Imatges de pÓgina
PDF
EPUB

A

POPULAR DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
BIOGRAPHY,

A NEW EDITION;

INCLUDING

A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IN

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY;

ON

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN

CONVERSATIONS-LEXICON.

EDITED BY

FRANCIS LIEBER,

ASSISTED BY

E. WIGGLESWORTH.

VOL. III.

PHILADELPHIA:

LEA & BLANCHARD. *

1844.

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY
0474203

PRINTED BY T. K. & P. G. COLLINS, PHILA.

ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES; a name given to seven epistles of the New Testament, because written to Christians in general, and not to believers of some particular place. They are, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude.

CATHOLICISM. (See Roman Catholic Church.)

CATILINE, Lucius Sergius, was just entering on the age of manhood when Rome became a prey to the rage of Marius and Sylla. Of patrician birth, he attached himself to the cause of the latter, had some share in his success, and still more in his proscriptions. Murder, rapine and conflagration were the first deeds and pleasures of his youth. His influence on the fortunes of the disordered republic became important. He appears to have served in the army with reputation. He was peculiarly dangerous and formidable, as his power of dissimulation enabled him to throw a veil over his vices. Such was his art, that, while he was poisoning the minds of the Roman youth, he gained the friendship and esteem of the severe Catulus. Equally well qualified to deceive the good, to intimidate the weak, and to inspire his own boldness into his depraved associates, he evaded two accusations brought against him by Clodius, for criminal intercourse with a vestal, and for monstrous extortions, of which he had been guilty while proconsul in Africa. He was suspected, also, of having murdered his first wife and his son. A confederacy of many young men of high birth and daring character, who saw no other means of extricating themselves from their enormous debts, than by obtaining the highest offices of the state, having been formed, Catiline was placed at their head. This eminence he owed chiefly

to his connexion with the old soldiers of Sylla, by means of whom he kept in awe the towns near Rome, and even Rome itself. At the same time, he numbered among his adherents not only the worst and lowest of the riotous populace, but also many of the patricians, and men of consular rank. Every thing favored his audacious scheme. Pompey was pursuing the victories which Lucullus had prepared for him; and the latter was but a feeble supporter of the patriots in the senate, who wished him, but in vain, to put himself at their head. Crassus, who had delivered Italy from the gladiators, was now striving, with mad eagerness, after power and riches, and, instead of opposing, countenanced the growing influence of Catiline, as a means of his own aggrandizement. Cæsar, who was laboring to revive the party of Marius, spared Catiline, and, perhaps, even encouraged him. Only two Romans remained determined to uphold their falling country-Cato and Cicero; the latter of whom alone possessed the qualifications necessary for the task. The conspirators were now planning the elevation of Catiline and one of his accomplices to the consulship. When this was effected, they hoped to obtain possession of the public treasures and the property of the citizens, under various pretexts, and especially by means of proscription. It is not probable, however, that Catiline had promised them the liberty of burning and plundering Rome. Cicero had the courage to stand candidate for the consulship, in spite of the impending danger, of the extent of which he was perfectly aware. Neither insults, nor threats, nor even riots and attempts to assassinate him, deterred him from his purpose; and, being supported by the rich citizens, he gained

« AnteriorContinua »