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ground is allotted for the purpose. Each family has a particular part of it walled in, like a garden, where the bones of their ancestors have remained for many generations. For in these enclosures the graves are all distinct and separated, each of them having a stone placed upright both at the head and feet, inscribed with the name and title (2 Kings xxiii. 17.) of the deceased ; while the intermediate space is either planted with flowers, bordered round with stones, or paved with tiles. The graves of the principal citizens are further distinguished, by having cupolas or vaulted chambers of three, four, or more square yards built over them : and as these very frequently lie open, and occasionally shelter us from the inclemency of the weather, the demoniac (Mark v. 5.) might with propriety enough have had his dwelling among the tombs: and others are said (Isa. lx. 4.) to remain among the graves and to lodge in the monuments (mountains.) And as all these different sorts of tombs and sepulchres, with the very walls likewise of their respective cupolas and enclosures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beautified, they continue to illustrate those expressions of our Saviour, where he mentions the garnishing of sepulchres, and compares the scribes, pharisees, and hypocrites to whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but within were full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness.” But though the sepulchres of the rich were thus beautified, the graves of the poor were oftentimes so neglected, that if the stones, by which they were marked, happened to fall, they were not set up again, by which means the graves themselves did not appear; they were a0,xa, as St. Luke expresses it; they appeared not, and the men that walked over them were not aware of them. (Luke xi. o It appears from the Scriptures, that the Jews also had family sepulchres in places contiguous to their own houses, and (as we have already observed) generally in their gardens. Such was the place in which Lazarus was interred; and such also was the grave in which the body of our Lord was deposited. Joseph of Arimathea, a person of distinction, by St. Mark called an honourable counselor (Mark xv. 43.),” mindful of his mortality, had hewn out of the rock in his garden a sepulchre, in which he intended his own remains should be reposited. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was no man yet laid. When Joseph therefore had taken the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, he carried it into the tomb which he had lately hollowed out of the rock (which was not a tomb, sunk into the earth like a cave, but what is called in Isa. xxii. 16. a stpulchre on high ); and rolled a great stone to the low door of the sepulchre, effectually to block up the entrance, and secure the sacred corpse of the deceased, both from the indignities of his foes and the officiousness of his friends. VI. A funeral feast commonly succeeded the Jewish burials. Thus after Abner's funeral was solemnised, the people came to David to eat meat with him, though they could not persuade him to do so. (2 Sam. iii. 35.) He was the chief mourner, and probably had invited them to this banquet. Of this Jeremiah speaks (xvi. 7.), where he calls it the cup of consolation, which they drank for their father or their mother; and accordingly the place where this funeral entertainment was made, is called in the next verse the house of feasting. Hosea calls it the bread of mourners. (Hos. ix. 4.) Funeral banquets are still in use among the oriental Christians." The usual tokens of mourning, by which the Jews expressed their grief and concern for the death of their friends and relations, were by rending their garments, and putting on sackcloth (Gen. xxxvii. 34.), sprinkling dust on their heads, wearing of mourning apparel (2 Sam. xiv. 2.), and covering the face and the head. (2 Sam xix. 4.) They were accustomed also in times of public mourning to go up to the roofs or platforms of their houses, there to bewail their missortunes, which practice is mentioned in Isaiah xv. 3. and xxii. 1. Antiently, there was a peculiar space of time allotted for lamenting the deceased, which they called the days of mourning. (Gen. xxvii. 41. and l. 4.) Thus the Egyptians, who had a great regard for the patriarch Jacob, lamented his death threescore and ten days. (Gen. l. 3.) The Israelites wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days. (Deut. xxxiv. 8.) Afterwards among the Jews the funeral mourning was generally confined to seven days. Thus, besides the mourning for Jacob i. Egypt, Joseph and his company set apart seven days to mourn for his father, when they approached the Jordan with his corpse. (Gen. l. 10.) In the time of Christ, it was customary for the nearest relative to visit the grave of the deceased, and to weep there. The Jews, who had come to condole with Mary, on the death of her brother Lazarus, on seeing her go out of the house, concluded that she was going to the grave, to weep there. (John xi. 31.) A similar custom obtains to this day in Upper Egypt.” We read no where of any general mourning for Saul and his sons, who died in battle; but the national troubles, which followed upon his death, might have prevented it. David indeed and his men, on hearing the news of their death, mourned and wept for them until even. (2 Sam. i. 12.) And the men of Jabesh-gilead fasted for them seven days (1 Sam. xxxi. 13.), which must not be understood in a strict sense, as if they eat nothing all that time, but that they lived very abstemiously, eat little, and that seldom, using a low and spare diet, and drinking water only. How long widows mourned for their husbands is no where told us in Scripture. We find it is said of Bathsheba, that when she heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for him (2 Sam. xi. * but this could neither be long nor very sincere. he Jews paid a greater or less degree of honour to their kings after their death, according to the merits of their actions when they were alive. Upon the death of their princes, who had distinguished themselves in arms, or who, by any religious actions, or by the promotion of civil arts, had merited well of their country, they used to make lamentations or mournful songs for them : from an expression in 2 Chron. xxxv.25. Behold, they are written in the Lamentations, we may inser that they had certain collections of this kind of composition. The author of the book of Samuel has preserved those which David composed on occasion of the death of Saul and Jonathan, of Abner and Absalom; but we have no remains of the mournful poem, which Jeremiah made upon the immature death of the pious king Josiah, mentioned in the last-cited chapter: which loss is the more to be deplored, because in all probability it was a masterpiece in its kind, since never was there an author more deeply affected with his subject, or more capable of carrying it through all the tender sentiments of sorrow and compassion, than Jeremiah.'
1 Dr. Shaw's Travels, p. 385. first edition. Oxford, 1738.
2 Dr. Macknight in loc.
3 Evaxnov footurns. This denotes that he was a member of the Sanhedrin. *Novros is the word used for senator in almost every page of the Greek writers of the Roman history.
1 Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. p. 19.
2 “We arrived” (at one of the villages of Elephantina, an island in the Nile) “just in time to witness a coronagh or wailing for the dead. A poor woman of the village had that o received the melancholy intelligence that her husband had been drowned in the Nile. He had been interred without her knowledge, near the spot where the body was found; and she, along with several of her female friends, was paying the unavailing tribute of lamentation to his departed shade.” (Richardson's Travels, vol. i. p. 355) “One morning,” says the same intelligent traveller, “when of the ruins of the antient Syene, on the rocky promontory above the ferry, I saw a party of thirteen females cross the Nile to o, the lugubrious dirge at the mansions of the dead. They set up a piteous wail on entering the boat, after which they all cowered up together, wrapt in their dirty robes of beteen. On landing, they wound their way slowly and silently along the outside of the walls of the antient town, till they arrived at their place of destina. tion, when some of them placed a sprig of flowers on the grave, and sat down silently beside it; others cast themselves on the ground, and threw dust over their heads, uttering mournful lamentations, which they continued to repeat at intervals, during the short time that I witnessed their procedure.” (Ibid. vol. i. p. 360.) Mr Jowett witnessed a similar scene at Manselout, a more remote town of Upper Egy t. Christian Researches, p. 162. ahn. Archaeologia Biblica, pp. 289—302. Harwood's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 129–152. Stosch, Compendium Archaeologiae GEconomica, Novi Testamenti, pp. 121—132. Brunings, Compendium Antiquitatum Græcarum, pp. 383–400. The subject of Hebrew sepulchres is very fully discussed by Nicolai, in his treatise De Sepulchris Hebræorum (Lug. Bat. 1706, 4to.), which is illustrated with several cu. rious plates, some of which however, it must be confessed, are rather fanciful.
PRINCIPAL PLACES Mentioned in the Scriptures, especially in the New Testament.
[Referred to, in page 11. of this Volume.]
*...* On account of the very great uncertainty attending the ascertaining of the situation of the majority of places, incidentally mentioned in the Old Testament, this index is chiefly restricted to the principal places and countries which occur in the New Testament. It is compiled from the Iabours of Calmet, Wells, Schleusner, Dr. Whitby, M. Anquetil, Dr. Hales, and other writers who have treated on sacred geographyl, and particularly from the Travels in Palestine of Dr. E. D. Clarke, Mr Buckingham, the Rev. James Connor, and of Dr. Robert Richardson, who explored various arts of the East during the years 1816–1818, in company with the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Belmore.
1 The notices of the seven cities of Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamos, Philadelphia, Sardis, Smyrna, and Thyatira, are derived from Smith's Survey of the Seven vol. iii. 65
A BANA, a river of Damascus, mentioned by Naaman. (2 Kings v. 12.). 1re not .1bana and Pharphur, rivers of Damascus, better than the waters of Israel? Probably this river is a branch of that part of the Barratly, or Chrysorroas; which derives its source from the foot of Mount Libanus, towards the east, runs round Damascus and through it, and continues its course till lost in the wilderness, four or five leagues south from that city. AbARIM, Mountains of See p. 47. of this volume. ABEL, .olbel-beth-Maacha or .dbel main, a city in the northern part of the canton allotted to the tribe of Naphtali. Hither fled Sheba the son of Bichri, when pursued by the forces of king David; and the inhabitants, in order that they might escape the horrors of a siege, cut of Sheba's head, which they threw over the wall to Joab. (2 Sam. xx. 14– 18.) About eighty years after, it was taken and ravaged by Benhadad king of Syria. (1 Kings xv.20.) About two hundred years after this event, it was captured and sacked by Tiglath-pileser,who carried the inhabitants captive into Assyria. (2 Kings xv.2).) This place was subsequently rebuilt; and according to Josephus, became, under the name of Abila, the capital of the district of Abilene. ABEL-MEhol AH was the native country of Elisha, (1 Kings xix. 16.) It could not be far from Scythopolis. (iv. 12.) Eusebius places it in the great plain, sixteen miles from Scythopolis, south. Not far from hence, Gideon obtained a victory over the Midianites. (Judg. vii. 22.) ABEl-Mizr AIM (the mourning of the Egyptians), was formerly called the floor of Atad. (Gen. l. 11.) Jerome, and some others after him, believe this to be the place afterwards called Bethagla, at some distance from Jericho and Jordan west. ABEL-shitti M was a town in the plains of Moab, beyond Jordan, opposite Jericho. According to Josephus, Abel-Shittim, or Abela, as he calls it, was sixty furlongs from Jordan. Eusebius says, it was in the neighbourhood of Mount Peor. Moses encamped at
Abel-Shittim before the Hebrew army passed the Jordan, under Joshua. (Numb. xxxiii. 49. xxv. 1.) Here the Israelites fell into idolatry, and worship. ped Baal-Peor, seduced by Balak; and here God severely punished them by the hands of the Levites. (Numb, ow.l, 2. &c.) This city is often called Shit. tim only. (Antiq. lib. iv. cap. 7, and v. 1., and de Bello, lib, v. cap. 3.) ABILENE. See page 16, supra. Accho. See ProLEMAIs. AcELDAMA, a place without the south wall of Jerusalem, beyond the river of Siloam. It was called the Potter's Field Matt. xxvii. 7. 10.), because they dug thence the earth of which they made their pots; and the Fuller's Field be. cause they dried their cloth there; but being afterwards bought by thatmir, by which the high priest and rulers of the Jews purchased the blood of the holy Jesus, it was, by the provident of God so ordering it, called Acelano, that is, the field of blood. (Acts i !!! Matt. xxvii. 7, ..] AchATA, in the largest sense, comprehends Greece properly so called. Its bounded on the west by Epirus, on the east by the AEgean Sea, on the northby Macedonia, on the south by Pelopoultsus. This seems to be the region illtended when Saint Paul, according to the Roman acceptationmentions alth region of .lchaia, and directs his second Epistle to all the saintsin Achaias3(or xi. 10.) Thus, what is Achaia,in Arts xix. 21. is Hellas, that is, Greece. (Acts xx. 2.) Achaia, strictly so called, is the northern region of Peloponio bounded on the north by the Gulshof Corinth, on the south by Arcadia on the east by Sicyonia, and, on the W* by the Ionian Sea. Of this region CoRINth was the capital. AchMETHA. See Ecbatana. Achor, a valley in the territory of Jericho, and in the canton of the to of Benjamin, where Achan was (Josh. vii. 24.) Ackshaph, a city belonging to to tribe of Asher. The king of Aksh; was conquered by Joshua (sio Some writers are of opinion,that A* shaph is the same as Ecdippa, on Meliterranean, between Tyre and *
Churches of Asia, pp. 205–276. Bishop Newton's Dissertations on the Prophet” vol. ii. pp. Jo-174. The Rev. H. Lindsay's Visit to the Apocalyptic Churches" 1815), in the Christian Observer, vol. xv. pp. 100, 191. See also Stosch's Synago Dissertationum Septem de Nominibus totidem Urbium Asia, ad quas D. Jounes in Apocalypsi Filii Dei Epistolas direxit, 8vo. Guelpherbyti, 1757.