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therefore most likely is, that Paul received this passage by tradition from the apostles or disciples of Christ, with whom it is certain he frequently conversed, and from whom he received many accounts of fact; and perhaps it is not unlikely he was then told it, when he went up to Jerusalem from Antioch, with the charitable collections of the Christians there for the indigent brethren at Jerusalem, Acts xi. 30. II. A Saying in the Epistle of Barnabas, Chap. IV. ascribed
to Christ. Sicut dicit Filius Dei, Resista- As the Son of God saith, Let us mus omni iniquitati, et odio habe- resist all iniquity, and hate it.
III. A Saying ascribed to Christ in the same Epistle, Chap. VII. Obtw, anoiy, oi déroutés us ideiv, So they, saith Jesus, who would και άψασθαί μου της βασιλείας, , sée me, and arrive to my kingdom, οφείλουσι θλιβέντες και πολλά πα- must receive me through the sufθόντες λαβείν με.
fering of many troubles and af
fictions. The celebrated archbishop Usher 9 imagines it an evidence of the great antiquity of this Epistle under the name of Barnabas, that in it are cited several of the apocryphal books, the very names of which are now quite lost. Mr. Dodwellr asserts not only of Barnabas, but Clemens Romanus, Hermas, Ignatius, and Polycarp, the supposed writers of the first century, or apostolic age, that they promiscuously made use of our Gospels and other apocryphal books. Dr. Mill follows him exactly, and is somewhat more sanguine in his expressionss.
They, i. e. the apostolic fathers,” says he, “ cite and allege, “ without any difference, the apocryphal gospels and the in
spired books of the apostles.” One would imagine they had very clear proof for the support of these assertions, and that Barnabas, Clemens, Hermas, Polycarp, and the rest, had named, or at least referred to some such writings or books. But of this I dare aver, there is not one single instance in all those fathers
9 See the remaining part of the preface to an edition of this Epistle, which be intended to have published, but was consumed at Oxford, with all his rotes, only a few in the corrector's hand, by
to be found; and though some of them have some passages not in our Gospels, yet there is not any reason to conclude they were taken out of others, as I shall shew in the particular examination of them: and first as to those of Barnabas, which are now under consideration, only first observing that Mr. Fabritiust supposes also that both these passages were taken out of some apocryphal gospel. I shall consider each of them distinctly.
As to the first, it is evident it could not possibly be any saying of Christ, because it is delivered in the plural number, LET US resist all iniquity, and let us hate it. These, I say, could not be the words of Christ, because his commands are never delivered in the plural number, as relating to himself and to his apostles; besides, it is absurd in the nature of the thing for a person under the character of Christ to command himself, especially considering that he was incapable of all sin. If therefore they were not the words of Christ, it is plain they are no more than the author's explication of some words of his; and though he prefix the words, Sic dicit Filius Dei, “ So
says the Son of God;" it is plain that they cannot be taken in their literal sense, but must mean, This is the command of Christ to us, or he has spoken to this purpose, that we should avoid and hate all sin; or it is the doctrine which he has deliveredu; and so indeed it is in many parts of our Gospels, and the main design of them all, and therefore was not taken out of any apocryphal book.
As to the latter passage, it was either taken out of that passage of Paul and Barnabas, Acts xiv. 22. where it is said they exhorted the churches to continue in the faith, and say, we must all, through much tribulation, enter into the kingdom of heaven : which are very near the same words with those of the supposed Barnabas under consideration, and so that is falsely ascribed to Christ, which was said by Paul and Barnabas; or else the passage is an allusion to several places of our Lord's discourses, in which he assures his followers, that, in order to become his true disciples, they must depend upon a variety of
+ Cod. Apocryph. Nov. Test. par. I. p. 330, 331.
u See instances of the like sort of
speech in Heins. Exercit. Sacr. in Act. XX. 35
troubles and sufferings, as he does Matt. x. 18, 22. Luke xiv. 27. John xvi. 33. and in several other places; and this I suppose no one can think improbable, who considers how frequent these sort of citations are in the writings of the fathers, and particularly in this Epistle.
But if after all it should be thought these passages in the Epistle of Barnabas were taken out of some apocryphal gospel; I will add, that seeing it is no hard task to prove (as I hope fully in the next part of this work to do) that this Epistle was not the composure of Barnabas, but of some other person under his name, the credit of our canon cannot thereby be hurt; for the most that can follow from thence is, that the apocryphal books have been cited by some heretical impostor of the second century.
It will not be foreign to my purpose to insert here, that the author of this Epistle under the name of Barnabas saith, ch. v. that when Christ chose his apostles, he made choice of such όντας υπέρ πάσαν αμαρτίαν ανομωτέρους, τoho were exceeding great sinners: which, though it be not asserted in either of our Gospels, yet seems to be collected from thence, viz. where Matthere is said to be a publican, Matt. ix. 9, 10.; Peter desires Christ to depart from him, because he was a sinful man, Luke v. 8. and where he is related to have denied Christ, Matt. xxvi. 70. &c. Paul styles himself a persecutor and blasphemer, and the chief of sinners, 1 Tim. i. 13, 15. This is well observed by Origen against Celsus to have been the meaning of Barnabas in this placex, though Jeromey, by mistake, ascribes this to Ignatius, and not to Barnabas. IV. A Saying ascribed to Christ in the second Epistle of Cle
mens to the Corinthians, Chap. IV. He is supposed to have been the same Clemens, who is men
tioned by St. Paul as his fellow-labourer, Phil. iv. 3. 1. Δια τούτο ταύτα ημών πρασ
1. For this reason, that we σόντων είπεν ο Κύριος: 'Εαν ήτε might do these things, the Lord μετ' εμού συνηγμένοι εν τω κόλπω hath said, Though ye should be μου, και μη ποιήτε τας εντολάς joined to me even in my bosom, μου, αποβαλώ υμάς, και ερω υμίν and do not observe my command* Orig. contr. Cels. lib. 1. p.49.
y Lib. 3. adv. Pelag. c. l.
Υπάγετε απ' εμού, ουκ οίδα υμάς, ments, I will reject you, and say πόθεν έστε, εργάται ανομίας. to you, Depart from me, I know
not whence ye are, ye workers of
iniquity. V. Another Saying ascribed to Christ and Peter, in the same
Epistle, Chap. V. 2. Λέγει γαρ ο Κύριος: "Έσε- 2. For the Lord saith, Ye shall σθε ως αρνία εν μέσω λύκων. be as lambs in the midst of wolves : 'Αποκριθείς δε ο Πέτρος: Έαν ουν but Peter replying, said, What if διασπαράξωσιν οι λύκοι τα αρνία;
the wolves should tear in pieces Είπεν ο Ιησούς τω Πέτρα: Μη
the lambs? Jesus said unto Peter, φοβείσθωσαν τα αρνία τους λύκους
Let not the lambs fear the wolves μετά το αποθανείν αυτά και υμείς after death, and do not ye fear μη φοβείσθε τους αποκτείνοντας
those who [can] · kill you, and υμάς, και μηδέν υμίν δυναμένους [afterwards] can do you no harm; ποιείν, αλλά φοβείσθε τον μετά το but fear him who has power after
your death to cast both soul and αποθανείν υμάς έχοντα εξουσίαν
body into hell fire. ψυχής και σώματος του βαλεϊν εις γέενναν πυρός. VI. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the same Epistle,
3. Λέγει γαρ Κύριος εν τω
3. For the Lord saith in the Ευαγγελία: Ει το μικρόν ουκ Gospel, Unless ye have kept that ετηρήσατε, το μέγα τις υμίν δώ
which is little, who will give you σει και λέγω γαρ υμίν, ότι ο πιστός that which is great ? For I say έν ελαχίστω, και εν πολλώ πιστός
unto you, that he who is faithful εστιν.
in that which is least, is also faith
ful in that which is much, VII. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the end of the same
Chapter. 4. 'Αρα ούν τούτο λέγει: Τη- 4. This therefore is what [the ρήσατε την σάρκα αγνήν, και την Lord] saith, Keep your fesh σφραγίδα άσπιλον, ίνα την ζωήν chaste, and your seal (i. e. bapαιώνιον απολάβησε.
tism) undefiled, that so ye may
obtain everlasting life. VIII. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the end of that
Epistle. 5. Επερωτηθείς αυτός ο Κύριος 5. The Lord himself being υπό τινος, Πότε ήξει αυτού η βα- asked by a certain person, when
σιλεία, είπεν: "Όταν έσται τα δύο his kingdom should come? reêv, xal to zEw us to čow, xai tò plied, When two shall be one, and άρσεν μετά της θηλείας ούτε άρσεν that which is without as that which ούτε θηλυ. .
is within, and the male with the
female neither male nor female. The consideration of these, or some of these passages,
influenced Mr. Dodwell and Dr. Mill to assert as above, that Clemens and the other apostolical fathers promiscuously and indifferently made use of ours and other apocryphal gospels. “ Clemens,” says Dr. Millz, “ both in his former epistle to the “.Corinthians, and the fragment of his second epistle to them,
(if it be his,) takes some testimonies out of those gospels “ which were in use among the Christians before the publish
ing of our present Gospels, and some, as it seems, out of “ours, but in a mixed, confused manner," &c. But as in this latter assertion he and the learned writer, whom he follows, are most apparently mistaken, each of the apostolical fathers having plainly made use of our Gospels, (as I hope to shew hereafter,) so also in the former, as will appear by a particular criticism on the passages here produced, which must be those which he refers to, there being no other in the epistle that can be supposed to be taken out of apocryphal books. And whereas the doctor asserts, that Clemens in his former Epistle to the Corinthians cites apocryphal gospels, he is most notoriously mistaken; there being not one passage in that whole Epistle that with any reason can be supposed, or I believe ever has been supposed, to have been alleged out of such books.
But as to the passages in the second Epistle here produced, of which I have collected five:
The first, which is in Chap. IV. appears most plainly to be taken out of St. Luke's Gospel, ch. xiii. 25, 26, 27. The latter part of the
is in almost the very same words, and perfectly the same sense, in ver. 27. and the former part is no less evidently a contraction of ver. 25, 26. and a very common way of citing in the writings of the fathers. There is no need therefore to suppose this taken out of any apocryphal gospel ; and I cannot but observe, that Dr. Mill himself, in another part of his work, viz. in his note on this place of Luke, (for
• Prolegom, in Nov. Test. $.139.