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taken by all the inhabitants of this mansion, in the progress, which little Hetty made in her education. And much of the task of instruction devolved upon Swift, now a man of thirty, who seems to have, for some time, regarded his lovely pupil with the friendship of an elder brother. * But the constant and habitual intercourse of affectionate confidence between the master and the pupil, by degrees assumed a more tender complexion; and it will be presently seen, that when fortune appeared disposed to separate them, they were both unwilling to submit to her dictates. There is little doubt, that the feelings which attended this new connexion, must have had weight in disposing Swift to break off the lingering and cold courtship which he had maintained with Mrs. Jane Waryng. And from this period, the fates of Swift and Stella were so implicated together, as to produce the most remarkable incidents of both their lives.
Four years of quiet and happy residence at Moor. park were terminated by the death of Sir William Temple, in 1698–9. He was not unmindful of Swift's gener. ous and disinterested friendship, which he rewarded by a pecuniary legacy, and with what he, doubtless, regarded as of much greater consequence, the bequest of his literary remains. These, considering the author's
He taught her even the most ordinary parts of education, and, in particular, instructed her in the art of writing. Their hands resemble each other in some peculiarities. But though he instructed her in the necessary branches of education, there is evidence he went no further, and that Stella, far from being a learned lady, was really deficient in many of the most ordinary points of information. The editor is possessed of an exact transcript of marginal notes, written by Swift for elucidation of an edition of Milton, 1669, which is inscribed, “ The gift of Dr. Jonathan Swift to Mrs. Dinge ley and Mrs. Johnson, May 1703.” The notes are numerous, but the information which they convey is such as could only be useful to persons of a very indifferent education. Thus, Palestine is explained to be the Holy-Land, Rhene and Danau, two German rivers, Pilasters are rendered pillars, Alcides, Hercules; Columbus is designated as he “who discovered America,” and Xerxes as having “made a bridge with ships over the Hellespont.” It does not seem likely that Swift would have taken all this trouble merely for the illumination of Mrs. Dingley, and the inference plainly must be, that Stella was neither well informed nor well educated.
high reputation and numerous friends, held forth to his literary executor an opportunity of coming before the public, in a manner that should excitę at once interest and respect. And when it is considered, that all Swift's plans revolved upon making himself eminent as an author, the value of such an occasion to distinguish himself could scarcely be too highly estimated.
The experiment, however, appeared at first to have in a great measure disappointed these reasonable expectations. The works of Temple were carefully edited, with a dedication to King William; and at the same time a petition was presented for Swift, reminding his Majesty of a promise made to Sir William Temple, to bestow on him a prebend of Canterbury or Westminster. Swift has expressed his belief, that the Earl of Romney, who promised to second this petition, did in reality suppress it; and William, when he ceased to reap the benefit of Temple's political experience, was not likely to interest himself deeply in his posthumous literary labours. After long attendance upon court, therefore, Swift's hopes of promotion disappeared, and the revolution principles, which he certainly strongly professed, did not prevent his regarding King William, and his memory, with very little complacence.
Swift goes to Ireland with Lord Berkeley-His differences with that nobleman-Obtains the living of Laracor
-Не is displeased with his sister's marriage-His inode of life at LaracorMrs. Dingley and Stella come to Ireland Tisdal makes proposals of marriage to Stella—Swift embarks in politics-His opinion of the affairs of church and state-Tale of a Tub.
SWIFT, now in the prime of life, and well known both to the great and learned, could not long want an honourable provision, and accordingly received and accepted an invitation to attend the Earl of Berkeley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland, to that country, in the capacity of chaplain and private secretary. But these plurality of offices gave umbrage to a Mr. Bushe, who had pitched upon the latter situation for himself, and who contrived, under pretence of its incompatibility with the character of a clergyman, to have Swift superseded in his own favour. Lord Berkeley, “ with a poor apology,” promised to make his chaplain amends, by giving him the first good church-living that should become vacant. But neither in this did he keep his word; for, when the rich Deanery of Derry was in his gift, Bushe entered into a negotiation to sell it for a bribe of a thousand pounds, and would only consent to give Swist the preference, upon his paying a like sum. Incensed alike at the secretary and his principal, whom he supposed to be accessary to this unworthy conduct, Swift returned the succinct answer, 6 God confound you both for a couple of scoundrels," and instantly left Lord Berkeley's lodgings in the castle.* He had already given vent to his resentment in one or two keen personal satires; and his patron, alarmed for the consequences of an absolute breach with a man of his temper and talents, was glad to reconcile, or at least
* Lord Orrery intimates, that, notwithstanding what is above stated, Swift would actually have obtained this preferment, but for the interference of the learned Dr. King. “The rich Deanery of Derry became vacant at this time, and was intended for him by Lord Berkeley, if Dr. King, then Bishop of Derry, afterwards Archbishop of Dublin, had not interposed; entreating that the deanery might be given to some grave and elderly divine, rather than to so young a man; because, added the bishop, the situation of Derry is in the midst of Presbyterians, and I should be glad of a clergyman who could be of assistance to me. I have no objection to Mr. Swift. I know him to be a sprightly, ingenious young man; but, instead of residing, I dare say he will be eternally flying backwards and forwards to London ; and therefore I entreat that he may be provided for in some other place.” Lord Orrery's Life of Swift, London, 1752, p. 22. Archbishop King was afterwards himself disappointed of preferment on account of his age. When Dr. Boulter was preferred to be Primate of Ireland, in spite of his claims, as Archbishop of DubJin, King received him seated in his chair, with the sarcastic apology, “ My lord, I am certain your grace will forgive me, because you know I am too old to rise."
to pacify him, by presenting bim with the rectory of Agher, and the vicarages of Laracor and Rathbeggan. These livings united, though far inferior in value to the Deanery of Derry, formed yet a certain and competent fund of subsistence, amounting to about L.230 yearly. The Prebend of Dunlavin being added in the year 1700, raised Swift's income to betwixt L.350 and L.400, which was its amount until he was preferred to the Deanery of St. Patrick's. These facts are ascertained from his account-books for the years 1701 and 1702, which evince, on the one hand, the remarkable economy with which Swift managed this moderate income, and on the other, that, of the expenses which he permitted himself, more than one-tenth part was incurred in acts of liberality and benevolence.*
Swift's quarrel with Lord Berkeley did not disturb his intercourse with the rest of the family, in which he retained his situation of chaplain. Lady Berkeley stood high in his opinion as an amiable and virtuous woman, in whom the most easy and polite conversation, joined with the truest piety, might be observed united to as much advantage as ever they were seen apart in any other persons. The company also, of two amiable and
* Account of expenses from Nov. 1, 1700, to Nov. 1, 1701. Articles per Account,
L. d. Shoes and boots,
3 0 0 A servant's wages, &c.
7 0 0 Washing, &c.
4 0 0 Linen,
5 0 0 Clothes,
13 0 0 Journeys,
10 0 J. B.
5 0 Accidents,
5 0 Horse,
12 0 0 Letters,
1 10 0 Play,
5 0 Gifts and charity extraordinary,
10 0 0 Charity common,
2 10 0 Expenses common,
17 0 0
L.100 0 0 + This excellent lady was daughter of Baptist Noel, Viscount Campden, and sister to Edward, first Earl of Gainsborough. She died 30th July 1719.
lively young ladies of fashion, daughters of the Earl,* must have rendered the society still more fascinating; and, accordingly, it is during his residence with Lord Berkeley, that Swift appears first to have given way to the playfulness of his disposition in numerous poetical jeux d'esprit, which no poet ever composed with the same felicity and spirit. Of this class are the inimitable petition of Mrs. Frances Harris, the verses on Miss Floyd, a young lady of beauty and spirit, who was also an inmate of the family, and some other pieces, written during this period. But the most solemn waggery was the Meditation on a Broomstick, composed and read with infinite gravity, as an existing portion of the Honourable Mr. Boyle's Meditations, which, it seems, Lady Berkeley used to request Swift to read aloud more frequently than was agreeable to him. In such company, and with such amusements, his time glided happily away, and he retained a high regard for the ladies of the family during the rest of his life. Lady Betty Berkeley, in particular, afterwards Lady Betty Germaine, was, to the end of his career, one of his most valuable and most valued correspondents.
During this period of Swift's life, his sister contracted an imprudent marriage with a person called Fenton, to his very high and avowed displeasure, which, Lord Orrery has informed us, was solely owing to his ambition being outraged at her matching with a tradesman. This, however, was by no means the case.
Fenton was a worthless character, and upon the eve of bankruptcy, when Swift's sister, against his warm remonstrances, chose to unite her fate to his. And although he retained his resentment against her imprudence, Lord Orrery ought not to have omitted, that, out of his own moderate income, Swift allowed Mrs. Fenton what was adequate to
Ladies Mary and Elizabeth Berkeley. The former married Thomas Chambers of Hanworth, in the county of Middlesex ; the latter Sir John Germaine of Drayton, in the county of Northampton, A third daughter of the Earl, Lady Penelope, died during his residence at Dublin.