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for slaves to the highest bidder. The unhappy prisoners thus bought and enslaved, were sometimes thrust into deep mines, to be drudges through life in darkness and despair : sometimes were pent up in private workhouses, and condemned to the most laborious and ignoble occupations: frequently the toils of agriculture were imposed upon them, and the severest tasks unmercifully exacted from them: most commonly they were employed in the menial offices and drudgery of domestic life, and treated with the greatest inhumanity. As the last insult upon their wretchedness, they were branded in the forehead, and a mote of eternal disgrace and insamy publicly and indelibly impressed upon them One cannot think of this most contumelious and reproachful treatment of a fellow-creature without feeling the acutest pain and indignation. To the above-mentioned customs in the treatment of slaves, which obtained among the antients, there are several allusions in the New Testament. Thus, St. Paul, in reference to the custom of purchasing slaves, on whose heads a price was then fixed, just as upon any other commodity, and who, when bought, were the entire and unalienable property of the purchaser, by a very beautiful and expressive similitude represents Christians as the servants of Christ; informs them that an immense price had been paid for them: that they were not at their own disposal; but in every respect, both as to body and mind, were the sole and absolute property of God. Ye are not your own : for ye are bought with a price : therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's. (I Cor. vi. 20.) So also again: Ye are bought with a price, be not ye the servants of men. (I Cor. vii. 23.) St. Paul usually styles himself the servant of Christ; and in a passage in his Epistle to the Galatians, alluding to the signatures with which slaves in those days were branded, he tells them, that he carried about with him plain and indelible characters impressed in his body, which evinced him to be the servant of his master Jesus. From henceforth let no man trouble me, for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. (Gal. vi. 17.) It was a doctrine of the pharisaic Jews, that proselytes were released from all antecedent, civil, and even natural relations: and it is not improbable that some of the Jewish converts might carry the same principle into the Christian community, and teach that, by the profession of Christianity, slaves were emancipated from their Christian masters. In opposition to this false notion, the same great apostle requires that all who are under the yoke of servitude be taught to yield due obedience to their masters, and animadverts with great severity upon those false teachers, who, from mercenary views, taught a different doctrine. (1 Tim. vi. 1–10.) Against this principle of the Judaising zealots, St. Paul always enters his strong protest, and teaches that the profession of Christianity makes no difference in the civil relations of men. See 1 Cor. vii. 17–24. IV. Though slavery was tolerated, and its horrors were mitigated by the wise and humane enactments of Moses, yet in the progress of time as hired servants would be necessary, various regulations were in like manner made by him, to ensure them from being oppressed. Like slaves, hired labourers were to partake of the rest of the sabbath, and also to share in the produce of the sabbatical year: their hire was to be paid every day before sun-set (Levit. xix. 13. Deut. xxiv. 14, 15.); but what that hire was to be, the Hebrew legislator has not determined, because the price of labour must have varied according to circumstances. From the parable of the proprietor of a vineyard and his labourers, which is related in Matt. xx. 1–15., we learn these three particulars concerning the servants in Judaea, or at least in Jerusalem.—That early in the morning they stood in the market-place to be hired—that the usual wages of a day-labourer were at that time a denarius, or about seven-pence halfpenny of our money—and that the customary hours of working were till six in the evening. Early in the morning the master of a family rose to hire day-labourers to work in his vineyard." Having found a number, he agreed to pay them a DENARIUs for the wages of the DAY, and sent them into his vineyard. About nine o'clock he went again into the MARKETPLACE, and found several others unemployed, whom he also ordered into his vineyard, and promised to them what was reasonable. At twelve, and three in the afternoon, he went and made the same proposals, which were in the same manner accepted. He went likewise about five o'clock, and sound a number of men sauntering about the market in idleness, and he said to them, why do you consume the whole day in this indolent manner? There is no one hath thought fit to give us any employment, they replied. Then go you into the vineyard among my other labourers, and you shall receive what is just In the evening the proprietor of the vineyard ordered his steward to call the workmen together, beginning from the last to the first, to pay them their wages, without any partiality or distinction. When those, therefore, came, who had been employed about five in the afternoon, they received a denarius apiece. When those, who had been hired in the morning, saw them return with such great wages, they indulged the most extravagant joy, imagining that their pay would vastly exceed that of the others; but how great was their disappointment, when they received from the steward, each man a denarius ! This supposed injurious treatment caused them to raise loud clamours against the master. And they complained to him of his usage to them, saying, the last labourers you hired only worked a single Hour, and you have given them the same wages as you ... have given us who have been scorched with excessive heat, and sustained the long and rigorons toil of the whole day. He turned to one who appeared the most petulent of them, and directed this reply, Friend, I do thee no injustice; was not our agreement for a denarius : Take what justice entitles thee to, without repining, and calmly acquiesce in the faithful performance of our original agreement—a principle of benevolence disposes me freely to bestow upon the last persons I hired what equity obliges me to give to you. It has been observed that slaves were condemned to the mines, where their uncomfortable lives were consumed in the most rigorous and servile drudgery. It is natural to suppose that these wretches, born to better hopes, upon their first entrance into these dismal subterraneous abodes of darkness and despair, with such doleful prospects before them, would be transfixed with the acutest distress and anguish, shed bitter unavailing tears, gnash their teeth for their extreme misery, and fill these gloomy caverns with piercing cries and loud lamentations. Our Lord seems to allude to this. and, considered in this view, the imagery is peculiarly beautiful and expressive, when he represents the wicked servant and unfaithful steward bound hand and foot, and cast into utter darkness, where there would be weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth ! (Matt. viii. 12. xxii. 13.) The reader will be pleased with the ingenious remarks of the learned and judicious Dr. Macknight on this passage. “In antient times the stewards of great families were slaves as well as the servants of a lower class, being raised to that trust on account of their fidelity, wisdom, sobriety, and other good qualities. If any steward, therefore, in the absence of his lord, behaved as is represented in the parable, it was a plain proof, that the virtues on account of which he was raised were counterfeit, and by consequence that he was an hypocrite. Slaves of this character, among other chastisements, were sometimes condemned to work in the mines. And as this was one of the most grievous punishments, when tho first entered, nothing was heard among them but weeping and guashing of teeth, on account of the intolerable fatigue to which they were subjected in these hideous caverns without hope of release. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” Crucifixion was a servile punishment, and usually inflicted on the most vile, worthless, and abandoned of slaves. In reference to this it is that St. Paul represents our Lord taking upon him the form of a servant, and becoming subject to death, even the death of the cross (Phil. ii. 8.); crucifixion was not only the most painful and excru

1 The following passage from Mr. Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, will give an idea of the rigour with which slaves are treated to this day in the East. The conductor of a nitre factory for the Pasha of Egypt having received commands to prepare a large quantity of nitre in great haste-" for this p he was building small reservoirs and ducts, with old picked bricks, gathered ruins; and which are better than the modern baked bricks. A great number of young persons of both sexes were engaged in the work, carrying burdens. To give vivacity to their proceedings, they are required to sing ; and to keep them diligent, there were task-masters, standing at interrals of about ten fert, rito whips in their hands, which they used very freely. We seemed to behold the manners of the antient Egyptians: Exodus v.” Jowett's Researches. p. 13". May not the command to sing also explain Psal. cxxxvii. 3, 4.2 “The Mällems." (or heads of districts of Coptic Christians in Egypt,) the same traveller elsewhere remarks, “transact business between the bashaw and the peasants. He punishes them, if the peasants prove that they oppress; and yet he requires from them that the work of those who are under them shall be fulfilled. They strikingly illustrale o **e of the officers, placed by the Egyptian task-masters over the children of *:::,”, like theirs, the Mailems often find that their case is evil. See Exod v. b–29.” Ibid. p. 108.

1 The same custom obtains to this day in Persia. In the city of Hamadan there is a maidan or square in front of a large mosque, “Here,” says Mr. Morier, “we observed every morning before the sun rose, that a numerous band of peasants were collected with oil. in their hands, waiting, as they informed us, to be hired for the day to work in the surrounding fields. This custom, which I have never seen in any other part of Asia, forcibly struck me as a most happy illustration of our Saviour's parable of the labourers in the vineyard in the 20th chapter of Matthew, particularly, when passing by the same place late in the day, we still found others standing idle, of remembered his words, why stand ye here all the day idle 2 as most applicable to their situation : for, in putting the very same question to them, they answered us, because no man hath hired us.” Morier's Second Journey through Persia, p. 265.

ciating, but the most reproachful and ignominious death that could be

suffered. Hence it is that the apostle so highly extols the unexampled love for man and magnanimity of Jesus, who for the joy set before him endured the cross, despising the shame (Heb. xii. 2.) and infamy even of such a death. It was this exit which Jesus made that insuperably disgusted so many among the heathens ; who could never prevail with themselves to believe that religion to be divine, whose founder had suffered such an opprobrious and infamous death from his countrymen. And for men to preach in the world a system of truths as a revelation from the deity, which were first delivered to mankind

by an illiterate and obscure Jew, pretending to a divine mission and

character, and who was for such a pretension crucified, appeared to

the heathens the height of infatuation and religious delusion. The preaching of the cross was to them foolishness (1 Cor. i. 23.); and the religion of a crucified leader, who had suffered in the capital of

his own country the indignities and death of a slave, carried with it,

in their estimation, the last absurdity and folly, and induced them to

look upon the Christians, and the wretched cause in which they were

embarked, with pity and contempt. Hence St. Paul speaks of the

offence of the cross,” the great and invincible disgust conceived by the men of those times against a religion whose founder was crucified!

Hence he speaks of not being ashamed of the Gospel from the cir

cumstance which made such numbers ashamed of it, nay of glorying

in the cross” of Christ; though the consideration of the ignominious

and servile death he suffered was the very obstacle that made the

heathens stumble at the very threshold of Christianity, and filled them

with insurmountable prejudices against it."

1 Dr. Macknight's Harmony, p. 522, 2d. edit. 1763.

* 2-avčaxov row gravpov. Galat. v. II.

3. God forbid that I should glory save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. Galat. vi. 14.

4 Jahn, Archaeologia Biblica, pp. 241–246. , Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 155–134. Bruning's Compendium Antiquitatum Grocarum e. profanis Sacrarura, pp. 77–86. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 144–152. Stosch, Compendium Archæologia CEconomica, Novi Testamenti, pp. 38–48.

WOL. III. 55 - *

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CHAPTER WI.
DOMESTIC CUSTOMS AND USAGES OF THE JEWS.

I. Forms of Salutation and Politeness.—Reverence to Superiors.-II. JMode of receiving Guests or Visitors.-III. Conversation and Bathing—IV. Food and Entertainments—v. Mode of Travel. ling.—VI. Hospitality a sacred Duty among the Jews.--Account of the Tesserae Hospitales of the Greeks and arts.

I. VARIOUS are the modes of address and politeness, which custom has established in different nations. The Orientals were very exact in the observances of outward decorum ; and we may collect from several passages in the Old and New Testament, that their salutations and expressions of regard on meeting each other were extremely tedious and tiresome, containing many minute inquiries concerning the person's welfare, and the welfare of his family, and friends; and, when they parted, concluding with many reciprocal wishes of happiness and benediction on each other. The ordinary formulae of salutation were—The Lord be with thee! —The Lord bless thee —and Blessed be thou of the Lord! but the most common salutation was Peace (that is, may all manner of prosperity) be with thee ' (Ruth ii. 4. Judg. xix. 20. 1 Sam. xxv, 6. 2 Sam. xx. 9. Psal. cxxix. 8.) In the latter ages of the Jewish polity, much time appears to have been spent in the rigid observance of these ceremonious forms, for which the modern inhabitants of the East continue to be remarkable." When our Lord, therefore, in his commission to the seventy, whom he despatched into the towns and villages of Judaea to publish the Gospel, strictly ordered them to salute no man by the way,” (Luke x. 4.) he designed only by this prohibition that they should employ the utmost expedition; that they should suffer nothing to retard and impede them in their progress from one place to another ; and should not lavish those precious moments, which ought to be devoted to the sacred and arduous duties of their office, in observing the irksome and unmeaning modes of ceremonious intercourse. Not that our Lord intended that his disciples should studiously violate all common civility and decency, and industriously offend against all the

1 “Serious and taciturn as the natives of the East usually are, they grow talk. ative when they meet an acquaintance, and salute him. This custom has come from Asia with the Arabs, and spread over the north coast of Africa. A modern traveller relates the reciprocal salutations with which those are received who return with the caravans. “People go a great way to meet them ; as soon as they are perceived, the questioning and salutation begins, and continues with the repetition of the same phrases: “ #. do you do? §. be praised that you are come in peace! God give you peace . How fares it with you?" The higher the rank of the person returning home, the longer does the salutation last.” See Horneman's Journal. §. History of Religion, vol. iii. p. 183. Burder's Orien. tal Literature, vol. i. p. 436.

* Salute no man by the way : C'est A dire, ne perdez point le tems en long dis. ***, et en vaines cérémonies avec les passans. L'Enfant in loc.

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