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of the idolatrous kings, but was restored by their pious successors (2 Chron. v. 12–14. xxix. 27. xxxv. 15.); and it was continued after the captivity, as appears from Ezra iii. 10. Neh. xii. 45–47. 1 Macc. iv. 54. xiii. 51.

The following are the principal musical instruments mentioned in the sacred writings."

1. Pulsatile Instruments.—These were three in number, viz. The tabret, the cymbal, and the sistrum. (1.) The Tabret or Tabor, oln, (Thep), was composed of a circular hoop, either of wood or brdss, which was covered with a piece of skin tensely drawn and hung round with small bells. It was held in the left hand and beaten to notes of music with the right: the ladies in the East to this day dance to the sound of this instrument. The earliest notice of the tabret occurs in Gen. xxxi. 27. (2.) The Cymbal, so (Tseltsel), Psal, cl. 5. consisted of two large and broad plates of brass, of a convex form ; which being struck against each other, made a hollow ringing sound.” They form, in our days, a part of every military band. (3) The Sistrum, Eyyyo, (Menaason), which in our version of 2 Sam. vi. 5. is mis-residered cornets, was a rod of iron bent into an oval or oblong shape, or square at two corners and curved at the others, and furnished with a number of moveable rings; so that, when shaken, or struck with another rod of iron, it emitted the sound desired. 2. Wind Instruments.-Six of these are mentioned in the Scriptures, viz. The organ, the flute and hautboy, dulcimer, horn, and trumpet. (1.) The Organ, Sly (ogee), is frequently mentioned in the Qld Testament, and its invention is ascribed to Jubal in Gen. iv. 21.; but it cannot have been like our modern organs. From Ezek. xxxiii. 31. it seems rather to have been a kind of flute, at first composed of one or two, but afterwards of about seven pipes, made of reeds ef unequal length and thickness, which were joined together. It corresponded most nearly to the qugly; or pipe of Pan among the Greeks. (2.) (3.) The bon (chalil), and the Fo (Nekes), which our translators have rendered pipes, are supposed to have been the flute and hautboy. (4.) The nob (suMPUNyah), or dulcimer (Dan. iii. 5.), was a wind instrument made of reeds; by the Syrians called Sambonjah, by the Greeks Xauðuxn, and by the Italians Zampogna. (5.) The Horn or Crooked Trumpet was a very antient instru: ment, made of the horns of oxen cut off at the smaller extremity. In progress of time rams' horns were used for the same purpose. It was chiefly used in war.

1 For some remarks on the titles of certain Psalms, which are or. to have been derived either from musical instruments or the tunes to which t ey were sung. See Vol. IV. pp. 109, 110.

* Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. vii. c. 12.

(6.) The form of the straight Trumpet is well known : it was used by the priests (Numb. x. 8, 1 Chron. xv. 24.) both on extraordinary occasions (Numb. x. 10.), and also in the daily service of the temple. (2 Chron. vii. 6. xxix. 26.) In time of peace, when the people or the rulers were to be convened together, this trumpet was blown softly: but when the camps were to move forward, or the people were to march to war, it was sounded with a deeper note.

3. Stringed Instruments.-These were the harp and the psaltery.

ū) The Harp “m}> (kisou R) seems to have resembled that in modern use : it was the most antient of all musical instruments. (Gen. iv. 21.) It had ten strings, and was played by David with the hand (1 Sam. xvi. 23.); but Josephus' says, that it was played upon or struck with a plectrum.

(2.) The Psaltery o (Nebel) obtained its name.from its resemblance to a bottle or flaggon: it is first mentioned in the Psalms of David, and the invention of it is ascribed to the Phoenicians. In Psal. xxxiii. 2. and cxliv. 9. it is called a ten-stringed instrument, but in Psal. xcii. 3. it is distinguished from the latter. Josephus” says, that it had twelve sounds (or strings), and was struck or played upon by the fingers.”

Effects the most astonishing are attributed in the Scriptures to the Hebrew music, of the nature of which we know but very little. Several examples are recorded, in the sacred history, of the power and charms of music to sweeten the temper, to compose and allay the passions of the mind, to revive the drooping spirits, and to dissipate melancholy. It had this effect on Saul, when David played to him on his harp. (1 Sam. xvi. 16. 23.) And when Elisha was desired by Jehoshaphat to tell him what his success against the king of Moab would be, the prophet required a minstrel to be brought unto him; and when he played it is said that the hand of the Lord came upon him (2 Kings iii. 15.), not that the gift of prophecy was the natural effect of music, but the meaning is, that music disposed the organs, the humours, and in short the whole mind and spirit of the prophet, to receive these supernatural impressions.

VII. Dancing was an ordinary concomitant of music among the Jews. Sometimes it was used on a religious account : thus Miriam with her women glorified God (after the deliverance from the E tians), in dances as well as songs (Exod. xv. 20.), and David danced after the ark. (2 Sam. ii. 16.) It was a thing common at the Jewish feasts (Judg. xxi. 19. 21.), and in public triumphs (Judg. xi. 34.), and at all seasons of mirth and rejoicing. (Psal. xxx. 11. Jer. xxxi. 4. 13. Luke xv. 25.) The idolatrous Jews made it a part of their worship which they paid to the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 19.) The Amalekites danced after their victory at Ziklag (1 Sam. xxx. 16.), and Job makes it part of the character of the prosperous wicked (that is, of those who, placing all their happiness in the o of sense, forget God and religion), that their children dance. (Job xxi. 11.) The dancing of the profligate Herodias's daughter pleased Herod so highly, that he promised to give her whatever she asked, and accordingly, at her desire, and in compliment to her, he commanded John the Baptist to be beheaded in prison. (Matt. xiv. 6–8.)

1 Ant. Jud. lib. vii, c. 12. 2 Ibid.

* Calmet, Dissertation sur les Instrumens de Musique des Hebreux, prefixed to his Commentary on the Psalms. Jahn, Archaeologia Biblica, pp. 145–152 Brown's Antiquities of the Jews, vol. i. pp. 315–321.

SECTION III.

oN THE sciences oF THE HEBREws."

I. Origin of the Sciences.—II. History, Genealogy, and Chronology. —III. Arithmetic, JMathematics, Astronomy, and .1strology.—IV. Surveying—V. Mechanic Arts-VI. Geography.—VII. Physics, JNatural History, and Philosophy.—VIII. Medicine.—IX..Notice of some particular Diseases mentioned in the Scriptures, viz. 1. Disease of the Philistines ; –2. Of King Saul;-3. Of King Jehoran;–4. Of King Hezekiah;—5. Of Nebuchadnezzar: 6. Palsy ;-7. The Disease of Job;-8. Issue of Blood;—9. Blindness;—10. Demoniacal Possessions.

I. WHEN the arts had been reduced by long practice and meditation to fixed and definite rules, they were succeeded by the sciences; which in fact are nothing more than the reduction, into a more regular and philosophic form, of those rules and theories, which have been ascertained and approved by inquiry and practice. We are able to discover the beginnings, the indistinct vestiges of the sciences in very remote periods; and in some nations more strikingly than in others. The Egyptians, and Babylonians excelled in scientific knowledge all others. The Arabians also are favourably mentioned in this respect. (1 Kings iv. 30. ; also the Edomites, Jer, xlix. 7.) The Hebrews became renowned for their intellectual culture in the time of David, and especially, of Solomon, who is said to have surpassed all others in wisdom; a circumstance, which was the ground of the many visits, which were paid to him by distinguished foreigners. (1 Kings v. 9–14.) His example, which was truly an illustrious one, was beyond question imitated by other kings. The literature of the Hebrews was limited chiefly to ethics, religion, the history of their nation, and natural history; on which last subject. Solomon wrote many treatises, no longer extant. The Hebrews

* This section is taken principally from Mr. Upham's Translation of Jahn's Archaeologia Biblica, Andover, Massachussetts, (1823) part i. chapters 6 and 13. In the accounts of diseases, Dr. Mead's Medica Sacra has chiefly been followed

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made but little progress in science and literature after the time of
Solomon. During their captivity, it is true, they acquired many
foreign notions, with which they had not been previously acquainted:
and they, subsequently, borrowed much both of truth and of false-
hood from the philosophy of the Greeks. The author of the book
of Wisdom, with some others of the Jewish writers, has made pretty
good use of the Greek philosophy. It is clear, notwithstanding this,
that the Jews after the captivity fell below their ancestors in respect
to History; as the published annals of that period are not of a kin-
dred character with those of the primitive ages of their country.
II. That the art of Historical Writing was antiently much culti-
vated in the East, the Bible itself is an ample testimony; for it not
only relates the prominent events, from the creation down to the
fifth century before Christ, but speaks of many historical books,
which have now perished; and also of many monuments erected in
commemoration of remarkable achievements and furnished with
appropriate inscriptions. These monuments are denominated by
various names, as no T', mor, The Babylonians also, the
Assyrians, the Persians, and Tyrians, had their Historical Annals.
Among the Egyptians, there was a separate order, viz. the priests,
one part of whose duty it was, to write the history of their country.
In the primitive ages the task of composing annals sell in most na-
tions upon the priests, but at a later period, the king had his own
secretaries, whose special business it was to record the royal sayings
and achievements. The Prophets among the Hebrews recorded the
events of their own times, and, in the earliest periods, the Genealo-
gists interwove many historical events with their accounts of the
succession of families. Indeed, it should not be forgotten, that an-
tient history generally partakes more of a genealogical, than a chro-
nological character. }. the Hebrew phrase for genealogies,

mon *SD, is used also for history (Gen. vi. 9. x. 1.); and

hence no epoch, more antient than that of Nabonassar, is any where found. In the Bible, however, this defect, in regard to a regular chronological system, is in a manner compensated by the insertion in various places of definite periods of time, and by chronological genealogies. In giving a concise account of the genealogy of a person, the Hebrews, as well as the Arabs, took the liberty to omit, according to their own pleasure, one or more generations. (Ruth iv. 18– 22. Ezra vii. 1–5. Matt. i. 8.) It was considered so much of an honour, to have a name and a place in these family annals, that the Hebrews, from their first existence as a nation, had public genealogists, denominated tono,"blo. Not only the Hebrews, but, if we may credit Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians also, assigned a certain period to a generation. According to their estimation, three generations made an hundred years. In the time of Abraham, however, when men lived to a greater age, an hundred years made a generation. . This is clear from Gen. xv. 13. 16. and from the circumstance, that Abraham, WOL. iii. - 60 - * * *

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Isaac, and Jacob dwelt two hundred and fifteen years in the land of Canaan, and yet there were only two generations. III. ARITHMETic, MATHEMAT1cs, AstBoxoMY, AND ASTPology. 1. ..?rithmetic.—The more simple methods of arithmetical calculation are spoken of in the Pentateuch, as if they were well known. The merchants of that early period, must, for their own convenience, have been possessed of some method of operating by numbers. And that they were able to do it, to some considerable extent, may be argued from the fact, that they had separate words, viz. Yon and Tool, for so large a number as 10,000. 2. JMathematics.-By this we understand Geometry, Mensurations, Navigation, &c. As far as a knowledge of them was absolutely required by the condition and employments of the people, we may well suppose, that knowledge actually existed; although no express mention is made of them. 3. Astronomy.—The interests of agriculture and navigation required some knowledge of astronomy. An evidence, that an attempt was made at a very early period, to regulate the year by the annual revolution of the sun, may be found in the fact, that the Jewish months were divided into thirty days each. (See Gen. vii. 11. viii. 4.) In astronomy, the Egyptians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians exibited great superiority. We are informed, there were magicians or enchanters in Egypt (Exod. vii. 11. Lev. xx. 27. xix. 31. Deut. xviii. 20.), denominated in Hebrew D'Sop, because they computed eclipses of the sun and moon, and pretended to the people, that they produced them by the efficacy of their own enchantments. Some of the constellations are mentioned by name in Job ix. 9. xxxviii. 31, 32. Isa. xiii. 10. Amos v. 8. 2 Kings xxiii. 5. 4. Alstrology.—It is by no means a matter of wonder, that the Hebrews did not devote greater attention to astronomy, since the study of astrology, which was intimately connected with that of astronomy, and was very highly estimated among the neighbouring nations (Isa. xlvii. 9. Jer. xxvii. 9. l. 35. Dan. ii. 13.48.), was interdicted to the Hebrews. (Deut. xviii. 10. Lev. xx. 27.) Daniel, indeed, studied the art of astrology at Babylon, but he did not practise it. (Dan. i. 20. ii. 2.) The astrologers (and those wise men mentioned in Matt. ii. 1. et seq. appear to have been such) divided the heavens into apartments or habitations, to each one of which apartments they assigned a ruler or president. This fact developes the origin of the word, 8ssX3600X, or oyn, or the Lord of the (celestial) dwelling. (Matt. x. 25. xii. 24.27. Mark iii. 22. Luke xi. 15–19.) IV. Measures of Length are mentioned in Gen. vi. 15, 16. A knowledge of the method of measuring lands is implied in the account given Gen. xlvii. 20–27. Mention is made, in the books of Job and Joshua, of a line or rope for the purpose of taking measurements, YP, on. It was brought by the Hebrews out of Egypt, where, according to the unanimous testimony of antiquity, Surveying

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