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Babylon. He is acknowledged by the Portuguezes to have reformed divers Abuses in that Church, and to have put things in a much better order than he found them in. Mar Joseph being brought Prisoner from Cochim to Goa, was Embarked upon the first Ships that went to Portugal, with an intent of sending him to Rome ; but being arrived at Lisbon, he, by his Address and appearances of an extraordinary Sanctity, did so far insinuate himself into the favour and good opinion of Dona Caterina, who was Queen Regent at that time, and of the Infanta Dona Maria, that he was sent back by the next Ships to Goa, with the Queen Regents Letters, ordering him to be permitted to live quietly in his Bishoprick, he having promised the Cardinal Infante Don Anrique, who was at that time Inquisitor-General, and the Pope's Legate à latere to the Crown of Portugal, to do all that was in his power towards the reducing of his Diocess to the Roman obedience.

In the Year 1552, one Tum Sind, or Simon Salacan, a Monk of the Order of St. Pachomius, who pretended to have been chose Patriarch of Mosul, or Seleucia Parthorum, or Babylon, for they are all the same by the whole Clergy of Persia and Asyria, came to Rome and submitted himself to the Pope; by whom, according to some, he was consecrated a Bishop, tho'others will have it, that he had only his Eastern Consecration confirmed, and afterwards received the Patriarchal Pallium. He presented Letters and a

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Confession of Faith to the Pope, which he pretended were sent by all the Eastern Bishops : In the Letters the Pope's Supremacy was exalted as high, as if they had been writ by a Parasite Canonist; which Letters, together with the Confession of Faith, were done into Latin and Printed by Mafius : He gave out also, that he was attended by Seventy Persons of note as far as Jerusalem, and from thence only by Three, whereof one died by the way, and another remained sick in the Journey ; and the third, whose name was Calafi, came with him to Rome. Tum Sind, after he was dismissed at Rome, instead of returning to Babylon, went and lived in an obscure place called Charamet or Amed, where in a short time he was put to death by the Mahometans; and, as it is said, at the instigation of the Christians of those Parts, who, to the great discredit of the pretensions he had made at Rome, would never own him nor his Authority. But this ill Success did not hinder another Monk of the same Order, whose name was Abd Jesu or Hebed, who had writ several Books în defence of Nestorianism, from coming to Rome with the same pretensions, in the Year 1962; and he could never have come in a better time, by reason of the Council of Trent being then sitting, to which he was sent with great Solemnity to represent nothing less than all the Chaldean Bishops, having before at Rome in their Name, made the submission of that whole Church to the Pope : This method of making a noise with Mock-Prelutes,

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had been made great use of by some former Popes. So Eugenius the IV. maintained his tottering reputation against the Council of Bafil, by an appearance of Græcians and Armenians'in the Council of Florence: And Paul the III. graced his Translation of the Council from Trent to Bolongia, which was so stoutly opposed by the Emperor and Spanish Bishops, by sending one Stephen to Bolognia with the splendid Title of the Armenian Patriarch.

This Humor was carried on by one Elias, who likewise pretended to be chose Patriarch of Babylon; he sent several Nuncio's to the Pope with the Submission of the Babylonish Church, and a Confession of Faith; but these Nuncio's spoiled their business by over-acting their Parts; for it having been discovered, that the better to support their Pretence of the Chaldæan Church agreeing with the Church of Rome in all things, they had tore several Pages out of their ChurchOffices, they were dismissed with disgrace.

However this did not discourage Elias ( as indeed what will a hungry Monk?) from sending one Adam Camara, his pretended' Arch-Deacon, to Rome, three Years after that misfortune ; who, together with his Patriarch's Letter, delivered to the Pope a Book of his own composing, concerning the Reconciliation of the Chaldean Church to the Roman, which he desired might be diligently examined. In his Letter he told Paul V. That let Hereticks do what they will, he for his part was resolved never to go against the Holy Precepts of

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tbe Apostles and Orthodox Fathers, who had all af firmed the See of great Rome to be the Head of all other Sees, but would always confess that the Roman Church was the Mother of all the other Churches in the World, and that all that did not own her to be so, were accursed. It's observable, that this Elias had a stretch of Courtship beyond his begging Predecessors ; which was his assuring the Pope, That all their Clergy anciently had their Orders immediately from Rome, and that that Custom continued, till several that were going to Rome on that Errand were murdered by the way ; which having several times happened, the Pope when he came to hear of it, did of his free Grace say, Let us ordain them a Patriarch; and not only fo, but permit them to chuse him, that. so they may not perisa thus by the way : And thus, said good Elias, we received all the Authority we pretend to from Rome, and not from our selves, as they pretend to do; (and the greater Wretches they) who trample upon the Canons of the Apostles, and the Laws of the Fathers. It is from this blind Story that the Roman Doctors have endeavoured to persuade the World, that all the Babylonish Bishops do own, that they derived their Power of Ordination from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, no doubt.

Now what crude Stuff is tbis, that those hun. gry Monks served up to the Pope, and was as greedily swallowed at Rome, there being not the least Colour of Truth in any part of the Story. For as to the ancient Custom that is so confident.

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ly affirmed, it is plainly contradicted by the 33d Arabick Canon of the Council of Nice, which tho' not the genuine Canons of that Council, are yet very ancient. The Canon runs thus : Canon 33. Let the See of Seleucia, which is

one of the Eastern Cities, be honoured likewise, and have the Title of Catholicon, and let the Prelate thereof, ordain Arch-Bishops as the other Patriarchs do, that so the Eastern Chri. ftians who live under Heathens, may not be wronged by waiting the Patriarch of Antioch's leisure, or by going to him, but may have a way opened to them to supply their own Necessities; neither will any injury be done to the Patriarch of Antioch thereby, seeing he has consented to its being thus, upon the Synod's having desired it of him.

From which Canon it is plain, That the Church of Seleucia or Babylon was anciently subject to the Patriarch of Antioch, who of all the Patriarcbs was their nighest Neighbour. So that if the Chaldean Bishops do own that they derived all their Authority from the Western Fathers, as is pretended they do, they must mean by the Western Fathers, the Bishops of Antioch.

And as to its being said, That the Chaldean Bishops do to this day own that they had their Ordinations from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, the fallhood of that Pretence appears evidently, not only from what has been

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