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28. A fast for the death of Samuel, who was lamented by all the people. (1 Sam. xxv. 1.)

9. SIVAN, or SIUVAN.

The NiNth month of the civil year, the third month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our JMay and June.

1. The new moon.

3. The lessons were from Lev. xxvi. 3. to the end of the book, and from Jer, xvi. 19. to Jer. xvii. 15.

6. The feast of Pentecost, which is also called the feast of weeks, because it fell just seven weeks after the morrow after the feast of the passover.

§ Numbers is begun and read to ch. iv. v. 21. and from Hosea ii. 10. to Hosea ii. 21.

13. A feast in memory of the victories of the Maccabees over the Bathsurites, 1 Mac. v. 52.

17. A feast for the taking of Caesarea by the Asmonasans.

19. The lessons were from Num. iv. 21. to Numb. viii. 1. and from Judg. ii. 2 to the end of the chapter.

23. A fast, because Jeroboam forbad the ten tribes, which obeyed him, to carry up their first fruits to Jerusalem. (1 Kings xii. 27.)

25. A fast, on account of the mo the Rabbins, Simon the son of Gamaliel, Ishmael the son of Elisha, and Ananias the Sagan, that is, the high priest's vicar.

26. The lessons were from Num. viii. to Num. xiii. 1. and from Zech. ii. 10. to Zech. iv. 8.

27. A fast, because Rabbi Hanina, the son of Tardion, was burnt, and with him the book of the law.

10. THAMMUZ, on TAMMUZ.

The TENTH month of the civil year, the Fourth month of the ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our June and July. '

1. The new moon. 3. The lessons were from Num. xiii. 1. to Num. xvi. 1. and the second chapter of Joshua. 10. The lessons were from Num. xvi. 1. to Num. xix. 1. and from 1 Sam. xi. 14 to 1 Sam. xii. 23. 14. A feast for the abolition of a pernicious book of the Sadducees against the oral law and tradition. 17. The fast of the fourth month, because the tables of the law were broken, the perpetual sacrifice ceased, Epistemon burned the law, and set up an idol in the temple.] (Exod. xxxii. 19.) 19. The lessons were from Num. xix. 1. to Num. xxii. 2. and the eleventh chapter of Judges to the 34th verse. . 26. The lessons were from Numb. xxii. 2. to Numb. xxv. 10. and from Mic. v. 7. to Mic. vi. 9. 29. The lessons were from Num. xxv. 10, to Num. xxx. 2. and from 1 Sam. xviii. 46. to the end of the chapter.

11. AB.

The ELEventh month of the civil year, the Fifth month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our July and August. !: The new moon. A fast on account of the death of Aaron the high-priest. (Num. xxxiii. 38.)

* See Prideaux's Con. p. 1. b. 1. under the year 588,

3. The lessons were from Numb. xxx. 2. to Numb. xxxiii. 1. and from Jer. i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4.

9. The fast of the fifth month, because the temple was first burnt by the Chaldees, and afterwards by the Romans, on this day; and because God on this day declared in time of Moses that none of those who came out of Egypt should enter into the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 29.31.) l 12. The book of Numbers is now finished; and from Jer. ii. 4. to Jer. ii. 29. is also read.

18. A fast, because in the time of Ahaz the evening lamp went out. Genebrard calls this lamp the Western Lamp.

20. Deuteronomy is begun and read from i. 1. to iii. 23. and the first chapter of Isaiah to verse 28.

21. Selden asserts that this was the day that all the wood which was wanted in

the temple was brought into it; but others think that this was done in the next month.

24. A feast for the Maccabees having abolished that law of the Sadducees whereby sons and daughters inherited alike. 28. The lessons were from Deut. iii. 23. to Deut. vii. 12. and Isa. xl. to verse 27.

12. ELUL.

The twelfth month of the civil year, the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and corresponds with part of our August and September. 1. The new moon. 3. The lessons were from Deut. vii. 12. to Deut. xi. 26. and from Isa. xlix. 14. to Isa. li. 4. 7. The dedication of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah.

12. The lessons were from Deut. xi. 27. to Deut. xvi. 18. and from Isa. liv, 11. to Isa. lv. 4.

17. A fast, because of the death of the spies who brought up the evil report of the land of promise. (Numb. xiv. 36, 37.) I 20. The lessons were from Deut. xvi. 18, to Deut. xxi. 10. and from Isa. li. 12, to sa. lii. 18.

21. The festival of wood offering (zylophoria).

22. A feast in memory of the punishment of the wicked and incorrigible Israelites.

28. The lessons were from Deut. xxi. 10, to Deut. xxvi. 1. and Isa. liv. to verse 11. 29. This is the last day of the month, on which the Jews reckoned up the beasts that had been born, the tenths of which belonged to God. They chose this day to do it in, because the first day of the month Tisri was a festival, and therefore they could not tithe a flock on that day. WI. In common with other nations, the Jews reckoned any part of a period of time for the whole, as in Exod. xvi. 35. An attention to this circumstance will explain several apparent contradictions in the sacred writings: thus, a part of the day is used for the whole, and part of the year for an entire year. In Gen. xvii. 12. circumcision is enjoined to be performed when a child is eight days old, but in Lev. xii. 3. on the eighth day; accordingly, when Jesus Christ is said to have been circumcised when eight days were accomplished (Luke ii. 21.), and John the Baptist on the tighth day (Luke i. 59.), the last, which was the constant usage, explains the former passage. Abenezra, an eminent Jewish commenlator (on Levit. xii. 3.), says, that if an infant were born in the last hour of the day, such hour was counted for one whole day. This observation critically reconciles the account of our Lord's resurrection in Matt. xxvii. 63. and Mark viii. 31. “three days after,” with that of his resurrection “on the third day,” according to Matt, xvi. 21. Luke ix. 22., and according to fact; for, as our Lord was crucified on Good Friday, about the sixth hour, or noon, the remainder of that day to sunset, according to the Jewish computation, was reckoned as one day. Saturday, it is universally admitted, formed the second day; and as the third day began on Saturday at sun-set, and our Saviour rose about sun-rise on the following morning, that part of a day is justly reckoned for the third day: so that the interval was “three days and three nights,” or three calendar days current, not exceeding 42 hours, and consequently not two entire days." This observation also illustrates 2 Chron. x. 5. 12. In like manner, in some parts of the East, the year ending on a certain day, any portion of the foregoing year is taken for a whole year; so that, supposing a child to be born in the last week of our December, it would be reckoned one year old on the first day of January, because born in the old year. If this mode of computation obtained among the Hebrews, the principle of it easily accounts for those anachronisms of single years, or parts of years taken for whole ones which occur in sacred writ: it obviates the difficulties which concern the half years of several princes of Judah and Israel, in which the latter half of the deceased king's last year has hitherto been supposed to be added to the former half of his successor's first year. “We are told,” (1 Sam. xiii. 1. marg. reading) “a son of one year was Saul in his kingdom: and two years he reigned over Israel,” that is, say he was crowned in June : he was consequently one year old on the first of January following, though he had reigned only six months, the son of a year. But, after this so following first of January he was in the second year of his reign; though, according to our computation, the first year of his reign wanted some months of being completed; in this, his second year, he chose three thousand military, &c. guards. “The phrase (aro àsrng) used to denote the age of the infants slaughtered at Bethlehem, (Matt. ii. 16.) “from two years old and under,” is a difficulty that has been deeply felt by the learned. Some infants two weeks old, some two months, others two years, equally slain' Surely those born so long before could not possibly be included in the order, whose purpose was to destroy a child, certainly born within a few months. This is regulated at once by the idea that they were all of nearly equal age, being recently born; Sonne not long before the close of the old year, others a little time since the beginning of the new year. Now, those born before the close of the old year, though only a few months or weeks, would be reckoned not merely one year old, but also in their second year, as the expres: sion implies; and those born since the beginning of the year, would be well described by the phrase “and under,” that is, under one year old;—some, two years old, though not born a complete twelvemonth 1 Dr. Hales, to whom we are partly indebted for the above remark, has cited several passages from profane authors, who have used a similar o, (Ana(perhaps in fact barely six months); others, under one year old, yet born three, four, or five months, and therefore a trifle younger than those before described : according to the time which Herod had diligently inquired of the wise men, IN their second year and UNDER.”

lysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 121, 122.) Similar illustrations from Rabbinical £or on Mona by Roland

writers are collected by Dr. (Antiq. Heb, lib. iv. c. 1.)

WII. Besides the computation of years, the Hebrews first and the Jews afterwards, were accustomed to reckon their time from some remarkable aeras or epochas. Thus, 1. From Gen. vii. 1. and viii. 13. it appears that they reckoned from the lives of the patriarchs or other illustrious persons: 2. From their departure out of Egypt, and the first institution of their polity (Exod. xix. 1. xl. 17. Numb. i. 1. ix. 1. xxxiii. 38.1 Kings vi. 1.): 3. Afterwards, from the building of the temple (1 Kings ix. 10. 2 Chron. viii. 1.), and from the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel: 4. Then from the commencement of the Babylonian captivity (Ezek. i. 1. xxxiii. 21. xl. 1.); and perhaps also from their return from captivity, and the dedication of the second temple. In process of time they adopted, 5. The aera of the Seleucidae, which in the books of Maccabees is called the era of the Greers, and began from the year when Seleucus Nicanor attained the sovereign power, that is, about 312 years before the birth of Jesus Christ. T. ara the Jews continued to employ for a thousand years. They were further accustomed to reckon their years from the years when their princes began to reign. Thus, in 1 Kings xv. 1. Isa. xxxvi. 1. and Jer. 1, 2, 3, we have traces of their antiently computing according to the years of their kings; and in later times, (1 Macc. xiii. 42. xiv. 27.) according to the years of the Asmonoan princes. Of this mode of computation we have vestiges in Matt. ii. 1. Luke i. 5. and iii. 1. Lastly, ever since the compilation of the Talmud, the Jews have reckoned their years from the creation of the world.”

| Calmet's Dictionary, 4to. edit, vol. ii. Supplementary Addenda.

* Schulzii Compendium Archæologie Hebraica, lib. i. c. 11. pp. 94-107. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, book i. ch.5, vol. i. pp. 138–154. Calmet's Dictionary, articles Day, Week, Month, Year. Jahn, Archaeologia Biblica, pp. 34–38.156–162. Jennings' Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. i. pp. 296–308. See also Waehner's Antiquitates Hebræorum, part ii. p. 5. et seq.

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CHAPTER V.

ON THE TRIBUTE AND TAXES MENTIONED IN THE
SCRIPTURES.

I. Annual Payments made by the Jews for the support of their sacred worship.–II. Tributes paid to their own sovereigns.—III. Tributes and &n. paid by them to foreign powers.--Notice of the JMoney-changers.-IV.1ccount of the jo. or Tax-Gatherers.

I. As no government can be supported without great charge, it is but just that every one who enjoys his share of protection from it, should contribute towards its maintenance and support. On the first departure of the Israelites from Egypt, before any regulation was made, the people contributed, on any extraordinary occasion, according to their ability, as in the case of the voluntary donations for the tabernacle. (Exod. xxv. 2. xxxv. 5.) After the tabernacle was erected, a payment of half a shekel was made by every male of twenty years of age and upwards (Exod. xxx. 13, 14.), when the census, or sum of the children of Israel was taken: and on the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity, an annual payment of the third part of a shekel was made, for the maintenance of the templeworship and service. (Neh. x. 32.). Subsequently, the enactment of Moses was deemed to be of perpetual obligation," and in the time of our Saviour two drachma, or half a shekel, were paid by every Jew, whether native or residing in foreign countries: besides which every one, who was so disposed, made voluntary offerings according to his ability. (Mark xii. 41–44.) Hence vast quantities of gold were annually brought to Jerusalem into the temple,” where there was an apartment called the Treasury (Tagovoxaxiov), specially appropriated to their reception. After the destruction of Jerusalem, o spasian by an edict commanded that the half shekel should in future be brought by the Jews, wherever they were into the capitol.” In addition to the preceding payments for the support of their sacred worship, we may notice the first fruits and tenths, of which an account is found in Part III. Chap. IV. infra. II. Several of the Canaanitish tribes were tributary to the Israelites even from the time of Joshua (Josh. xvi. 10. xvii. 13. Judg. i. 28. 33.), whence they could not but derive considerable wealth. The Moabites and Syrians were tributary to David (2 Sam. viii. 2.6.): and Solomon at the beginning of his reign compelled the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, who were left in the country, to pay him tribute, and to perform the drudgery of the pub

! Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6. § 6. Philonis Judaei Opera, tom. ii. p. 224. : Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiv. c. 7. § 2. Cicero, Orat. pro Flacco, c. 28. * Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6, § 6.

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