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CRITICAL STUDY.A.N.D KNOWLEDGE
THE HOLY SCRIPTURES.
and is often so rendered, is by the connection of the discourse restrained to a particular country, as in Isa. xiii. 5. (Sept.); and to the land of Judaea, as in Luke ii. 1. xxi. 26. Acts xi. 28. and James v. 17. But the country occupied by the Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews, is in the sacred volume more particularly called, 1. The Land of Canaan, from Canaan, the youngest son of Ham, and grandson of Noah, who settled here after the confusion of Babel, and divided the country among his eleven children, each of whom became the head of a numerous tribe, that ultimately became a distinct nation. (Gen. x. 15. et seq.) 2. The Land of Promise (Heb. xi. 9.), from the promise made by Jehovah to Abraham, that his posterity should possess it (Gen. xii. 7. and xiii. 15.); who being termed Hebrews, this region was thence called the Land of the Hebrews." (Gen. xl. 15.) 3. The Land of Israel, from the Israelites, or posterity of Jacob, having settled themselves there. This name is .." In OSt. ion Occurrence in the Old Testament: it is also to be found in the New Testament (as in Matt. ii. 20, 21.); and in its larger acceptation comprehended all that tract of ground on each side the course of the river Jordan, which God gave for an inheritance to the children of Israel. Within this extent lay all the provinces or countries visited by Jesus Christ, except Egypt, and consequently almost all the places mentioned or referred to in the four Gospels. 4. The Land of Judah. Under this appellation was at first comprised only that part of the region which was allotted to the tribe of Judah; though the whole land of Israel appears to have been occasionally thus called in subsequent times, when that tribe excelled all the others in dignity. After the separation of the ten tribes, that portion of the land which belonged to the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, who formed a separate kingdom, was distinguished by the appellation of the land of Judah (Psal. lxxvi. 1.) or of Judaea; which last name the whole country retained during the existence of the second temple, and under the dominion of the Romans. 5. The Holy Land; which appellation is to this day conferred on it by all Christians, because it was chosen by God to be the immediate seat of his worship, and was consecrated by the presence, actions, miracles, discourses and sufferings of the Lord Jesus Christ, and also because it was the residence of the holy patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. This name does not appear to have been used by the Hebrews themselves, until after the Babylonish Captivity, when we find the prophet Zechariah applying it to his country. (ii. 12.) After this period it seems to have become a common appellation : we meet with it in the apocryphal book of Wisdom (xii. 3.), and also in the second book of Maccabees. (i. 7.) The whole world was divided by the antient Jews into two general parts,
"...This appellation (the land of the Hebrews) is recognized by Pausanias (lib. vi. c. 24. in fine). By heathen writers the Holy Land is variously termed, Syrian Palestine, Syria, and Phenicia; but as these appellations are not applied generall in the Scriptures to that country, any further notice of them is designedly j.
the land of Israel, and the land out of Israel, that is, all the countries inhabited by the nations of the world, or the Gentiles: to this distinction there seems to be an allusion in Matt. vi. 32. All the rest of the world, together with its inhabitants (Judaea excepted), was accounted as profane, polluted, and unclean (see Isa. xxxv. 8. lii. 1. with Joel iii. 17. Amos vii. 17. and Acts x. 14.); but though the whole land of Israel was regarded as holy, as being the place consecrated to the worship of God, and the inheritance of his people, whence they are collectively styled saints, and a holy nation or people in Exod. xix. 6. Deut. vii. 6. xiv. 2. xxvi. 19. xxxiii. 3.2 Chron. vi. 41. Psal. xxxiv. 9. l. 5. 7. and lxxix. 2.; yet the Jews imagined particular parts to be vested with more than ordinary sanctity according to their respective situations. Thus the parts situated beyond Jordan were considered to be less holy than those on this side: walled towns were supposed to be more clean and holy than other places, because no lepers were admissible into them, and the dead were not allowed to be buried there. Even the very dust of the land of Israel was reputed to possess such a peculiar degree of sanctity, that when the Jews returned from any heathen country, they stopped at its borders, and wiped the dust of it from their shoes, lest the sacred inheritance should be polluted with it: nor would they suffer even herbs to be brought to them from the ground of their Gentile neighbours, lest they should bring any of the mould with them, and thus defile their pure land. To this notion our Lord unquestionably alluded when he commanded his disciples to shake off the dust of their feet (Matt. x. 14.) on returning from any house or city that would neither receive nor hear them; thereby intimating to them, that when the Jews had rejected the Gospel, they were no longer to be regarded as the people of God, but were on a level with heathens and idolaters." 6. The appellation of Palestine, by which the whole land appears to have been called in the days of Moses (Exod. xv. 14.), is derived from the Philistines, a people who migrated from Egypt, and, having expelled the aboriginal inhabitants, settled on the borders of the Mediterranean; where they became so considerable as to give their name to the whole country, though they in fact possessed only a small of it. * The extent of the Holy Land has been variously estimated by geographers; some making it not to exceed one hundred and seventy or eighty miles in length, from north to south, and one hundred and fifty miles from east to west in its broadest parts (or towards the south), and about seventy miles in breadth, where nar
This distinction of holy and unholy places and persons throws considerable light on 1 Cor. i. 28. where the apostle, speaking of the calling of the Gentiles and the rejection of the Jews, says, that God hath chosen base things of the world, and things that are despised, yea, and things which are not, (that is, the Gentiles) to bring to nought (Gr. to abolish) things that are; in other words, to become God's church and people, and so to cause the Jewish church and economy to cease. See Whitby in loc
1 Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. in Matt. x. 14.; Reland, Antiquitates Hebraice, o 17.
rowest, towards the north. From the latest and most accurate maps,
* Joshua (xv. 3.) interposes two additional stations, Hezron and Kirkaa, before and after Addar, or Hazer Addar, which are not noticed by Moses.
* This termination of the southern border westwards, is exactly conformable to the accounts of Herodotus and Pliny: the former represents Mount Casius lying between Pelusium and the Sirbonic lake, as the boundary between Egypt and Palestine Syria, (3, 5.) the latter reckoned the Sirbonic lake itself as the boundary. (Nat. Hist. 5, 13.)
* The Septuagint Version has judiciously rendered it, raparo opos ro opos, “the mountain beside the mountain.” *
Libanus and Antilibanus, and running eastwards from the neighbourhood of Sidon to that of Damascus. “From Hor ha-hor ye shall point your border to the entrance of Hamath;” which Joshua, speaking of the yet unconquered land, describes, “..All Lebanon, towards the sun-rising, from (the valley of) Baal Gad, under JMount Hermon, unto the entrance of Hamath. (Josh. xiii. 5.) This demonstrates, that Hor ha-hor corresponded to all Lebanon, including Mount Hermon, as judiciously remarked by Wells," who observes, that it is not decided which of the two ridges, the northern or the southern, was properly Libanus; the natives at present call the southern so, but the Septuagint and Ptolemy called it Antilibanus—“From Hamath it shall go on to Zedad, and from thence to Ziphron, and the goings out of it shall be at Hazar Enan, (near Damascus, Ezek. xlviii. 1.) This shall be your north border.” ..And ye shall point out your East border from Hazar Enan to Shephan, and the coast shall go down to Riblah, on the east side of Ain (“the sountain” or springs of the river Jordan) and the border shall descend, and shall reach unto the [east] side of the sea of Chinmereth. And the border shall go down to Jordan on the east side, and the goings out of it shall ‘. at the Salt Sea.” There it met the southern border, at the south-east corner of that sea, or the Asphaltite lake. “This shall be your land with the coasts thereof round about” in circuit.” Such was the admirable geographical chart of the Land of Promise, dictated to Moses by the God of Israel, and described with all the accuracy of an eye-witness. Of this region, however, the Israelites were not put into immediate possession. In his first expedition, Joshua subdued all the southern department of the Promised Land, and in his second the northern, having spent five years in both (Josh. xi. 18.): what Joshua left unfinished of the conquest of the whole, was afterwards completed by David and Solomon. (2 Sam. viii. 3–14. 2 Chron. ix. 26.) In the reign of the latter was realised the Abrahamic covenant in its full extent. And Solomon reigned over all the kingdoms from the river (Euphrates) unto the land of the Philistines, and the border of Egypt:—for he had dominion over all the region on this side of the riverso from Tipsah (or Thapsacus situated thereon) even to Azzah (or Gaza with her towns and villages,) “unto the river” of Egypt, southward, “and the Great Sea,” westward, (Josh. xv. 47.) even over all the kings on this side the river (Euphrates). 1 Kings iv. 21–24.” But the Israelites did not always retain possession of this tract, as is shown in the succeeding pages. It lies far within the temperate zone, and between 31 and 33 degrees of north latitude, and was
1 Sacred Geography, vol. ii. p. 271. * Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 414–416. 3 Ibid. vol. i. pp. 416, 417.