhomme.)

"O sit together by the flowing tide,

And mark its flow;
Together, if in space a cloudlet glide,

To view it go;
If from thatched roof, far off, the blue smoke spring,

To watch it wreathe;
If all around some flower its sweetness fling,

The sweets to breathe ;
If of some tempting fruit taste dainty bees,

That fruit to share ;
If a bird sing among the listening trees,

To listen there ;
Beneath a willow, where the murmuring stream

Makes melody,
To take no note, except in a pleasant dream,

How time goes by;
Letting no passion deep invade our life,

But love alone ;
Having no part in all the world's vain strife,

Care to disown ;
In mutual bliss, no weariness to know,

To heave no sigh ;
To feel that love, whate'er may come or go,

Can never die!

BRITISH CONNECTION-IDEAL AND REAL.

BY A. M. B., OTTAWA.

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T was, if we remember correctly, Mr. be very well doubted, our present circum

Wark who last session, in the course of stances—which he did not indicate any dethe protracted debate which took place in sire to alter-considered, were the theory the Senate on the Pacific Railway policy of reduced to practice, and a railway built and the present Administration, enunciated the owned by the British Government were novel and somewhat startling proposition stretched across the whole Dominion, that the construction of that road ought to whether it would not involve a renewal to a be undertaken by the Imperial Govern- great extent of that odious interference in ment.* Unfortunately, the debates of the the local affairs of this country by the authoriUpper Chamber, even when they are impor- ties of Downing Street which gave such untant, are practically neglected by the press, qualified dissatisfaction in the past, and and it is very doubtful if the arguments ad- from which we are now never tired of convanced by Mr. Wark in support of his views, gratulating ourselves we are free. But in or even the views themselves unsupported asserting that commercially and militarily by argument, were ever given the publicity the Pacific Railway is of Imperial concern, they deserved. Briefly stated, his conten- most people will think Mr. Wark was right. tion was that the Pacific Railway, desirable Except, however, by guaranteeing the bonds from a Canadian point of view, but practi- of the road, it is difficult to see how the cally unattainable by Canadian means on Home Government could render us any account of the condition of our financial re- assistance in that gigantic undertaking just sources, is an actual Imperial necessity, whether considered as an accessory to the It is very different with the British public maintenance of British commercial and mili- -the sovereign people, by whom and for tary ascendancy, or as an instrument of se- whom the Government and Parliament act. curing still more firmly the integrity and The most enthusiastic and sincere advocates unity of the Empire. The hon. gentleman's of British connection practically admit that theory may not be quite consistent with the the tie which binds Canada to the mother principle of self-government which has been country is a tie more of affection than of adso amply conceded in the constitution of vantage—more of patriotism and sentimental our Canadian Confederacy; and it might loyalty than of self-interest. Surely then, we

now.

Mr.

# Although the first to propose that the Imperial Government ought to share in the expenses of any authorities ought themselves to build the road, scheme for opening up the North-West." Mr. Wark is by no means alone in pointing out its Huntington thought “if it had been the duty and Imperial importance. The idea of Imperial assist- policy of the Imperial Government to aid in the ance, too, had been suggested in Parliament before. construction of the Intercolonial Railway, it was a We find Mr. Joly, during the debate on the Terms hundred-fold more their duty and policy to aid in of Union, in 1871, stating that “he could not con- the construction of the Pacific,” and he asked the sider the railway a Canadian but an Imperial policy. Administration “for what reason they had absolved Of course it was natural that England should desire the Imperial Government from all duties in the to see British North America confederated and inde- work of consolidating British power on this contipendent of the United States ; and if that were her nent.” Senator Millar believed a railway across the desire, the best thing she could do would be to aid continent, on British soil, to be as much an Imperial in constructing this line of communication." The as a Dominion necessity, and entered into an elabopresent Minister of Marine and Fisheries, during the rate argument to show that “when the time came, same debate, combatting the argument that, if the England would do her duty and do it generously”

were not agreed to then, British Columbia that is to say, she would assist, “by guarantee would join the United States, declared if such were or otherwise,” in building the Pacific Railway. Senthe case, “the matter belonged to the Imperial Gov. ator Sanborn was opposed to the terms, and argued ernment alone.” Mr. Francis Jones, then member that the work was more an Imperial than a Colonial for Leeds and Grenville, considered the “ Imperial

terms

one.

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