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CATHARINE PAWLOWNA-CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION.

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chiefly imitated the institutions of Eng. 4th to the 13th Century ; drawn and land. For the fine arts she had but little published by J. G. Gutensohn and J. M. taste. She died Jan. 9, 1819, leaving two Knapp (architects); accompanied by an daughters.

Archæol. Histor. Description, by Anth. CAT-HARPINGS ; small ropes in a ship, Nibby, professor of Archæology in the running in little blocks, from one side of University at Rome ; ? numbers, each the shrouds to the other, near the deck. containing 7 plates. There is now in the Their use is to force the main shrouds course of publication at Milan, a splendid tight, for the ease and safety of the masts work, entitled Chiese principali d'Europa, when the ship rolls.

which will extend to 36 numbers; each CATHEDRAL; the Episcopal church of of them being devoted to one particular a diocese. The word is derived from the edifice. From the numbers already pubGreek kabédpa, a seat or bench. From the lished, we extract the subsequent measearly times of the Christian church, the urements of celebrated buildings. bishop presided in the presbytery, or the

St. Peter's, at Rome. assembly of priests. He was seated on a

English feet. chair, a little higher than that of the Width of the cathedral, others. The whole meeting of priests External diameter of the cupola, 158 was called cathedra ; and, at a later pe- Total height, .

448 riod, when Christians were allowed to

Cathedral at Milan. build churches, this name was applied to the Episcopal churches, and the name Width of the front,

216 basilică to the particular churches erected Width of the cross, in honor of a saint or a martyr. In the Total height, .

350 middle ages, the cathedral received the form of the cross. Several of the old

Pantheon at Rome. churches are masterpieces of Gothic ar

103 chitecture. Among these are the cathe

Length of the portico,
Width of do.,

61 dral at Oviedo, that at Milan (see Storia e

132 Descrizione del Duomo di Milano (com

Interior diameter, menced in 1387, and not yet finished), by

Height from the pavement to the Gaet. Franchetti, with engravings, Milan,

summit of the cupola,

132 1821, 4to.] ; those at Toledo and Burgos ;

St. Stephen's, at Vienna. those at Rouen, Rheims, Amiens, and the church of Notre-Dame, in Paris (see Ca

Width of the façade,

148 thédrales Françaises, dessinées, lithogr. et Great tower, from the ground to publ. par Chapuy, avec un Atlas historique the top of the cross,

450 et descriptif, par Jolimont, 36 numbers, Greatest breadth between the two Paris, 1823 et seq. It contains views of

chief towers, .

235 25 cathedrals). Those at Lund, Dron

Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence. theim, Upsal, at York, Salisbury and Canterbury, also Westminster abbey, are

Whole length,

517 celebrated (see J. Britton's Hist. and An

Total height,

. 386 tiquities of the Metropolitan Church of

CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION. EmanciCanterbury, London, 1823, with engrav- pation, with the Romans, signified the ings; and Cathedratical Antiquities, by the release of a son from the power of his same author). The cathedrals at Oppen- father, or of a slave from that of his masheim, Ulm, Marburg, Meissen, Freiburg ter. It was performed before the pretor, 'q.v.) in the Brisgau, are fine buildings (see attended by certain solemnities. By the doctor Moller's Denkmale der Deutschen emancipation of the Catholics is underBaukunst, Darmstadt, 1825; and F. W stood the abolition of those civil and Schwechten's Der Dom zu Meissen, bildl. ecclesiastical restraints, to which the dargest. u. beschr., Berlin, 1826, 3 nos.). Catholics of Great Britain, and particuRespecting the cathedral of Cologne, see larly of Ireland, were once subjected. Boisserée. (For further information, see Ireland, from the tim of its subjugation, Wiebeking's work Die Kathedralen von

was maltreated by its conquerors; and Rheims und York, nebst den Grundrissen repeated attempts, on the part of the navon 42 andern merkwürdigen Kirchen, tives, to free themselves from foreign Münich, 1825, fol., with engravings.) In doinination, only increased the severity Rome there has appeared, since 1822,

* The measurements of this edifice are given in the Collection of the oldest Christian feet; but they are neither Roman nor the Parisian, Churches, or Basilicas, of Rome, from the nor any other feet we are acquainted with.

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VOL. II.

a

of their rulers. (See Orangemen.) The sistent, jealousy and distrust would conCatholic inhabitants of the country were inue. The Anglo-Irish, also, who had excluded from public offices, and from all previously desired the independence of participation in the choice of members of Ireland, and, at first, supported the reparliament. None but the Anglo-Irish, bellion, perceived that the superior numbelonging to the Episcopal church, which bers of the Catholics, and their bitter had now become the established church enmity to the Protestants, would make in Ireland-men who possessed the great- the separation of Ireland from England a est part of the landed property, that had great misfortune for them. It was rebeen torn from the original inhabitants solved, then, to unite Ireland with Engwere eligible to public offices, or to a seat land ; and, three years after the last rein parliament. In this oppressed condi- bellion, the union was effected, and the tion the Irish Catholics remained till united parliament was opened Jan. 22, 1793. But when the principles dissemi- 1801. In regard to ecclesiastical affairs, nated at the time of the French revolu- nothing further was provided in the act tion produced a general' fermentation, of union, than that the Episcopal church which extended to the Irish Catholics, a in Ireland should remain tbe established lively desire was awakened in them to church, and should constitute, with the obtain equal rights with their Protestant English, one church. Respecting the fellow-citizens. They were supported in condition of the Catholics nothing was England itself by a very respectable party. done, and Pitt observed that it would be Burke repeatedly spoke in parliament in well to reserve this business for future favor of their emancipation. In 1792, deliberation. The united parliament had they presented a petition, praying for the been in session, but a few days, when reabolition of all the restrictions to which ports were spread, which cast a dark they had hitherto been subjected. Upon shade over the union, and gave occasion this, a recommendation was addressed for much anxiety. The Catholics in Irefrom the throne to the Irish parliament, land, it was said, complained of the nonto contrive means for the melioration of fulfilment of expectations which had been the condition of the Catholics. Accord- held out to them, to make them favorable ingly, the Irish act, so called, was passed to the union. Full emancipation bad in 1793, which conferred the elective been promised them, as a certain consefranchise on the Catholics, threw open to quence of it. Pitt, the author of the them all employments in the army in union, had pledged himself, with his colIreland, and all offices in the navy. Three leagues, to promote the fulfilment of this offices in the army only were excepted— wish of the Catholics. After the union those of the commander-in-chief, master- was completed, invincible obstructions general of the ordnance, and generals on were found in the way of the accomplishthe staff. They continued to be excluded, ment of their promise. Pitt and his colhowever, from 30. public offices, and from leagues had encouraged these hopes with parliament-an arrangement which could the expectation of being able to fulfil not be changed without a repeal of the them. For this reason, they endeavored, corporation and test acts. (q. v.). A part after the union was completed, to obtain

the Irish Catholics were satisfied with an act of parliament, by which admission the concessions. Another party, however, to parliament and to offices of state, from encouraged by a few noblemen, who had which the Catholics were still excluded, entered into connexion with France, should be made possible for a certain cherished the hope that Ireland would number of them, by dispensing with the succeed, with the help of France, in free- test-oath. But the king set himself against ing itself from the British power. An this measure, as being inconsistent with insurrection speedily broke out, which his coronation-oath. Pitt and his colwas quelled by the severity of the gov. leagues, therefore, in 1801, resigned their ernor, lord Camden. It blazed forth places. Pitt foresaw that, if both houses again, however, in 1798, and Ireland be- agreed to this measure, the king would came the theatre of a new civil war. By still withhold his permission; and thus the this rebellion, judicious men, both in discontent of the Catholics would be diEngland and Ireland, were convinced rected against the person of the king that, as long as the two kingdoms had himself. This, like a wise statesman, he separate legislatures, and that of the wished by all means to avert; and, on weaker was dependent on that of the this ground, in 1805, he spoke against stronger, and the inhabitants of the two the emancipation, when the opposition kingdoms thought their interests incon-' proposed anew to grant the Catholic a CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION-CATHOLIC MAJESTY.

591

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seat and a voice in parliament, and ad- Hippesley and doctor Duigenan, drew forth missibility to all offices of state. During majorities against the Catholics of 40, 48 late years, the petition for complete and 42, and, on the 24th of May, the bill emancipation has been several times re- was given up. In 1821, Mr. Plunkett carnewed in vain. In 1822, on the motion ried the bill through the house of comof Mr. Canning, a bill was passed, in the mons by a majority of 19; but it was lost house of commons, by a majority of 21 in the lords by a majority of 39. In 1822, voices, enabling Roman Catholic peers to Mr. Canning carried it in the commons, sit in parliament; but, in the house of by a majority of 21; but it was thrown lords, the bill was rejected. The same out, in the lords, by a majority of 42. Iu happened in 1825, when the duke of 1825, sir Francis Burdett carried it, in the York, who died in 1827, solemnly op- commons, by a majority of 27 ; but it was posed it. In 1827, under Canning's ad- 'again thrown out, in the lords, by a maministration, the motion for emancipation jority of 48. In 1827, sir Francis Burwas lost, in the house of commons, by dett's motion for a committee was lost, in a majority of 3. The measure has, at the commons, by a majority of 3. In last, been effected, under the administra- 1828, the motion for a conference with tion of the duke of Wellington. The the lords was carried, in the cominons, by disturbances in Ireland were assuming a majority of 6; but thrown out, in the continually a more organized character, lords, by a majority of 45. And, in 1829 under the influence of the Catholic asso- (April 1o), a relief bill, abolishing the civil ciation, which was spread through the disabilities on Roman Catholics, by recountry, and directed by men of great pealing the oaths of supremacy, &c., abilities such as O'Connell and Shiels was carried through the commons by so that his grace was, at last, driven to Mr. Peel, with a majority of 180 on the support the cause of emancipation. He second reading, and 178 on the third ; said that he had to choose between con- and through the lords, by the duke of cession to the Catholics and civil war. Wellington, with a majority of 105 on Mr. Peel, who had formerly spoken warm- the second reading, and 104 on the ly against emancipation, now moved it in third. By this bill, Catholics are eligible the louise of commons. One of the chief to all offices of state, excepting the lordopposers of the measure was lord Eldon, chancellorships of England and Ireland, the former lord chancellor; one of the the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland, the office royal family—the duke of Cumberland- of regent or guardian of the United King. also took part with the opponents.—The dom, and that of high commissioner to emancipation of the Catholics is so inter- the church of Scotland. They are still esting an event, that the following abstract excluded from the right of presentation 10 of the fate of various motions respecting livings, and all places connected with the it may not be unacceptable to our readers. ecclesiastical courts and establishment. In the year 1805, a majority of 129 in the The church patronage attached to any house of lords, and of 212 in the house office in the hands of a Catholic is to be of coinmons, refused to act on the peti- vested in the archbishop of Canterbury. tion of the Catholics, moved severally by Attached to the bill is a clause for the lord Grenville and Mr. Fox. In 1807, gradual suppression of the Jesuits and lord Grenville withdrew his motion in monastic orders (religious establishments favor of emancipation, it being under- of females excepted). At the same time, stood that his majesty was averse to it. the duke carried a disfranchisement bill, In 1808, Mr. Grattan's motion was reject- by which the 40 shilling freeholders of ed, in the house of commons, by a major- Ireland were disfranchised, and the inity of 153, and lord Donoughmore's, in come of real estate necessary to entitle to the house of lords, by a majority of 87. a vote in elections in that country raised In 1810, a motion to the same effect, by to £10 sterling. There has lately been the same members, was again lost, by a published a History of the late Catholic majority of 112 in the commons, and 86 Association of Ireland, from its Instituin the Jords. In 1812, there was a ma- tion, in 1760, to its final Dissolution in jority of 72 in the lords, and 85 in the 1829; by Thomas Wyse, junior, Esq., one commons, against the movers. Mr. Can- of the mombers of that body ; 2 vols. 8vo., ning's motion was lost, in the same year, London, 1829, Colburn. by a majority of 129 in the commons, CATHOLIC MAJESTY ; a title which pope and that of the marquis of Wellesley, by Alexander VI gave to the kings of Spain, a majority of 113 in the lords. In 1813, in memory of the perfect expulsion of the the motions of Mr. Grattan, sir Jolin Cox Moors out of Spain, in 1491, by Ferdi

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nand of Arragon. But even before that Toledo, in 589, several Spanish kings had time, and especially after the council at borne this title.

CONTENTS.

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Page., Bed (in gunnery)

27 Bell (see Lancaster). 41
Battle-Axe.

3 of Justice (see Lit de Jus- Bella (Stefano della)
-Piece.
tice) :
Bellamy (James). .

42
Battoges, Battacks
“ Beddoes (Thomas).

28 Bellarmin (Robert)
Battuecas (Las)
4 Bede.

27 Belle Alliance (see Waterloo)"
Baucis
“ Bedford (duke of)
28 Bellegarde (count),

43
Bauman Islands

(in Eng.):

29

(Gabriel du Pac de)
Baumann's Cavern .

in Penn.)

" Belle-Isle (in bay of Biscay). : 42
Baumgarten (Alex. Gottlieb).

Level.

(in N. A.).

43
Bause (John Frederic)

(New).

« Belleisle (count de) :
Bautzen.
« Bedouins.

“ Bellenden (William)
Bavaria
5 Bee.

30 Belles-Lettres.
(constitution of). .... 9 Beech.

31 Bellevue.

44
Bavius (Marcus) ana Mævius 10 Beef-Eaters.

32 Bellini (James):
Bawdy-House

Beejapoor ...

« Bellisle (see Belle-Isle),
Baxter (Andrew)

(see Bija-pur) “ Bellmann (Charles Michael).
(Richard)
“ Beek (David).
“ Bell-Metal (see Copper).

41
Bayadeer.
11 Beelzebub.

6 Bellona...
Bayamo.
" Beer
" Bellows.

45
Bayard (chevalier de)

(Michael)

33 Belloy (P. Laurent Buirette de)"
(James A.).
13 Beering (Vitus):
“ Bell-Rock.

41
Bayle (Pierre),

14
's Island

« Beloochistan (see Belujistan). 46
Baylen (capitulation at)

15
's Straits

“Belt (Great and Little).
Bayley (Richard)
16 Beet..

Belujistan.
Bayonet.

" Beethoven (Louis von). 34 Belvedere.
Bayonne.
17 Beetle.

35 Belzoni (Giambattista).
Bazar
« Befana ,
« Bembo (Pietro)..

47
Beacon (see Signals, and Light- Beg

48
house).
"Beggary (see Pauperism)

"Benares
Beagle
“ Beglerbeg:
"Benavides.

49
Bear

“ Beguards (see Beguines) 36 Benbow (John)
Beard.
18 Beguines

6 Bencoolen. .
Bearn
19 Behaim (Martin) -
“ Benda (George).

50
Beatification.
* Beheading

" Bender.
Beaton (archbishop).
20 Behn (Aphara)

« Benedict XIV.
Beattie (James)
· Behring (see Beering) 37

(St.).

51
Beaucaire..
21 Beira.

u Benedictbeurn.
Beaufort (in S. C.)

« Beiram (see Bairam). « Benedictines.
(Henry)
• Bekker Elizabeth)
« Benediction. .

52
Beauharnais (viscount).

(Immanuel)

“ Benefit of Clergy.
(marquis de).
« Bel (see Baal).
38 Benevento.

53
Beaumarchais (P. A. Caron de) 22 Belem. .

“ Benezet (Anthony)
Beauront and Fletcher .. 1 Belfast (in Ireland)

54
(mad. Leprince de). 23 (in Maine)

Bengel (John Albanus). 56
Beauty (see Philosophy). “ Belgians

“ Benger (Elizabeth Ogilvy).
Beaver.
“ Belgium

“ Benguela
Beccaria (Cesare Bonesana) . 24 Belgrade

« Benin (kingdom).
Giovanni Battista) . 25 Belgrano (Manuel)

39

(town)
Becher (John Joachim).
"Belial..

“ Benjowsky (count of)
Beck (Christian Daniel). « Belisarius

" Ben-Lawers.
Becket (Thomas).
• Belknap (Jeremy)

40 -Lodi ..
Beckmann (John)
27 Bell

Lomond.

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u Ben

66

“ Bengal

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