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earl of Pembroke, groom of the stole; earl of Sandwich, first commiffioner of the admiralty; earl of Harrington, lord lieutenant of Ireland; vifcount Cobham; and Henry Pelham, efq. first commiffioner of the treafury.
His Majefty was graciously pleased to declare, that in order to prevent any inconveniencies which his fubjects may fuffer by mifapprehending the purport or effect of his royal proclamation, dated the 5th inftant, as foon as paffes could be interchanged, they fhould be delivered to fuch of his fubjects as defired the fame for their fhips, goods, merchandizes and effects, they duly obferving the feveral acts of Parliament in force, with regard to trade or correfpondence with France.
The amount of the whole expence of building the Manfion-house for the lord mayors of London (including the fum of 3900l. paid for purchafing of houses) was 42,6381. 185. 8d.
May 13. At noon his Majefty went to the House of Peers with the ufual state, and the commons being fent for up, and attending, gave the royal affent to the following bills, viz. The bill for granting one million out of the finking fund.-Bill to rectify a mistake in the mutiny act.-Bill to amend and inforce the window light act. -Bill for the more effectual difarming the Highlands.-Bill to regulate trials for high treafon in the Highlands of Scotland.-Bill for rendering more effectual an act for relief of fuch loyal fubjects in Scotland, whose title deeds were deftroyed in the rebellion. -Bill to regulate courts-martial in the fea fervice, and for extending the discipline of the navy to the crews of his Majefty's fhips wrecked, loft, or taken, &c.Bill for allowing the exportation of tea to Ireland and the plantations, duty free; and for enlarging the time for fome of the payments to be made on a fubfcription of 6,300,000/-Bill to amend and inforce an act for prohibiting the wearing and importation of cambricks or French lawns.-Bill for encouraging the growth and importation of indigo from his Majefty's plantations in America.-Bill for amending and continuing feveral laws near expiring. Bill to explain and amend two acts for the prefervation of the public roads. -Bill for holding the fummer affizes for the county of Buckingham, at the town of Buckingham.-Bill to continue the duty of 6d. per chaldron on coals, for relief of the orphans of the city of London.-Bill for relief of the annuitants of the mercers com
pany. Bill for relief of infolvent debtors.
And to feveral road and private bills. After which his Majefty made the following fpeech to both houses, and prorogued the Parliament to the 30th of June next.
"My Lords, and Gentlemen,
"At the opening of this feffion of Parliament I informed you, that a congress had been agreed upon by the feveral powers at war; and I have now the fatisfaction to acquaint you, that the preliminaries for reftoring a general peace have been figned between my 'minifter, and those of the moft Chriftian King, and the States General of the United Provinces; the bafis of which is a general reftitution of conquests made during the war, on all fides.
"In confequence of thefe preliminaries, which have been ratified by all the contracting parties, a ceffation of hoftilities has actually taken place in the Low Countries, and in the channel; and certain periods are fixed, according to former practice, for its commencement in other parts of the world.
"In this important transaction my great views have been fteadily to adhere to the true interefts of Europe, to purfue and maintain thofe of my own kingdoms, in particular, and to procure for my allies the beft terms and conditions, that the event of a war, in fome parts unfuccefsful, did admit.
"I have, in the courfe of this negociation, acted with the most unreserved confidence and communication towards my allies and I hope, that when they fhall have maturely weighed the fituation of affairs, the neceffity from thence arifing, and the care and attention which have been fhewn for their advantage and fecurity, they will not delay to accede to these preliminary articles, but concur in effectuating the good work of peace.
"The vigorous and powerful fupport you have given me, during this feffion, towards carrying on the war, has ftrengthened my hands, in proceeding thus far in the meafures of peace. Nobody can suggest the leaft failure on the part of Great-Britain, which, not only for the fake of its own particular intereft, but of the common caufe, has taken on itself a fhare of the burthen, unexampled in former times. I hope foon to fee this neceffary work brought to perfection, with the concurrence of all my allies; with whom it is my firm intention to cultivate the most perfect harmony, and to cement and ftrengthen, if poffible,
the ties of our antient union and friendship, in fuch a manner as may render the peace fecure and durable.
"Gentlemen of the House of Commons, "My particular thanks are due to you, for the ample provifion you have made for the fervice of the current year. Nothing could have contributed fo much to the putting an end to the calamities of war, and reducing our future expences, as these welljudged fupplies. The most prudent œconomy fhall be made ufe of in the application of them and you may be affured, nothing will give me more real pleasure, than to take the first opportunity of leffening the prefent burthens of my people.
"My Lords, and Gentlemen,
"I cannot fufficiently exprefs my entire fatisfaction in your whole conduct, during this feffion; and I muft recommend it to you, to promote in your several counties a right fenfe of those measures, which have been fo neceffarily taken for the fecurity and ease of my people. As it is the earnest defire of my heart to fee the crown of Great-Britain maintain that figure, ftrength, and weight, in making war and peace, which juftly belong to it, it is equally fo, to fee my good fubjects enjoy the bleffings of tranquility and profperity.
About four in the afternoon, his Majefty fet out from St. James's to "embark for Holland, in order to proceed for his German dominions. He remained windbound at Harwich till the 19th, when he failed from thence about two in the afternoon with the wind at S. by W. Lord Anfon commanded the squadron that convoyed his Majefty.
May 16. This night a meffenger arrived from the earl of Sandwich, his Majesty's minifter plenipotentiary at Aix-la-Chapelle, with the ratifications of the preliminary articles, which were exchanged on the 21ft inftant, N. S. between the minifters of his Britannic Majefty, the most Christian King, and the States General of the United Provinces.
May 19. An order was iffued out from the Lords of the Admiralty to capt. Lloyd, commander of the Glasgow man of war, at Sheerness, to fail with all expedition to Newfoundland and North America, and to advertise all captains and commanders he meets, belonging to Great-Britain, to cease hoftilities against the French.
May 20. Mr. Dick, one of his Majefty's meffengers, arrived at his grace the duke of Newcastle's office, with the act of aç
ceffion of the emprefs queen of Hungary to the preliminary articles, which were figned at Aix-la-Chapelle by count Kauntiz the 25th of this inftant May. N. S.
May 22. The general affembly at Edinburgh was diffolved by his grace the High Commiffioner, with the usual folemnity; after having made an act, that every minifter of the church of Scotland, fhall preach the first fabbath of every quarter, upon revolution principles, and against popery, &c.
May 26. Upon advice of his Majesty's landing in Holland, on Sunday laft, the lords justices opened their commiffion, when they appointed Richard Nevil Aldworth, and John Potter, efqrs. to be their fecretaries.
May 28. A meffenger arrived from the earl of Sandwich, at Aix-la-Chapelle, with the acts of acceffion of the king of Sardinia, and his moft ferene highnefs the duke of Modena, to the preliminary articles.
The people in France were become fo mutinous for want of bread and other neceffary provifions, that dangerous infurections had happened in several parts of that. kingdom, particularly at Bourdeaux, from whence arrived the following account: "The benefit which peace is likely to bring to this kingdom, began to manifeft itself here, on the arrival of thirty fhips laden with wheat from England. The Intendant immediately caufed their cargoes to be diftributed to the people, who were in the greateft diftrefs, bread being fold for 12d. a pound, and for eleven days together there was none to be had; but the arrival of these fhips foon filled the town with plenty and joy, and instantly occafioned the price to fall to 9d. per pound."
Another good effect for that kingdom was, that the ceflation raised their Eaft-India ftock at once from below 1200 to 1600 per cent. and in order to revive their ruined trade, his moft Chriftian Majesty by an arret, gave them leave to make a lottery for 1,200,000 livres.
June 2. His Britannic majefty having arrived at Helvoetfluys early in the morning fet out at fix the fame morning on his journey to Hanover, had an interview with the princefs of Orange at Maeflandfluys, another with the prince of Orange at Utretcht, and on the 4th arrived at Herenhaufen.
June 4. The Swallow packet, capt. Phillips, arrived at Falmouth from Jamaica, and brought the following account, viz. that after the reduction of Port Louis, admiral Knowles failed immediately for St. Jago de Cuba,
where capt. Dent, of the Plymouth, being fenior, demanded, as his right, that he might go in firft, feconded by the Cornwall; but on his approach found a chain across, with booms, alfo two large fhips, and two small ones filled with combustibles, and ready to be fet on fire on the first attempt to break the chain. They fired feveral broad fides at the castle, and the Cornwall had fome men killed. Then capt. Dent confulting his officers, they all agreed that they must lofe their fhips if they attempted to break the chain; and therefore gave over the enterprize, and returned to Jamaica,
June 9. His grace the duke of Newcastle, one of his Majesty's principal fecretaries of ftate, fet out for Harwich, where he embarked for Holland in his way to Hanovor.
June 10. Being the first day of term, the earl of Traquair appeared at the court King's-bench, and was farther continued on his recognizance : as was Sir John Douglas, bart. late knight of the fhire for Dumfries.
June 11. A fpecial free pardon paffed the great feal, granted to John Murray, of Broughton, efq. and Hugh Frazer, gent. of all treafons, mifprifion of treasons, and all other offences committed or done by themselves alone, or either of them, on or before the 6th day of May, 1748.
June 12. There was a violent ftorm of thunder and lightning, accompanied with hail of an extraordinary fize in some places; particularly at Addington-Place, in Surrey, where the hail ftorm lafted about twenty minutes; the smallest hail-ftones were as large as middling walnuts, not round, but of an irregular form; many of them were feven inches in circumference, and fell on the ground with fuch force that they rebounded above two feet. All the gardens round about were entirely covered with the hail, which lay in fhady places full two hours before it was diffolved. There were alfo melancholy accounts from several parts of the country, of the great hurt done by the thunder and lightning: at Streatham in Surrey, it beat in a chimney next door to the Black Bull, and knocked down a fervant maid who was juft called from the window to avoid it, but did her no confiderable damage; but what is more remarkable, at the next door to that, it finged the painting off a landfcape, which hung over the chimney piece, and likewife the gilding off the frame, but did no farther mifchief. At Springfield, near Chelmsford, two boys were inftantly killed in the
church during the time of divine service, &c.
June 23. The Parliament which flood prorogued to the 30th inftant, was ordered to be further prorogued to Aug. 30.
June 24. Edward Ironfide, efq. alderman and goldfmith, and Thomas Rawlinson, efq. alderman and grocer, were elected theriffs of London and Middlefex for the year enfuing.
June 30. A petition, figned by a great number of eminent merchants, was prefented to the lords of the regency, by a committee appointed by the faid merchants, praying, that leave may be given to open a trade with the kingdom of Spain. And, foon after, a number of bills were pofted up at the Royal-exchange, for fhips bound to Spain; which gave great fatisfaction to the generality of people in trade.
By the paying off feveral men of war, the wages fell in the merchant's service from 50s. to 25s. per month.
The right honourable the lord Anson prefented the account of his voyage round the world to the Royal Society, for which he received their thanks.
July 2. Arrived from Hanover his Majefty's ratification of his acceptance of the acceffion of the court of Spain, and the republic of Genoa, to the preliminary articles figned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the 28th of June, N. S. 1743.
After figning the preliminaries, the court thought proper to revoke all the orders formerly given, for prohibiting commerce of any kind with Gibraltar; and his Catholic Majefty, being perfectly satisfied with the conduct of M. Wale, major-general of his armies, in the negociations with which he was charged at London, his Majesty authorised him to fettle, with the Britifh minifters, fome articles relating to the freedom of the English navigation in the Weft-Indies; as likewife certain points relating to the demands of the English SouthSea company.
July 12. At North Curry, near Taunton, Somersetshire, there was ploughed up an urn or pitcher, in which were contained feveral filver Roman coins, viz. of Gratianus, Valentinianus, Valens, Theodofius, Honorius, Arcadius, Conftantinus, Conftans, Julianus, and many others.
They were almost all of them of the fame fize, excepting one of Gratianus, with this infcription, D. N. GRATIANUS, P. F. AUG. and on the reverfe a fort of an angel ftanding with one of his feet on a globe, with a field in his hands; in which
are these words, VOT. V. MUL. X; and in the round, VICTORIA, AUGUSTORUM; and on the bottom, S. M. T. R. This piece is three times as large as any of the others, and weighs very near a fhilling.
They were viewed by feveral learned gentlemen, and were reckoned to be fome of of the greatest curiofities of the kind hitherto found.
They were as perfect and free from decay, as if they were but very lately coined; notwithstanding the lateft of them was about 1350 years old.
July 14. Was the famous folar eclipfe. The quantity eclipsed was about ten digits; and, according to obfervations made by a fet of ingenious gentlemen near St. Paul's, the beginning was at three minutes fiftythree feconds paft nine in the morning, and the end at nine minutes thirteen feconds past twelve, as near as could be judged, by reafon of clouds interpofing; which times were as near the truth, as could be expected: for one obferved the appulfe of the moon's limb to that of the fun, thro' a good refracting aftronomical telescope, whofe object-glass was polished exceedingly well, and defined the objects very diftinctly; while another proclaimed each fecond, measured by a curious regulator, with a compound pendulum, whofe weight was four times greater than that which kept the machine in motion; and this was again corrected by a mathematical inftrument, placed purpofely for obferving the moment of the fun's paffing over our meridian. During the time of the eclipse, Venus made a beautiful appearance through the telescopes, in form of a crefcent or new moon.
About this time, a commiffion paffed the great-feal, impowering his royal highnefs Frederick prince of Wales, his royal highnefs William duke of Cumberland, his grace the archbishop of Canterbury, the right honourable the lord chancellor, and all others of his Majefty's privy council, chief baron of the Exchequer, juftices of the court of King's-bench, and Common-pleas, to receive, hear and determine the appeals in the causes relating to the prizes taken from the French or Spaniards.
July 24. Sir Peter Warren, in the Invincible, and Sir Edward Hawke in the Devonshire; with the Yarmouth and Culloden men of war, arrived at Spithead.
July 27. A mail arrived from France, the firft fince the commencement of the war with that nation.
de Belleifle, M. of France.
Aug. 4. The Board of Works furveyed the roof of Weftminster-hall, and found it to be very ruinous and decayed; whereupon they ordered several new fpars to be made, and affixed to the roof, and large iron bolts to be driven into the arches, and rivited; for the better fupport of the faid roof.
George Mackenzie, efq. late earl of Cromartie, and his lady and family, fet out from their lodgings in Pall-Mall for Devon fhire, near Exeter, the place he was banifhed to for life.
A pardon paffed the great feal unto Sir James Kinloch, and James Stewart, of all treafons, mifprifons of treafon, &c. by
them, or either of them, committed on or before the 13th of April, 1748, provided they remain in fuch places, as his Majefty, his heirs and fucceffors, fhall, from time to time, appoint.
A pardon paffed the great feal to William Barclay, and feventy-two others therein mentioned, of all treasons, felonies, crimes, and offences by them committed on or be fore the 13th of April, 1748, with a provifo that they enlift themselves into his Majefty's fervice to go abroad.
Before a great shower of rain fell on the 4th, at night, fome gentlemen, near St. James's, obferving many unufual clouds, difcovered, by the help of optic glaffes, that they were fwarms of locufts, a great number of which were next day found in St. James's-park, St. James's-freet, Pall-mall,
c. They refembled the great green grafhopper, found in the corn-fields in all parts of England about the time of harvest, except in the colour, which was in the body, of a light brown, ribbed with white, with two large wings longer than the body, and they had fewer legs than the grafhopper; in their flight their wings made a buzzing noife, like that of the great black beetle.
We had an account also of thefe creatures from feveral parts of the country, and from Scotland and Ireland.
Auguft 10. The proclamation for a ceffaticn of hoftilities with the kingdom of Spain, and the republic of Genoa, was read at the fouth gate of the Royal-exchange.
Their royal highneffes the prince and princefs of Wales went into mourning for his ferene highness prince Chriftian William of Saxe-Gotha.
August 18. There happened a dreadful fire at Barkway in Hertfordshire, occafioned by a stack of hay being laid up too green, which took fire, and immediately communicated itself to the adjacent barns; and, in a few hours, laid in afhes thirteen dwellinghouses, with all the ricks, ftacks, barns, ftables, &c. The damage done amounted to near 3000l.
From Hanover we heard, that his Majefty had appointed Sir Thomas Robinson, who had for feveral years been his minister at Vienna, to be joint-plenipotentiary with the earl of Sandwich at Aix-la-Chapelle; for which laft place Sir Thomas fet out on the 19th inft. Ñ. S. and carried along with him his Majefty's approbation of the definitive treaty of peace drawing up at Aix-laChapelle, a plan of which had been fent to Hanover for that purpose.
A proclamation was iffued by the lords juftices for opening the commerce with Spain.
Auguft 25. The Parliament, which stood prorogued to the 30th inftant, was ordered, by their excellencies the lords juftices, to be further prorogued to October 13.
Auguft 29. This morning his royal highness the duke of Cumberland arrived in good health at St. James's.
All the letters from France were full of the vast preparations they were making for reftoring their marine. Ships were daily arriving, loaded with all forts of naval ftores; and the King had lately purchased of the duke of Chevreufe, at the rate of 1,500,000 livres, the foreft of Chateaudun, in which there were great quantities of timber trees, proper for the royal navy.
Advices from Vienna faid, that an edict had been lately iffued there, by which the prelates and ecclefiaftics were enjoined to make fale to laymen of all the estates they had purchased, without permiffion, fince the year 1669; the court being refolved to buy fuch as may not meet with other purchafers, at a reasonable price.
Sept. 1. The Pope conferred the order of priesthood upon cardinal Stuart, who celebrated his first mafs on the Wednesday following in his own chapel, and gave the facrament to the chevalier de St. George, his father, in prefence of feveral perfons who affitted thereat; fo that it was not in the power even of the Pope himself to give him a difpenfation to quit or marry ; therefore, if he fhould ever form fuch a defign, he could no way accomplish it, but by turning Proteftant.
Sept. 10. His royal highness the duke of Cumberland fet out from St. James's for Harwich; from whence he failed for Hol land the next day, and on the 13th arrived at the head quarters of the allied army in Flanders.
Sept. 13. The workmen finished the pulling down the scaffolding in Westminfter-hall, erected for the trials of the rebel lords, which was fold to a builder for 400l. the perquifite of his grace the duke of Ancafter, as lord great chamberlain of England.
Sept. 17. Orders were given by the lords of the Admiralty for the immediate manning of fix twenty gun fhips, to cruize off the coafts of Spain and Genoa.
The following admirals were ordered to be in readinefs to take upon them their the commands, viz. Sir Edward Hawke, for