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the beginning, though Addison only discovered it after the publication of the sixth number.

By the assumption of the name of Isaac Bickerstaff, which an inimitable spirit of wit and humour had already made so famous, the new publication gained audience with the public, and obtained, under its authority, a sudden and general acceptance.. Swift contributed several papers, and numerous hints to carrying on the undertaking, until the demon of politics disturbed his friendship with the editor.

These literary amusements, with the lines on Partridge's supposed death, the verses on Baucis and Philemon, those on Vanbrugh's house at Whitehall, with some other light pieces of occasional humour, seem chiefly to have occupied Swift's. leisure about this period. Yet the controversy with Partridge, and these other levities, are better known to the general' reader, than the laboured political treatises which we shall have occasion to mention in the next section.

To conclude the present chapter, it is only necessary to resume, that Dr. Swist, dissatisfied with the inefficient patronage of those ministerial friends from whom he had only received compliments, promises, and personal attentions, returned to Ireland early in summer 1709, and, estranging himself from the court of the lord-lieutenant, resumed his wonted, mode of life at Laracor. The corrections and additions intended for bis new edition of the Tale of a Tub, probably occu. pied great part of his leisure, as we find him corresponding upon that subject with Tooke, the bookseller He seems also to have meditated the publication of a volume of miscellanies.* But his literary occupations

* See his correspondence on this subject, in his. Works, Vol. XV. p. 364. On the subject of bis Miscellanies, he had, so far back-as. 1708, made the following memorandum :

SUBJECTS FOR A VOLUME.

Discourse on Athens and Rome. Vanbrugh's House.
Bickerstaff's Predictions.

The Salamander.
Elegy on Partridge.

Epigram on Mrs. Floyd. Letter to Bishop of K[illala.] Meditation on a Broomstick.

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were broken in upon by domestic affliction, for, in May 1710, he received the news of his affectionate mother's death, after long illness. "I have now," he pathetically remarks, “ lost my barrier between me and death. God grant I may live to be as well prepared for it as I confidently believe her to have been! If the way to heaven be through piety, truth, justice, and charity, she is there."*

SECTION III.

Swift's Journey to England, in 1710His quarrel with

the Whigs, and union with Harley and the Administration-He writes the Examiner~ The character of Lord Wharton-And other political tracts-Obtains the FirstFruits and Twentieth-Parts for the Irish Clergy-His correspondence with Archbishop King-His intimacy with the Ministers--- The services which he renders to themProject for improving the English Language-His protection of Literary Characters-Difficulties attending his church prefermentHe is made Dean of St. Patrick's And returns to Ireland.

Swift had now become more than doubtful of those well-grounded views of preferment, which his interest with the great Whig leaders naturally offered. He re

Harris's Petition.

Sentiments of a Church of EngBaucis and Philemon.

land Man. Reasons against abolishing Chris. Part of an Answer to Tindal. tianity.

History of Van's House, Essay on Conversation.

Apollo outwitted. To Ardelia. Conjectures on the Thoughts of Project for Reformation of ManPosterity about me.

ners. On the present Taste of Reading. A Lady's Table-book. Apology for the Tale, &c. Critical Essay.-N.

* Swift's Works, Vol. XV. p. 355.

sided at Laracor during the greater part of Lord Wharton's administration ; saw the lieutenant very seldom when he came to Dublin, and entered into no degree of intimacy with him or his friends, excepting only with Addison. Such is his own account of his conduct, which he prepared for publication at a time when hundreds were alive and upon the watch to confute any inaccuracy in his statement.* He adds, that upon an approaching change in the political administration, Lord Wharton affected of a sudden. greatly. to caress him, which he imputes to a wish of rendering him odious to the church party.

The fall of that ministry, which had conducted with so much glory the war upon the Continent, was caused, or at least greatly accelerated, by one of those explosions of popular feeling peculiar to the English nation. Swift, with all his genius, had in vain taught the doctrine of moderation ; but Sacheverell, with as little talent as principle, at once roused the whole pation, and became himself elevated into a saint and a martyr, by a single inflammatory sermon. He was carried in procession, through the land,

Per Graium populos, mediæque per Elidis urbem
Ibat ovans-

and wherever the doctor appeared, arose a popular spirit of aversion to the Whig administration, and all who fa.. voured the dissenters. Swift was probably no indifferent spectator, while the interests of the high-church party began to predominate over the power of those whose opinions in state policy had been avowedly his

He did not, however, interfere in the controversy; and we learn from a passage in his Journal, that although he afterwards interceded for Sacheverell with Harley's administration, it was without esteem for the

own.

* Memoirs relating to the change in the Queen's ministry, Swift's Works, Vol. III. p. 190. There is also an appeal to Stella on this subject, in the Journal, Vol. II. p. 254. “I am resolved, when I come, (to Ireland, namely,) to keep no other company, but M.D. You know I kept iny resolution last time; and, except Mr. Addisong. conversed with none but you and your club of Doans and Stoytes."

man, or favour to those principles of which the doctor was the champion.* The following letter,t which was written by Swift to Addison, upon the impending change of administration, seems to indicate that his slight expectations of promotion still rested upon the Whigs, and upon Lord Somers in particular. There is, however, to use a phrase of his own, some refinement in the epistle ; for while Swift asks Addison's advice whether he should come to London, he bad, in all probability, already determined on his journey, as he set out upon the first day of September following.

“ Dublin, August 22, 1710. " I looked long enough at the wind to set you safe at the other side, and then ***** our conduct, very unwilling for fear you [about two lines are effaced] up to a posthorse, and hazard your limbs to be made a member. I believe you had the displeasure of much ill news almost as soon as you landed. Even the moderate Tories here are in pain at these revolutions, being what will certaio

* See an account of his solicitation in behalf of Sacheverell's brother, in his Works, Vol. III. p. 20, 21; and the following characteristic story told by Sheridan:-“ Afterwards, in the year 1713, soon after the three years silence imposed upon the doctor by the House of Lords, in consequence of his impeachment, had expired, Swift procured for him the Rectory of St. Andrew's, Holborn, in the following whimsical manner :-Upon that living's becoming vacant, he applied for it in behalf of Sacheverell, to Lord Bolingbroke ; who seemed not at all disposed in his favour, calling him a busy, meddling, factious fellow, one who had set the kingdom in a fame. To which Swift replied, It is all true, my lord ; but let me tell you a story. In a . sea-fight, in the reign of Charles II., there was a very bloody engagement between the English and Dutch fleets; in the heat of which, a Scotch seaman was very severely bit by a louse on his neck, which he caught, and stooping down to crack it, just as he had put himself in that posture, a chain-shot came and took off the heads of several sailors that were about him ; on which he had compassion on the poor louse, returned him to his place, and bid him live there at discretion; for, said he, as thou hast been the means of saving my life, it is but just I should save yours.' Lord Bolingbroke laughed heartily, and said, “Well then, the louse shall have the living for your story.' And accordingly he was soon after presented to it.”-Sherie dan's Life of Swift.

H. The original is among Mr. Tickell's manuscripts. The words in Italics are filled up from conjecture.

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ly affect the Duke of Marlborough, and consequently the success of the war.. My lord-lieutenant asked me yesterday, when I intended for England ? I said I had no business there now, since I suppose in a little time I should not have one friend left that had any credit; and his excellency was of my opinion.* I never once began your [task] since you (left this] being perpetually prevented by all the company I kept, and especially Captain Pratt, to whom I am almost a domestic upon your account. I am convinced that, whatever Government come over, you will find all marks of kindness from any Parliament here, with respect to your employment;t the Tories contending with the Whigs which should speak best of you. Mr. Pratt says, he has received such marks of your sincerity and friendship, as he never can forget; and, in short, if you will come over again, when you are at leisure, we will raise an army, and make you King of Ireland. I Can you think so meanly of a kingdom, as not to be pleased that every creature in it, who hath one grain of worth, has a veneration for you? I know there is nothing in this to make you add any value to yourself; but it ought to put you on valuing them, and to convince you that they are not an undistinguishing people. On Thursday, the Bishop of Clogher, the two Pratts, and I, are to be as happy as Ireland will now give us leave; we are to dine with Mr. Paget at the Castle, and drink your health. The bishop showed me the first volume of the small edition of the Tatler, where there is a very handsome compliment to me; but I can never pardon the printing the news of every Tatler-I think he might as well have printed the advertisements. I knew it was a bookseller's piece of craft, to increase the bulk and price of what he was sure would sell; but I utterly disapprove it. I beg you would freely tell me

* Yet Swift must have then expected the commission from the bishops, which was granted a week afterwards. His answer to Lord Wharton must therefore be considered as evasive.

+ Addison had been recently made keeper of the records in Ireland, with an augmented salary.

This reminds us of an expression in the Journal to Stella, “Mr. Addison's election has past easy and updisputed; and I believe, if he had a mind to be chosen king, he would hardly be refused."

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