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of these waters,” says he, after the description, “are as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river which king Solomon discovered by his great sagacity; and he caused these cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought from some part of the mountains, which are about a league distant; and it is as certain that the work was well done at first : seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of time; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving four corn mills between it and the sea.” From these cisterns there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direction, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, where antiently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the isthmus that connects insular Tyre with the main, built by Alexander, when he besieged and took it. Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been besieged, in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied, by digging wells, within the city. It afterwards held out for thirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and was at length taken: but not until the Tyrians had removed their effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to the victor, which he demolished. What completed the destruction of the city was, that Alexander afterwards made use of these materials to build a prodigious causeway, or isthmus, above half a mile long, to the insular city, which revived as the Phoenix, from the ashes of the old, and grew to great power and opulence, ** a maritime state; and which he stormed after a most obstinate siege

of five months. Pococke observes, that “there are no signs of the antient city; and as it is a sandy shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct is in many parts almost buried in the sand.” (Vol. ii. p. 81.) Thus has been fulfilled the phecy of Ezekiel: Thou shalt be uilt no more : though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again! (xxvi. 21.) The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable : when Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold: “Tyre did build herself a stronghold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire.” (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her antient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siege of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Tromans, until it was taken by the Saracens, about A. D. 639, retaken by the Crusaders, A. D. 1124; and at length sacked and rased by the Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289.1 The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of the splendour of antient Tyre in the days of her commercial prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.): “The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and mules: strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective costume ; vessels building on the stocks, others navigating the river: together with Turks, Persians, and Armenians, on Arabian chargers: European ladies in splendid carriages, the Asiatic females in hackeries drawn by oxen; and the motley sppearance of the English and nabob's troops on the fortifications, remind us of the following description of Tyre: O thou that art situate, &c. (Ezek. xxvii. 3.) This is a true picture of oriental commerce in antient times; and a very exact description of the port, and the bazaars of Surat, at the present day.” “Numerous beautiful columns, stretched along the beach, or standing in fragments half-buried in the sand that has been accumulating for

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ages, the broken aqueduct, and the ruins which appear in its neighbourhood, exist, as an affecting monument of the fragile and transitory nature of earthly grandeur.” ZAREPHATH. See SAREPTA, p. 548. ZEBULUN, Canton of the tribe of. See pp. 12, 13. ZidoN. See S1DoN, p. 549. ZIPH,Wilderness of See p. 53.supra.

1 Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 247. s: * Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. 422. See other *: Testimonies of modern travellers relative to the actual state of Tyro, in vol. i. pp. 329, - 330, supra.

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No. II. TABLES OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND MONEY, MENTIONED IN THE BIBLE, Chiefly extracted from Dr. Arbuthnot's Tables of Antient Coins, Weights, and Measures.

[Referred to, in Page 480. of this Volume.]

1. Jewish Weights reduced to English troy weight.
lbs.

- oz. pen, gr

The gerah, one-twentieth of a shekel - - - 0. 0 0 12 Bekah, half a shekel - - - - - - 0 0 5 0 The Shekel - - - - - - - 0 0 10 0 The maneh, 60 shekels - - - - - 2 6 Q Q The talent, 50 maneh or 3000 shekels - - - 125 0 0 9

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4. Scripture Measures of Capacity for Liquids, reduced to English wine

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5. Scripture Measures of Capacity for things dry, reduced to English

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In the preceding table, silver is valued at 5s, and gold at £4 per ounce.

7. Roman Money, mentioned in the New Testament, reduced to the English Standard.

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No. III. A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE of the PRINCIPAL EVENTS RECORDED IN THE BIBLE. .Abridged from Archbishop Usher and Calmet. The true date of the Birth of Christ is four years before the common arra or A. D. -PERIoD I. From the Creation to the Deluge, 1656 years. Anno Year Mundi, before or Year -Q- Chris of the 4000, World. before A. D. 1 THE creation. Eve, tempted by the serpent, disobeys God, and persuades her husband Adam to disobedience also. God drives them out of paradise. 2 Cain born, Adam's eldest son. 3% 3 Abel born, Adam's second son. 3998 129 Cain kills his brother Abel. 3871 130 Seth born, son of Adam and Eve. S70 235 Enos born, son of Seth. 3765 325 Cainan born, son of Enos. 3675 395 Mahalaleel born, son of Cainan. 3605 460 Jared born, son of Mahalaleel. 3540 622 Enoch born, son of Jared. 3378 657 Methuselah born, son of Enoch. 3313 874 Lamech born, son of Methuselah. 3126 930 Adam dies, aged 930 years. 3070 987 Enoch translated: he had lived 365 years. 3013 1042 Seth dies, aged 912 years. 2958 ió56 Noah born, son of Lamech. 2.944 ii.16 Enos dies, aged 905 years. 2S60 1235 Cainan dies, aged 910 years. 2765 1290 Mahalaleel dies, aged 895 years. 2710 1422 Jared dies, aged 962 years. 2578 1536 God informs Noah of the future deluge, and commissions him to 2464 - preach repentance to mankind, 120 years before the deluge. 1556 Japhet born, the eldest son of Noah. ----

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