Imatges de pÓgina


BATTUECAS, Las; two valleys, enclosed by high mountains, in the Spanish kingdom of Leon, 50 miles from Salamanca, about a Spanish mile long, and so inaccessible that the inhabitants are said to have been unknown to the Spaniards for several centuries. However, à convent of Carmelites was built in the Battuecas valleys as early as 1559. They are situated so low, that, in the longest days, the sun only shines there for four hours. The common account, that these valleys were dis-, covered in the 16th century, by two lovers, who fled there to escape the pursuit of their families, has been declared by father Feyjoo to be unfounded. Madame de Genlis has founded upon this story her romance Las Battuécas (Paris, 1816, 2 vols.); but she labors under a mistake when she asserts that M. de Bourgoing, in his Travels through Spain, has quoted, as a historical fact, what she relates of the Battuecas.


BAUCIS; a Phrygian woman; the wife of Philemon. They received Jupiter and Mercury hospitably, after these gods had been denied hospitality in the whole country, while travelling in disguise. A deluge destroyed the remainder of the people, but Philemon and Baucis, with their cottage, were saved. They begged the gods to make their cottage a temple, in which they could officiate as priest and priestess, and that they might die together; which was granted. Philemon and Baucis are therefore names often used to indicate faithful and attached married people.

BAUMAN ISLANDS; a cluster of islands in the South Pacific ocean, discovered, in 1722, by Bauman, in his voyage round the world with Roggewein. All the inhabitants, says a writer, are white; some of them burned by the sun: they are numerous, and armed with bows and arrows, but represented as of a gentle and humane disposition, and friendly to strangers. The largest island is about 21 or 22 miles in circumference, with good anchorage. Lon. 173° W.; lat. 129 S.

BAUMANN'S CAVERN (in German, Baumannshöhle); an interesting natural cavern in the Harz, in the principality of Blankenburg, on the left bank of the Bode, about five miles from Blankenburg, in a limestone mountain, consisting of six principal apartments, besides many smaller ones, every where covered with stalactites. The earthy ingredients of these petrifactions are held in solution by the water, which penetrates the rock, and deposits a calcarious stone. The name

of this cavern is derived from a miner, who entered it, in 1672, with the view of finding ore, but lost his way, and wandered about for two days before he could find the entrance. He soon after died.

BAUMGARTEN, Alexander Gottlieb, born, in 1714, at Berlin, an acute and clear thinker, of the school of Wolf, studied at Halle, and was, for a time, professor extraordinary there. In 1740, he was made professor of philosophy at Frankfort on the Oder, and died there in 1762. He is the founder of æsthetics as a science, and the inventor of this name. He derived the rules of art from the works of art and their effects. Hereby he distinguished himself advantageously from the theorists of his time. (See Esthetics.) His ideas of this science he first developed in his academical discussion, De Nonnullis ad Poema pertinentibus (Halle, 1735, 4to). George Fr. Meier's Principles of all Liberal Sciences (3 vols., Halle, 1748-50) originated from his suggestions. Eight years later, B. published his Esthetica (Frankfort on the Oder, 1750-58, 2 vols.), a work which death prevented him from completing.

BAUSE, John Frederic, a distinguished German engraver, born at Halle, in 1738, died at Weimar, 1814. He resided chiefly at Leipsic, where he executed many highly esteemed engravings. He was a member of several academies of fine arts.

BAUTZEN, or BUDESSIN; capital of Upper Lusatia, in the part belonging to the king of Saxony, upon a height defended on the west side by steep rocks, the foot of which is watered by the Spree. Among the 11,500 inhabitants, who are principally Lutherans, there are a great number of Wendes, or descendants of the Vandals, who worship in a Lutheran and in a Catholic church, in their own language. The German part of the population, both Catholic and Protestant, worship together in the cathedral: the former are in possession of the third part of it, including the high altar, sufficiently large for the small Catholic congregation; the nave serves the Lutheran community as their parish church, and the mutual spirit of toleration in both parties has, in recent times, prevented trouble from such an arrangement.-Here was fought, on the 20th and 21st of May, 1813, the second great battle in the campaign of the Prussians and Russians against the French. The allies had been compelled, after the battle of Lützen (May 2, 1813), to retreat to the right bank of the Elbe, and prepared themselves, near Bautzen on the Spree, for a new engagement. Although

the army of Napoleon was far superior in number, being strengthened by reenforcements from France, Italy and the troops of the confederation of the Rhine, so as to amount to about 148,000 men, yet the allies determined to risk a battle, that Prussia might gain time for its levies in Silesia, and Napoleon be checked in his advance as much as possible. It was also desirable that the wavering troops of Austria should be convinced that the army was able to make a stand against the enemy, and that the courage of the new Prussian recruits should not be damped by continual retreat, but, on the contrary, their wish for battle gratified. On the morning of May 20, Napoleon disclosed his plan of attack. In the evening, the French had gained the city of Bautzen. On the 21st, the fight continued until 4 o'clock in the afternoon, when the allies resolved on a retreat, which was performed in such order, that Napoleon was not able to gain any immediate advantage from his victory. The field of battle was covered with the dead, and was lighted by 30 burning villages. The French loss was about 8000 men killed, and 18,000 wounded; that of the allies, between 8 and 12,000. Napoleon, to encourage his troops, assigned 25,000,000 francs for the erection of a monument upon mount Cenis, as a token of his gratitude towards the French and Italian troops. The rear of the allies repulsed two serious attacks, and, contrary to the expectations of Napoleon, they marched to the intrenched camp of Pulzen. But Lauriston occupied Breslau, The position of the allies, threatening the right wing of the French army, the great loss which the French had suffered, and the detached corps, which cut off Napoleon's communication with Saxony, induced him to accede to a suspension of arms on the 4th of June, near the city of Jauer. (See War of 1812-1815.)

BAVARIA. At the time of the general migration of the barbarians, the regions formerly inhabited by the Boii, the Celts of the Danube, were taken possession of by some German tribes. This country, in the time of Cæsar, had been a waste, and, in the time of Augustus, a Roman province (Vindelicia and Noricum). At the end of the fifth century, these tribesthe Heruli, the Rugians, the Turcilingians and the Skyres-formed a confederacy, like those of the Franks and the Marcomanni, under the name Baioarians. They spread from Noricum westward to the Lech. Ratisbon was their chief seat. This country was then called Noricum,

and, according to Mannert, was never subjected to the Ostrogoths. When the Franks took possession of Rhotia, the Baioarians became subject to them. The people, however, still retained the liberty of choosing their own rulers. After the division of the empire of Charlemagne, this region was disturbed, like the rest of Europe, by the conflicting claims of rival dukes, till the time of Otho the Great, count palatine of Wittelsbach. Otho, the ancestor of the present dynasty, died in 1183. His successor, Louis I, enlarged the Bavarian territory, and acquired the palatinate of the Rhine. He was murdered in 1231, probably at the instigation of Henry, whose rebellion against his father, the emperor Frederic II, the duke had censured. He was succeeded by his son Otho, the Illustrious, palatine of the Rhine. Under his reign, the bishops made themselves independent. His dominions, however, were considerably increased. His attachment to the emperor involved him in the excommunication pronounced against that prince. He died in 1253. His sons, Louis and Henry, reigned for two years in conjunction. In 1255, they divided the territories, Louis receiving Upper and Henry Lower Bavaria. The line of the latter became extinct a few years afterwards. The inheritance of the unhappy Conradin of Hohenstaufen fell into the hands of these princes. One of the two sons of Louis was raised to the imperial dignity, in 1314, under the title of Louis IV (q. v.), called the Bavarian. He entered into an agreement with the sons of his brother (Pavia, 1329) for the division of the dominions of the family. In consequence of this agreement, king Maximilian Joseph united all the dominions of the Wittelsbach dynasty in 1799. After the extinction of the Lower Bavarian line, the emperor Louis, by the desire of his states, united Lower with Upper Bavaria. The emperor introduced a new code of laws for Upper Bavaria, a new organization of the courts for Lower Bavaria, conferred the privileges of a city on Munich, and reduced to order the internal administration. He died Oct. 11, 1347, leaving six sons by two marriages. His dominions included Bavaria, Brandenburg, the provinces of Holland and Zealand, Tyrol, &c. These provinces were soon lost by the divisions and dissensions of the dif ferent lines. Most of the lines founded by the six brothers early became extinct. In 1506, a diet of the states of Upper and Lower Bavaria was assembled by duke


Albert II, who, with the consent of his brother Wolfgang, and of the estates, published a pragmatic sanction, introducing the law of primogeniture, and fixing the allowance of the younger sons. Albert died in 1508. Of his three sons, William IV, Louis and Ernest, William ought, accordingly, to have been his sole heir. The authority was, however, divided, after much contest, between William IV and Louis, until the death of the latter, in 1534. These princes were both opposed to the reformation. Luther's most violent opponent, John Eck, lived at Ingolstadt, under their protection, which they also extended to the Jesuits. William died in 1550; his son Albert V, the Generous, succeeded him. He also favored the Jesuits, but was a liberal patron of the arts and sciences. The states received from him great privileges. He died in 1579. Of three sons, the eldest, William V, the Pious, succeeded him, and, in 1596, resigned the government to his eldest son, Maximilian I, and retired to a monastery. Maximilian, a prince of distinguished abilities, was the soul of the league formed against the Protestant union. In the course of the 30 years' war, which had just broken out, Maximilian was invested, by the emperor Ferdinand II (1623), with the dignity of elector palatine. The peace of Westphalia confirmed Maximilian in the electoral dignity and the possession of the upper palatinate, in return for the renunciation of Upper Austria, which had been pledged to him for 13,000,000 florins, expenses of war; and, on the other hand, a new electorate, the eighth, was established for the palatinate line, and its succession to the title and territory of the original electorate was settled, in case of the failure of the line of William. Maximilian died Sept. 27, 1651, after a reign of 55 years. He was succeeded by his son Ferdinand Maria, who was succeeded, in 1679, by his eldest son, Maximilian Emanuel. In the war of the Spanish succession, the elector declared for France. After the unfortunate battle at Blenheim, Bavaria was treated by the emperor as a conquered. country. The elector was put under the ban of the empire in 1706, and was not reinstated in his government till the peace of Baden (1714). After his death, in 1726, Charles Albert succeeded him in the electoral dignity. Although he had signed the pragmatic sanction of the emperor Charles VI, yet, after the death of the emperor, and the beginning of the first Silesian war, so

fortunate for the king of Prussia, he claimed the whole Austrian territory, subjected all Upper Austria, assumed the title of archduke of Austria, after the capture of Prague in the same year received homage as king of Bohemia, and was elected emperor of Germany, at Frankfort, 1742, under the title of Charles VII. But here his fortune began to decline. As he had received the homage of Austria and Bohemia, so, after the sudden change in the fortune of the war (1743), Maria Theresa obliged the states of Bayaria, and of the upper palatinate, to swear allegiance to her. Notwithstanding his alliance with the landgrave of HesseCassel and Frederic II (1744), and the progress of the Prussian arms, Charles was compelled, by the superior talent of the Austrian general, Charles of Lorraine, to expose Bavaria. He did not live to see the end of the war, but died Jan. 20, 1745. His son and successor, Maximilian Joseph III, who also assumed, at first, the title of archduke of Austria, made peace with Austria soon after, at Fussen (April 22, 1745), became one of the guarantees of the pragmatic sanction, promised the archduke Francis his vote in the election of emperor, and received, in return, all the Bavarian territories which had been conquered by Austria. Maximilian Joseph devoted himself entirely to the good of his country. He encouraged agriculture, manufactures, mining; regulated the judicial establishments, the police, the finances, and institutions for instruction; the sciences were promoted by the foundation of the academy of sciences at Munich, in 1759, and the fine arts found in him a liberal protector. He, himself without children, confirmed all the contracts relating to the inheritance, which had been made with the electoral line of the palatinate since the treaty of Pavia (1329). In compliance with the treaties of the house of Wittelsbach, as well as with the terms of the peace of Westphalia, the right of succession in Bavaria reverted, undeniably, to the elector of the palatinate, since the Wittelsbach-Bavarian line became extinct on the death of Maximilian Joseph, 30th of Dec., 1777. Austria then laid claim to Lower Bavaria, and attempted to support her demands by arms, without any previous declaration of war. Charles Theodore, being without children, was persuaded to sign a treaty (Jan. 3 and 14, 1778), formally renouncing the Bavarian succession. But the duke of Deux-Ponts, uncle of the reigning king, the nearest


Whilst it


agnate and presumptive heir, encouraged essentially affected Bavaria. by Frederic II, refused to acknowledge lost all its possessions on the left bank of that renunciation. This was the origin the Rhine, and also the lands of the paof the war of the Bavarian succession, latinate on the right bank, it obtained, on which was terminated, without bloodshed the other hand, by an imperial edict, an (owing chiefly to the Russian declaration indemnification, by which it gained, in of war against Austria), by the peace of addition to the amount lost, a surplus of Teschen, May 13, 1779. The possession 2109 square miles, and 216,000 inhabitants. of Bavaria, from which Austria obtained The political importance of Bavaria, with only the Innviertel, with Braunau (800 respect to Austria as well as to France, was square miles), was secured to the elector more fully displayed in the war of 1805. palatine of Bavaria, according to the fam- When Austria resumed hostilities against ily compacts. By this union of the Ba- France, she required the elector of Bavavarian dominions, the eighth electorate ria to unite his troops with the Austrian became extinct, according to the terms army, and refused to allow him to remain of the peace of Westphalia. In 1784, neutral, "which (as the emperor Franhowever, the possession of Bavaria again cis wrote to the elector, Sept. 3, 1804) became an object of desire at Vienna, France herself would only suffer as long as she should find it expedient." Bavaand an exchange was proposed, which had been already a subject of negotiation ria, however, did not find it accordant in the beginning of the century. The with its own interests to place itself enemperor Joseph II proposed to the elec- tirely in the power of Austria. At the tor to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian beginning of the war, the elector joined Netherlands (excluding Luxemburg and the French with about 30,000 troops, Namur), and the sum of 3,000,000 flor- the peace of Presburg annexed to his ins for himself and the duke of Deux- dominions 10,595 square miles, and Ponts, with the title of king of Burgundy. 1,000,000 inhabitants, and conferred on This project, though favored by Russia, him the dignity of king; in return for was disappointed by the firmness of the which, he ceded Würzburg, which was duke of Deux-Ponts, who, encouraged erected into an electorate, in the place of by the protection of Prussia, declared Salzburg. The king of Bavaria, like the "that he would never consent to barter rulers of Würtemberg and Baden, now away the inheritance of his ancestors." assumed sovereignty over the lands of The zeal with which Frederic II adopted the nobility of the empire within his borthe cause of Bavaria, induced the cabinet ders. The political connexion recently of Vienna to relinquish the plan, and to formed with France was confirmed by declare, at the saine time, "that there the marriage of the princess Augusta, never had been and never would be any daughter of the king, with Eugene Naintention of a forced exchange." (See poleon, viceroy of Italy, son-in-law of the League of the Princes.) The reign of French emperor. An immediate conseCharles Theodore was remarkable for quence of this alliance was the exchange the rise of the Illuminati (q. v.) in Bava- of Berg, which Bavaria surrendered to ria, for the processes against them, and Napoleon, for Anspach, which Prussia the revival of Jesuitism. During these had given up to France in exchange for troubles, the liberty of the press was con- Hanover, and finally, what was most imtinually more and more restrained, and a portant, the signing of the confederation period of intellectual darkness appeared of the Rhine (July 12, 1806), in which to be about to commence. In the war Bavaria promised to bring into the field of the French revolution, the elector sent 30,000 troops, and to fortify Augsburg his contingent to the army of the empire. and Lindau. Thereupon, the king of The palatinate suffered much, and, in Bavaria was obliged to take part in the 1796, Bavaria itself became the theatre war against Prussia, in 1806, and in the of war. At this crisis (Feb. 16, 1799), war against Austria, in 1809, one of the Charles Theodore died without issue, and consequences of which was the revolution the Sulzbach branch of the line of the of Tyrol. After its termination, Bavaria palatinate became extinct with him. The received important additions, partly at the duke Maximilian Joseph of Deux-Ponts expense of Austria, partly by treaties of came into possession of all the Bavarian exchange with Würtemberg and Würzterritories. The peace of Luneville (Feb. burg.-When, in 1812, the war between 9, 1801) put an end to the renewed war, France and Russia broke out, Bavaria and its most important article-the cession sent anew its whole proportion of troops of the left bank of the Rhine to France to the French army. Insignificant re


mains only of the 30,000 Bavarians returned in the spring of 1813. Maximilian Joseph, notwithstanding this sacrifice, placed fresh troops under the command of Napoleon as the protector of the confederation of the Rhine, when the new campaign was opened, near the close of April. This army also suffered great losses, but distinguished itself with its wonted bravery, under the command of marshal Oudinot. It suffered particularly in the battles of Luckau and Grossbeeren (1813). At this time, the whole political system of Bavaria was suddenly changed. Whilst the French army of observation was formed at Würzburg, under Augereau, a Bavarian corps of observation was placed on the Inn, over against a division of the Austrian army. For a long time, both corps remained inactive. The departure of the corps of Augereau, by which Bavaria was exposed in its most vulnerable point, accelerated the resolution of its king. The Bavarian general Wrede concluded an armistice with the Austrian general Frimont, October 8, at Ried, which was followed by a proclamation, October 15, by which the king of Bavaria abandoned the confederation of the Rhine, and turned his forces against France. In this convention, his present territories, with full sovereignty, were assured to the king, and a sufficient indemnification for those lands which should be made over to Austria. At the same time, Wrede, as commander-inchief, united the Austrian corps with his own, and turned the Bavarian arms against the French, in the battle of Hanau. In 1815, at the breaking out of the new war, the present king, then crownprince, took the command of the national army. Meanwhile, the congress of Vienna, and, more particularly, the preparation of the statutes of the German diet (as well as the different interests originating from the new European, and especially the new German system of states), had given sufficient opportunity to the Bavarian government for the developement of its system of diplomacy. Bavaria has jealously maintained its station as an independent sovereign state. Since 1825, Bavaria has been under the government of Louis I, the most liberal of the German princes. He has hitherto acted with much energy.-Bavaria was erected into a kingdom in 1805, and is now one of the most considerable of the secondary states of Europe. It is composed of the greater part of the circles of Bavaria and Franconia, part of Suabia, and, on the

west side of the Rhine, embraces the greater part of that portion of the circle of Upper Rhine included in the late French department of Mont Tonnerre. Exclusive of the part west of the Rhine, it is bounded N. by Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, and the Saxon principalities of Meiningen, Hildburghausen, Coburg and Reuss, and the kingdom of Saxony; E. and S. by Austria, and W. by Wűrtemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt.— The kingdom of Bavaria is divided into the 8 following circles:-Iser, Upper Maine, Lower Maine, Rezat, Regen, Upper Danube, Lower Danube, Rhine. The last is on the west side of the river Rhine.This kingdom contains 32,000 square miles and 3,800,000 inhabitants. Its army is 53,900 strong, of whom 35,800 form the seventh corps d'armée of the German confederacy. Its public debt amounted, in Sept., 1824, to 103,157,859 florins; the income was, at the same time, 29,132,260 florins. The present king, Louis, endeavors, with much zeal, to introduce economy into the expenses of the government: he has diminished the standing army, and discharged many officers from the civil government.-The various inhabitants of this country differ very much in their character, the Bavarian, from the highlands near Tyrol, and the Franconian, in the north part of the kingdom, being as unlike as any two Germans probably can be; and the different parts of this young kingdom have been so recently united, that it is not possible to speak of any character as common to its inhabitants. The native of Upper Bavaria is hardy, laborious, short in stature. Many portions of the population are distinguished by mechanical talent. The excellence of Frauenhofer's telescopes and Bader's rail-road is generally known. Munich and Nuremberg have, in recent times, produced more philosophical instruments than any other two cities of Germany. (See Munich.) The manufactures of Bavaria include linen, woollen and cotton cloths, iron, fire-arms, and other articles, designed chiefly for the supply of domestic wants. Glass, paper, clocks and hard ware are also made in several of the principal towns. The common language of Bavaria, of course, is German; but the dialects vary much, from the strong Franconian spoken in Würzburg to the broad Swiss dialect in Lindau. At the head of each of the circles, into which the kingdom is divided, stands a general commissioner (General Kreiscommissair), with great power, chiefly of an executive character. All

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