Imatges de pÓgina
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thief

thiev' ing
thiev ish
thiev ish ness

thiev ish ly
thiev er y

236.

staid

slain

said

saith

dai' ly

EXERCISE 237.

sur vey' sur vey ing survey al

sur vey or cau'sey cau sey

ed

safe

save

sav' ed

sav ing
sav ing ly

sav er

cul' ly

cul ly ism

spy
spy işm
dis play'
dis play ed

RULE

XIV.

Words ending in for fe commonly change the ƒ into v upon receiving a suffix beginning with a vowel.

from

stay.

slay.

say.

day.

be lief'

be lieve

be liev ed

be liev ing

be liev er
be liey a ble

deaf

deaf' en

ōaf

oaf ish

leaf

leaf y chief chief est

SINGULAR.

com' ma cob web pan ic

aç id

lap dog bail iff

fu see'

stom' ach muf ti

der rick

ras cal

a

lärm'

Ger' man

ty ro
bam boo'

EXCEPTIONS TO RULE XIV.

EXERCISE

brief

brief' er

wolf

wolf ish

ĕlf

elf ish

self
selfish

RULE

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gulf

gulf' y

tûrf

turf y

turf ed

stomachs

muf tiş

der ricks

238.

turf ing

shelf

shelf y

ras cals

a lärms'

Ger' mans

ty ros
bam boos'

SPELLING

Nouns ending in a sound that will unite with that of s, form the plural by adding s only; in other cases, the plural is regularly formed by adding es.

EXERCISE

OF

X V.

PLURALS.

239.

EXERCISE 240.

SINGULAR.

laçe

ĕdge

niche

wish

leng

glass

chaise

dwarf
dwarf ish

côrpse

nûrse

blaze

box

buzz

dwarf ish ness

dwarf ed

dwarf ing

cir cus

gul' lows

sum mons

safe

saf er

saf est

PLURAL IN ES

lāç' eş

ědġ es

nich es

wish es

lens es

glåss es

chais es

côrps' es
nûrs es

blaz es

box es

buzz es

cir cus es

găl lōws es

sum mons es

SINGULAR.

EXCEPTIONS TO RULE XV.

EXERCISE

241.

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

nocs
he' roes

bra' vo
mot to
grot to

ne groes ěch oes

bil bo

bū bo

110

car goes
po ta' toes
vol ca noes

căl i co
por ti co

tor na' do

em bär goes
buf' få loes

tor pe do
vi ra go

mu lǎt' toes

man i fes' toes in nu ĕn'do
mag nif'i coes pec ca dil lo

EXERCISE 242.

nō he' ro

ne gro echo car go po ta' to

vol ca no

em bär go

buf' få lo

mu lăt' to man i fes' to mag nif' i co

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wharfs
wharves

staffs

ĕlf

shelf

EXERCISE 243.

hob' by bod y

boo by

self

wolf

life

wife

knife

stāves

răb' bis

rab bies

ǎl' ka lis

al ka lies

PLURAL

mer cy

tro phy

wor thy
bul ly

al‍ly'

bra' voes

mot toes

grot toes
bil boes

bū boes
căl i coes

por ti coes tor na' does tor pe does vi ra goes in nu ĕn' does pec ca dil loes*

člveş
shelves

selves

wolves

līves

wives

knives

hub' biest

bod ies
boo bies

wharf

staff

răb' bi

ǎl' ka lí

*The exceptious ending in o, it will be observed, are words in which the o is preceded by a consonant. Few in which that is the case, follow the rule; but, among them are some in very general use, as halo, halos; quarto, quartos; salvo, salvos; junto, juntos; canto, cantos; octavo, octavos; memento, mementos.

mer çies
trō phies

wor fhies

bul lies
al lies'

For the change of ƒ into v in these examples, see Rule XIV.

For the change of y into i in forming these plurals, see Rule XII.

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focus es

fo ci

ser aphs
ser a phim

in' dex es

SINGULAR.

brofl'er

in di cēs
ban dits
ban dit ti

mē' di ums
me di a

pea

pen'ny

mouse

dôr' mouse

wom an

fōe man

ge ni us es ge ni i

EXERCISE

245.

ar ca' num

er ra tum

el lip sis

syn op sis

a lum nus
něb'u la

stim u lus

ter mi nus

ver te bra

રી

năl'
y sis

246.

PLURAL.

broth' ers

breth ren

peas

pease

pen' nies

pençe
mīçe

dôr' mice

wom en

fōe men

ar ca' na

cr ra ta

el lip sēs
syn op ses
a lum ni
něb'u læ

stim u lī
ter mi nī

ver te bræ

a nal' y ses

fo' cus

rā' di us

ser aph

nu cle us

in dex

en co' mi um

ban dit

gym na si um

me' di um

au tom a ton

ge ni us

ple nom e non

* Exercises 245 and 246 consist entirely of words from foreign languages, which, in English, retain the foreign forms of the plural. Some of them, however, have, also, the regular English form.

{ra' di us es
ra di ī

nu cle us es

nu cle ī

en co' mi ums
en co mi a
gym na si ums
gym na si a
au tom a tons
au tom a ta

phe nom e nons
phe nom e na

RULE XVI.

Compound words usually retain the spelling proper to the simple words composing them.

blue' bell*

book store

book worm breast pin breast plate

stär' light moon light day light

block head round head

coach' man běd stead mer maid

slip shod

tûrn pike

EXERCISE 247.

red' top
red wing

red bird
black bird

blue bird

man.

bride' groom
night mare
night shade

play thing
play wright

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night'-fall

red'-hot

bear's'-foot blue-fish

book-case

oil-man cat-bird play-book snow-bird pump-stock rice-bird bride's-maid pûrse-proud pine-tree

bride-cake

high' way

gang way päth way birth day dooms day

whet' stone

mill stone

load stone brow beat chûrch man

noon' tide

grand sire wâre house čar aehe tooth ache

door'-way

pay-day

row-boat

steam-boat

gas-light

*The two parts of a permanent compound are usually written together as one word; as breastpin; in other cases they are connected by a hyphen, as in door-way, book-case. When the first part of the compound is a noun in the Possessive Case, the sign (') of possession is mostly omitted, thus, bondsman, not bond'sman. Sometimes, also, the s is dropped, as in bondFor the accentuation of compounds, see p. 80.

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