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observation, I shall here give the reader some short account of Apelles and his doctrines.
He was a disciple of the famous heretic Marcion, and became famous about the year of Christ 180. He wrote many impious tracts against the sacred scriptures, rejected both the law and the prophets, maintained there was one principle of all things, who was the good God, from whom proceeded the evil god, who made all things. He denied the resurrection of the dead, and published a collection of revelations, which he received from a noted strumpet, whose name was Philumene, of which both Tertullian and Eusebius give us an account, as do Origend, Epiphaniuse, and Austin of the other particularsf.
No. V. The Gospel according to the Twelve Apostles. CONCERNING this apocryphal piece, unquestionably very ancient, we have an account given us;
1. By Origen 8. Ecclesia quatuor habet Evangelia, The church receives four Goshæreses plurima ; e quibus quod- pels, the heretics have very many; dam scribitur secundum Ægyp- such as that according to the Etios, aliud juxta duodecim Apo- gyptians, that according to the stolos-Legimus, ne quid ig- twelve Apostles
These we norare videremur, &c.
read, lest we should be thought
2. By Ambrose h Multi Evangelia scribere conati, Many have endeavoured to write quæ boni nummularii non proba- Gospels, which the catholic verunt. Unum autem tantum- church hath not approved, but modo in quatuor libros digestum hath determined to make choice ex omnibus arbitrati sunt eligen- of four only. There is indeed a dum ; et aliud quidem fertur, Gospel spread up and down, said quod duodecim scripsisse dicun- to be written by the twelve Atur. Ausus est etiam Basilides postles. Basilides wrote another scribere quod dicitur secundum called by his name
- These we Basilidem Legimus, ne le- read, that they may not be read; gantur; legimus, ne ignoremus ; we read them, that we may not
¢ De Præscript. advers. Hæretic. c. 30.-Hist. Eccl. 1. 5. c. 13.
à Homil. 2. in Gen. vi.
in Apell. See also Dr. Cave's Hist.
& Homil. in Luc. i. 1. in init.
legimus, non ut teneamus, sed seem ignorant; we read them, repudiemus, et ut sciamus qualia not that we receive, but reject sint in quibus magnifici isti cor them, and may know what those exultent suum.
things are, of which the heretics
make such boasting. 3. By Jerome, in the passage just now producedi. He reckons
the Gospel according to the Twelve Apostles among those which occasioned heresies in the church, and which were wrote by men destitute of the Spirit and grace of God,
without a due regard to truth. 4. By the same, in his Dialogues against the Pelagians k, in
troducing Atticus disputing against the opinion, That the baptized could not fall into sin, and at length citing this
Gospel to that purpose, in the following words: In Evangelio juxta Hebræos, In the Gospel according to the quod Chaldaico Syroque ser- Hebrews, which is written in the mone, sed Hebraicis literis scri- Chaldee and Syriac language, but ptum est, quo utuntur usque ho- in Hebrew letters, which the Nadie Nazareni, secundum aposto- zarenes to this day use [and is los, sive, ut plerique autumant, called the Gospel] according to juxta Matthæum, quod in Cæsa- the [twelve] Apostles, or, as most riensi bibliotheca habetur; nar- think, according to Matthew, and rat historia, &c.
which is in the library of Cæsarea; there is the following his
I omit here producing the fragments of this Gospel, and making any critical remarks upon it, because I shall have a more convenient place of doing this, when I come to discourse concerning the Gospel according to the Nazarenes, which appears very evidently, by this passage of Jerome, to have been the very same with this Gospel according to the Twelve Apostles.
i See above, No. IV.
k Lib. 3. Epist. 17. in init.
CHAP. VIII. An account of the Gospel of Barnabas, mentioned by pope Ge
lasius. Two supposed Fragments. Large Fragments of an Italian Gospel under the name of Barnabas, now in the possession of prince Eugene. It appears evidently a late Mahometan imposture.
B. No. VI. The Gospel of Barnabas. This book does not appear to have fallen within the cognizance of any of the Christian writers of the first four centuries; only it is thus mentioned in the famous Decree of pope Gelasius I. above produced, No. III. The Gospel under the name of Barnabas is apocryphal. There are not, I believe, any fragments of it extant, at least not within my time, unless that be supposed to be one, which we find in Clemens Alexandrinus!, who having cited these words of the psalmist, (Psalm cxviii. 19, 20.) Open to me the gates of righteousness, and I will
go into them, and I will praise the Lord. This is the gate of the Lord, into which the righteous shall enter : he adds, “ Barnabas expounding this saying of the prophet, thus
reasons: Πολλών πυλών ανεωγυιών, η δι- Although there are many gates Xalocúrn Götn totiv, ý év Xgoto, opened, righteousness is that gate, έν ή μακάριοι πάντες οι εισελ. which is in Christ, at which all θόντες. .
they that enter shall be blessed. This passage, attributed by Clemens Alexandrinus to Barnabas, is indeed in the first Epistle of Clemens Romanus to the Corinthians, §. 48. and therefore Dr. Grabe m supposes, that Clemens Alexandrinus was mistaken in citing it out of Barnabas, because it is not in the Epistle which goes under his name; which is indeed probable enough, not only because the passage is exactly the same in Clement's Epistle, but because it does not appear that any Gospel under the name of Barnabas was known in the world, either in the time of Clemens Alexandrinus, or a long time afterwards.
The learned Dr. Grabe, out of an ancient manuscript, has indeed produced a saying attributed there to Barnabas, which i Stromat. 1. 6. p. 646.
Spicileg. Patr. tom. 1. p. 303.
he supposes to have been taken out of the Gospel of Barnabas, mentioned by pope Gelasius n. The fragment is this, as he has given it us out of the thirty-ninth Baroccian manuscript in the Bodleian : Βαρνάβας ο απόστολος έφη, Εν Barnabas the apostle saith, He αμίλλαις πονηραϊς αθλιώτερος και who prevails in unlawful conνικήσας, διότι επέρχεται πλέον
tests, is so much the more unέχων της αμαρτίας. .
happy, because he goes away
having more sin. Whether or no this passage is really a fragment of the ancient apocryphal Gospel under the name of Barnabas, seems to me very uncertain. The author of the manuscript (which is a common-place book made after the modern alphabetical manner) does not mention the name of any Gospel from whence he took it; nor has the doctor, who produces it, given any reasons to support bis conjecture, and therefore we may as fairly conclude it to have been taken from the Epistle under the name of Barnabas, as from the Gospel; and though it be not now to be found in any part of that Epistle, yet I cannot see why it may not be supposed to have been in that part of it which is lost, since it is certain we have it now not complete o: and I am the rather apt to imagine this, because we cannot discover any intimations or citations of this Gospel in the ancient writers, whereas the Epistle was well known, and frequently referred to.
I can scarce tell, whether it be worth while to observe, that Mr. Toland, in his late trifling book, which he calls Nazarenus, finding it very much to his purpose, endeavours to confirm the aforesaid conjecture of Dr. Grabep. He tells us, that in an Italian manuscript, which he saw in Holland, and which is now in the library of prince Eugene, entitled, The true Gospel of Jesus, called Christ, a new Prophet sent by God to the world, according to the relation of Barnabas the Apostle. In this, I say, he tells us, he found the passage (just above produced out of the Baroccian manuscript) almost in terms, and the sense evidently there in more than one place. It is not my business to make here any remarks concerning this pre
tended Gospel of Barnabas; it is enough to observe, that it is a very late and notorious Mahometan imposture, as appears sufficiently by the scraps of it which Mr. Toland has produced, and more fully by the large citations out of it, which are given us by La Monnoy 9, who had by baron Hohendorf, prince Eugene's adjutant-general, the sight of the manuscript; and as he seems to have given a more just and full account of it than Mr. Toland, so I verily believe he had more opportunity to do itr. It is probable the curiosity of some readers may be such, ás to desire these fragments in our language, for whose sake, though it be a digression from my proposed method, I shall insert them here, as I find them in either of the forementioned authors.
The title is, as above, “ The true Gospel of Jesus, called Christ, a new Prophet sent
by God to the world, according to the relation of Barnabas “ the apostles.”
The first words of the book are these : “ Barnabas, an apostle of Jesus of Nazareth, called Christ, “ to all those who dwell upon the earth, wisheth peace and « consolation
“ He declares he was commanded to write this Gospel ;
represents himself as one of the apostles, very familiar with “ Jesus Christ and the Virgin, better instructed than Paul
concerning the design of circumcision, and the usage of “ meats, either allowed or forbid to the faithful.
“ He asserts, the infernal tormerits of the Mahometans shall “ not be everlasting.
- Jesus Christ is never called any more than a prophet u. “ It informs us, that the very moment the Jews were pre
paring to go and take Christ in the garden of Olives, he was “ taken up into the third heavens, by the ministry of the four
9 Animadvers. ad Menagian. apud l'écrire, y passe pour un apôtre faFabrit. tom. 3. p. 373.
milier avec Jesus Christ, et avec la r For I much question whether Mr. Vierge, mieux instruit que Paul du Toland had, or made much use of the mérite de la circoncision, et de l'usage MS. otherwise he need not have been des riandes accordées ou défendues obliged to have translated La Monnoy, aux fideles. On y voit, que les peines as he does in his Appendix.
infernales des Mahometans ne seront Nazaren. p. 15.
pas éternelles. Jesus Christ n'y est Jbid.
appellé simplement que prophète. La Barnabé, qui se dit chargé de Monnoy loc. cit. p. 376, 377.