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Lord caused the water to be converted into wine. (John ii. 6) Grapes, among the Israelites, were likewise dried into raisins. A part of Abigail's present to David was an hundred clusters of raisin; (1 Sam. xxv. 18.); and when Ziba met David, his present contained the same quantity. (2 Sam. xvi. 1. ; see also 1 Sam. xxx. 12. and I Chron. xii. o, - -It was a curse pronounced upon the Israelites, that upon their disobedience, they should plant vineyards and dress them, but they should neither drink of the wine, nor eat the grapes, for the worms should eat them. (Deut. xxviii. 39.) It seems that there is a peculiar sort of worms that infest the vines, called by the Latins Volvox and Convolvulus, because it wraps and rolls itself up in the buds, and eats the grapes up, when they advance towards ripeness, as the Roman authors explain it.” Besides other fruits that were common in Judaea, as dates, figs, cucumbers,” pomegranates, they had regular plantations of olires, which were a very antient and profitable object of agriculture. So early as the time of Noah (Gen. viii. 11.) the branches of the olive tree were, and since that time have been among all nations, the symbol of peace and prosperity. Oil is first mentioned in Gen. xxviii. 18. and Job xxiv. 11. ; which proves the great antiquity of the cultivation of this tree. Olives, in Palestine, are of the best growth, and afford the finest oil; whence that country is often extolled in the Scriptures on account of this tree, and especially in opposition to Egypt, which is destitute of good olives. (Numb. xviii. 12. Deut. vii. 13. xi. 14. xii. 17. xviii. 4.) The olive delights in a barren, sandy, dry, and mountainous soil : and its multiplied branches (which are very agreeable to the eye as they remain green throughout the winter) have caused it to be represented as the symbol of a numerous progeny—a blessing which was ascribed to the peculiar favour of God. (Psal. li. 8. cxxviii. 3. Jer. xi. 16. Hos. Xiv. 6.)

1 Investigator, No. IV, pp. 307–309–The pleasing and instructive essay on the agriculture of the Israelites, in the first, third, and fourth numbers of this journal, contains the fullest account of this interesting subject extant in the English lanuage. go ochart. Hieroz. p. 3. l. 4. c. 27. *On the cultivation of this valuable article of food in the East, Mr. Jowett has communicated the following interesting particulars. During his voyage to Upper Egypt, in February 1819, he says “ We observed the people makin fioles on the sandy soil on the side of the river. Into these holes they put a small quantity of pigeons' dung and feathers, with the seed of melons or cucumbers. The value of this manure is alluded to in 2 Kings vi. 25. The produce of this toil I had an opportunity of seeing, in due season; that is, the following month of June. Extensive fields of ripe melons and cucumbers then adorned the sides of the river. rew in such abundance, that the sailors freely helped themselves. Some owever, is placed upon them. . Occasionally, but at long and desolate intervals, we may observe a little hut, made of reeds, just capable of containing one man; being, in fact, little more than a fence against a north wind. In these I have ob. served, sometimes, a poor old man, perhaps lame, feebly protecting the property.

It exactly illustrates Isaiah i. 8. And the daughter of Žion is left . . . . . tos a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. The abundance of these most nece vegetables brings to mind the murmurs of the Israelites; Numbers xi. 5, 6. e restero

‘.... . ; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the

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The oil, extracted from it by a press, enabled the Jews to carry on an extensive commerce with the Tyrians (Ezek. xxvii. 17. compared with 1 Kings v. 11.): they also sent presents of oil to the kings of Egypt. (Hos. xii. 1.) The berries of the olive tree were sometimes

lucked or carefully shaken off by the hand before they were ripe. #. xvii. 6. xxiv. 13. Deut. xxiv. 20.) It appears from Micah vi.

15. that the presses for extracting the oil were worked with the feet:

the best and purest oil, in Exod. xxvii. 20. termed pure oil-olive beaten, was that obtained by only beating and squeezing the olives, without subjecting them to the press.

Among the judgments with which God threatened the Israelites for their sins, it was denounced, that though they had olive trees through all their coasts, yet they should not anoint themselves with the oil, for the olive should cast her fruit (Deut. xxviii. 40.); being blasted (as the Jerusalem Targum explains it) in the very blossom, the buds should drop off for want of rain, or the fruit should be eaten with worms. Maimonides observes," that the idolaters in those countries pretended by certain magical arts to preserve all manner of fruit, so that the worms should not gnaw the vines, nor either buds or fruits fall from the trees (as he relates their words out of one of their books): in order therefore that he might deter the Israelites from all idolatrous practices, Moses pronounces that they should draw upon themselves those very punishments, which they endeavoured by such means to avoid.

The antient Hebrews were very fond of Gardens, which are frequently mentioned in the sacred writings, and derive their appellations from the prevalence of certain trees; as the garden of nuts and of pomegranates. (Sol. Song vi. 11. iv. 13.) The modern inhabitants of the É. take equal delight in gardens with the antient Hebrews, on account of the refreshing shade and delicious fruits, which they afford, and also because the air is cooled by the waters of which their gardens are never allowed to be destitute. (1 Kings xxi. 2. 2 Kings xxv. 4. Eccles. ii. 5, 6. John xviii. 1; xix. 41.) The Jews were greatly attached to gardens, as places of burial: hence they frequently built sepulchres in them. (2 Kings xxi. 18. Mark xy. 46.) A pleasant region is called a garden of the Lord, or of God, that is, a region extremely pleasant. See examples in Gen. xiii. 10. Isa. li. 3. and Ezek. xxxi. 8.

SECTION II.

ON THE ARTS OF THE HEBREWS.

I. Origin of the Arts.-State of them from the Deluge to the time of JMoses.—II. State of the Arts from the time of Moses until the Captivity—III. State of the Arts after the Captivity—IV. Account of some of the Arts practised by the Jews.-Writing ;—Materials used for this purpose;—Letters;–Form of Books.-W. Poetry. —VI. Music and Musical Instruments.-VII. Dancing.

1 More Nevosh. p. 3, c. 37.

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I. THE arts, which are now brought to such an admirable state of perfection, it is universally allowed, must have originated partly in necessity and partly in accident. At first they must have been very imperfect and very limited; but the inquisitive and active mind of man, seconded by his wants, soon secured to them a greater extent, and sewer imperfections. Accordingly, in the fourth generation after the creation of man, we find mention made of artificers in brass and iron, and also of musical instruments. (Gen. iv. 21, 22.) Those communities, which, from local or other causes, could not flourish by means of agriculture, would necessarily direct their attention to the encouragement and improvement of the arts. These, consequently, advanced with great rapidity, and were carried to a high pitch so far back as the time of Noah; as we may learn from the very large vessel built under his direction, the construction of which shows that they must have been well acquainted with some at least of the mechanical arts. They had also, without doubt, seen the operations of artificers in other ways besides that of building, and after the deluge imitated their works as well as they could. Hence it is that, shortly after that event, we find mention made of utensils, ornaments, and many other things which imply a knowledge of the arts. Compare Gen. ix. 21. xi. 1–9. xii. 7, 8. xiv. 1–16. xvii. 10. xvii. 4–6. xix. 32. xxxi. 19. 27. 34. II. Egypt in the early age of the world excelled all other nations in a knowledge of the arts. The Hebrews, in consequence of remaining four hundred years with the Egyptians, must have become initiated to a considerable degree into that knowledge, which their masters possessed. Hence we find among them men, who were sufficiently skilful and informed to frame, erect, and ornament the tabernacle. Moses, it is true, did not enact any special laws in favour of the arts, nor did he interdict them or lessen them in the estimation of the people; on the contrary, he speaks in the praise of artificers. (Exod. xxxv. 30–35. xxxvi. 1. et seq. xxxviii. 22, 23. &c.) The grand object of Moses in a temporal point of view, was to promote agriculture, and he thought it best, as was done in other nations, to leave the arts to the ingenuity and industry of the people. Soon after the death of Joshua, a place was expressly allotted by Joab, of the tribe of Judah, to artificers; for in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah, delivered in 1 Chron. iv. 14., we read of a place called the Palley of Craftsmen, and (ver. 21.23.) of a family of workmen of fine linen, and another of potters: and when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, the enemy carried away all the craftsmen and smiths. (2 Kings xxiv. 14.) But as proof that their skill in manufactures, and trade therein, could not be very extensive, we find that the prophet Ezekiel (chap. xxvii.) in describing the affluence of the goods which came to Tyre, makes mention of nothing

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brought thither from Judaea, except wheat, oil, grapes, and balm,
which were all the natural product of their ground. . It appears that
the mistress of the family usually made the clothing for her husband,
her children, and herself, and also for sale. (Exod. xxxv. 25.
1 Sam. ii. 19. Prov. xxxi. 18–24. Acts is. 39.) Employment,
consequently, as far as the arts were concerned, was limited chiefly
to those who engaged in the more difficult performances; for instance,
those who built chariots, hewed stones, sculptured idols or made
them of metal, or who made instruments of gold, or silver, and brass,
and vessels of clay, and the like. (See Judg. xvii. 4. Isa. xxix. 16.
xxx. 14. Jer. xxviii. 13.) Artificers among the Hebrews were not, as
among the Greeks and Romans, servants and slaves, but men of
some rank and wealth: and as luxury and riches increased, they be-
came very numerous. (Jer. xxiv. 1. xxix. 2. 2 Kings xxiv. 14.)
Building and architecture, however, did not attain much perfection
prior to the reign of the accomplished Solomon. We read, indeed,
before the Israelites came into the land of Canaan, that Bezaleel and
Aholiab (who were employed in the construction of the tabernacle)
excelled in all manner of workmanship (Exod. xxxv. 30–35.), but
we are there told, that they had their skill by inspiration from God,
and it does not appear that they had any successors; for, in the days
of Solomon, when they were at rest from all their enemies, and were
perfectly at liberty to follow out improvements of every kind, yet they
had no professed artists that could undertake the work of the tem-
ple; so that Solomon was obliged to send to Hiram king of Tyre for
a skilful artist (2 Chron. vii. 13, 14.), by whose direction the model
of the temple and all the curious furniture of it was both designed and
finished. But after the Jews were under the influence or power of
the Romans, there is no doubt that a better taste prevailed among
them. Herod, at least, must have employed some architects of dis-
tinguished abilities to repair and beautify the temple, and render it
the superb structure which the description of Josephus shows that it
must have been. From the frequent mention made in sacred history,
of numerous instruments and . various operations in metals, we are
authorised to infer, as well as from other sources, that a considerable
number of the arts was known and practised among them.
III. During the captivity many Hebrews, (most commonly those
to whom a barren tract of the soil had been assigned,) applied them-

selves to the arts and merchandise. Subsequently, when they were

scattered abroad among different nations, a knowledge of the arts became so popular, that the Talmudists taught, that all parents ought to learn their children some art or handicraft. They indeed mention many learned men of their nation, who practised some kind of manual labour, or as we should say, followed some trade. Accordingly, we find in the New Testament, that Joseph the husband of Mary was a carpenter, and that he was assisted by no less a personage than our Saviour in his labours. (Matt. xiii. 55. Mark vi. 3.) Simon is mentioned as a tanner in the city of Joppa. (Acts ix.43. x. 32.) Alexander, a learned Jew, was a copper-smith (2 Tim. iv.

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14.); Paul and Aquila were tent-makers, oxyvorolol. Not only the Greeks, but the Jews also, esteemed certain trades infamous. At any rate the Rabbins reckoned the drivers of asses and camels, barbers, sailors, shepherds, and innkeepers, in the same class with robbers. Those Ephesians and Cretans, who were lovers of gain, glazooxsgösis (1 Tim. iii. 8. Tit. i. 7.), were men, as we may learn from antient writers, who were determined to get money in however base a manner. In the apostolic age, the more eminent Greek tradesmen were united into a society. (Acts xix. 25.) IV. We read nothing of the art of writing in Scripture, before the copy of the law was given by God to Moses, which was written (that is, engraven) on two tables of stone by the finger of God (Exod. xxxi. 18.), and this is called the writing of God. (Exod. xxxii. 16.) It is therefore probable that God himself was the first who taught letters to Moses, who communicated the knowledge of them to the Israelites, and they to the other eastern nations." Engraving or sculpture seems therefore to be the most antient way of writing, of which we have another very early instance in Exod. xxxix. 30., where we are told, that “holiness to the Lord,” was written on a golden plate, and worn on the high priest's head. And we find that the names of the twelve tribes were commanded to be written on twelve rods. (Numb. xvii. 2.) To this mode of writing there is an allusion in Ezek. xxxvii. 16.” In later times the Jews made use of broad 1. We know that the inhabitants of Yemen or the Southern Arabia were accustomed, in the remotest ages, to inscribe their laws and wise sayings upon stone. See Meidanii Proverb. Arab. p. 45. (cited in Burder's Oriental Literature, vol. i. p. 198) and Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod. xxxii. 15. - - *Writing on billets or sticks was practised by the Greeks. Plutarch, in his Life of Solon (Vitae, tom. i. p. 20. ed. Bryan.), and Aulus Gellius (Noct. Att. lib. ii. c. 12.), inform us that the very antient laws of that philosopher, preserved at Athens, were inscribed on tablets of wood called Azones. In later times a similar mode of writing was practised by the aboriginal Britons, who cut their letters upon sticks, which were most commonly squared, and sometimes formed into three sides; consequently a single stick contained either four or three lines. (See Ezek. xxxvii. 16.) The squares were used for general subjects, and for stanzas of four lines in poetry; the trilateral ones were adapted to triades, and for a peculiar kind of air tient metre, called Triban or triplet, and Englyn Milwyr, or the warrior's verse. Several sticks with writing upon them were put together, forming a kind of frame, which was called Peithynen or Elucidator; and was so conducted that each stick might be turned for the facility of reading, the end of each running out alternately on both sides of the frame. The subjoined cut

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