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Babylon. He is acknowledged by the Portuguezes to have reformed divers Abufes in that Church, and to have put things in a much better order than he found them in. Mar Jofeph being brought Prisoner from Cochim to Goa, was Embarked upon the firft Ships that went to Portugal, with an intent of fending him to Rome ; but being arrived at Lisbon, he, by his Address and appearances of an extraordinary Sanctity, did fo far infinuate himself into the favour and good opinion of Dona Caterina, who was Queen Regent at that time, and of the Infanta Dona Maria, that he was fent back by the next Ships to Goa, with the Queen Regents Letters, ordering him to be permitted to live quietly in his Bishoprick, he having promised the Cardinal Infante Don Anrique, who was at that time Inquifitor-General, and the Pope's Legate à latere to the Crown of Portugal, to do all that was in his power towards the reducing of his Diocefs to the Roman obedience.

In the Year 1552, one Tum Siud, or Simon Salacan, a Monk of the Order of St. Pachomius, who pretended to have been chofe Patriarch of Moful, or Seleucia Parthorum, or Babylon, for they are all the fame by the whole Clergy of Perfia and Affyria, came to Rome and fubmitted himself to the Pope; by whom, according to fome, he was confecrated a Bishop, tho' others will have it, that he had only his Eastern Confecration confirmed, and afterwards received the Patriarchal Pallium. He prefented Letters and a

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Confeffion of Faith to the Pope, which he pretended were fent by all the Eastern Bishops: In the Letters the Pope's Supremacy was exalted as high, as if they had been writ by a Parasite Canonift; which Letters, together with the Confeffion of Faith, were done into Latin and Printed by Mafius: He gave out also, that he was attended by Seventy Perfons of note as far as Jerufalem, and from thence only by Three, whereof one died by the way, and another remained fick in the Journey; and the third, whofe name was Calafi, came with him to Rome. Tum Siud, after he was difmiffed at Rome, instead of returning to Babylon, went and lived in an obfcure place called Charamet or Amed, where in a fhort time he was put to death by the Mahometans; and, as it is faid, at the instigation of the Chriftians of thofe Parts, who, to the great difcredit of the pretenfions he had made at Rome, would never own him nor his Authority. But this ill Success did not hinder another Monk of the fame Order, whofe name was Abd Jefu or Hebed, who had writ feveral Books in defence of Neftorianifm, from coming to Rome with the fame pretenfions, in the Year 1562; and he could never have come in a better time, by reafon of the Council of Trent being then fitting, to which he was fent with great Solemnity to represent nothing less than all the Chaldean Bishops, having before at Rome in their Name, made the fubmiffion of that whole Church to the Pope: This method of making a noife with Mock-Prelates,

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had been made great ufe of by fome former Popes. So Eugenius the IV. maintained his tottering reputation against the Council of Bafil, by an appearance of Gracians and Armenians in the Council of Florence: And Paul the III. graced his Translation of the Council from Trent to Bolongia, which was foftoutly opposed by the Emperor and Spanish Bishops, by fending one Stephen to Bolognia with the fplendid Title of the Armenian Patriarch.

This Humor was carried on by one Elias, who likewife pretended to be chofe Patriarch of Babylon; he fent feveral Nuncio's to the Pope with the Submiffion of the Babylonish Church, and a Confeffion of Faith; but thefe Nuncio's spoiled their business by over-acting their Parts; for it having been discovered, that the better to fupport their Pretence of the Chaldean Church agreeing with the Church of Rome in all things, they had tore feveral Pages out of their ChurchOffices, they were difmiffed with disgrace.

However this did not discourage Elias (as indeed what will a hungry Monk?) from fending one Adam Camara, his pretended Arch-Deacon, to Rome, three Years after that misfortune; who, together with his Patriarch's Letter, delivered to the Pope a Book of his own compofing, concerning the Reconciliation of the Chaldean Church to the Roman, which he defired might be diligently examined. In his Letter he told Paul V. That let Hereticks do what they will, he for his part was refolved never to go against the Holy Precepts of the

the Apostles and Orthodox Fathers, who had all affirmed the See of great Rome to be the Head of all other Sees, but would always confefs that the Roman Church was the Mother of all the other Churches in the World, and that all that did not own her to be fo, were accurfed. It's obfervable, that this Elias had a stretch of Courtship beyond his begging Predeceffors; which was his affuring the Pope, That all their Clergy anciently had their Orders immediately from Rome, and that that Custom continued, till feveral that were going to Rome on that Errand were murdèred by the way; which having several times happened, the Pope when he came to hear of it, did of his free Grace fay, Let us ordain them a Patriarch; and not only fo, but permit them to chufe him, that fo they may not perifh thus by the way: And thus, faid good Elias, we received all the Authority we pretend to from Rome, and not from our felves, as they pretend to do; (and the greater Wretches they) who trample upon the Canons of the Apostles, and the Laws of the Fathers. It is from this blind Story that the Roman Doctors have endeavoured to perfuade the World, that all the Babylonifh Bishops do own, that they derived their Power of Ordination from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, no doubt.

Now what crude Stuff is this, that thofe hungry Monks ferved up to the Pope, and was as greedily fwallowed at Rome, there being not the least Colour of Truth in any part of the Story. For as to the ancient Custom that is fo confidently

ly affirmed, it is plainly contradicted by the 33d Arabick Canon of the Council of Nice, which tho' not the genuine Canons of that Council, are yet very ancient. The Canon runs thus:

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Canon 33. Let the See of Seleucia, which is one of the Eastern Cities, be honoured likewife, and have the Title of Catholicon, and let the Prelate thereof, ordain Arch-Bishops as the other Patriarchs do, that fo the Eastern Chriftians who live under Heathens, may not be wronged by waiting the Patriarch of Antioch's leifure, or by going to him, but may have a way opened to them to Supply their own Neceffities; neither will any injury be done to the Patriarch of Antioch thereby, feeing he has confented to its being thus, upon the Synod's having defired it of him.

From which Canon it is plain, That the Church of Selencia or Babylon was anciently subject to the Patriarch of Antioch, who of all the Patriarchs was their nighest Neighbour. So that if the Chaldean Bishops do own that they derived all their Authority from the Western Fathers, as is pretended they do, they must mean by the Western Fathers, the Bishops of Antioch,

And as to its being faid, That the Chaldean Bishops do to this day own that they had their Ordinations from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, the falfhood of that Pretence appears evidently, not only from what has been

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