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2 How thou didst drive out the heathen with thy hand, and plantedst them; how thou didst afflict the people, and cast them out.
3 For they got not the land in possession by their own sword, neither did their own arm save them: but thy right hand, and thine arm, and the light of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favour unto them.
4 Thou art my King, O God: command deliverances for Jacob.
5 Through thee will we push down our enemies through thy name will we tread them under that rise up against us.
6 For I will not trust in my bow, neither shall my sword save me.
7 But thou hast saved us from our enemies, and hast put them to shame that hated us.
8 In God we boast all the day long, and praise thy name for ever. Selah. 9 But thou hast cast off, and put us to shame; and goest not forth with our armies.
10 Thou makest us to turn back from the enemy: and they which hate us spoil for themselves.
11 Thou hast given us +like sheep appointed for meat; and hast scattered us among the heathen.
12 Thou sellest thy people nought, and dost not increase wealth by their price.
Ver. 2. the heathen] That is, the Canaanites. 3.- the light of thy countenance.] That is, Thy gracious and glorious presence, which went along with them. Poole.
9. But thou hast cast off,] But yet at present Thou permittest us to be dealt with, as if Thou hadst cast us off. Dr. Wells. All that is contained from this verse to the fifteenth, was expressly foretold, Deut. xxviii. Bp. Wilson.
11. Thou hast given us &c.] Like sheep for the slaughter. Green.
12. Thou sellest thy people &c.] That is, Thou permittest them to be held cheap and vile, and to be sold into slavery by their enemies, for little or nothing; a situation far more to be dreaded than the sword of the executioner. Bp. Horne.
14. Thou makest us a byword &c.] A proverb of wretchedness among the heathen, who shook their heads at them in mere contempt and derision. Bp. Patrick.
15, 16. My confusion is &c.] I am confounded with the continual marks of our disgrace, and am so ashamed, that I am unwilling to shew my face: nor do I hear any thing but reproachful words against us, and blasphemy against Thee, O God; such is the insolence of the
of her present evils.
13 a Thou makest us a reproach to a Ps. 79. 4. our neighbours, a scorn and a derision to them that are round about us.
14 Thou makest us a byword b Jer. 24. 9. among the heathen, a shaking of the head among the people.
15 My confusion is continually before me, and the shame of my face hath covered me,
16 For the voice of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth; by reason of the enemy and avenger.
17 All this is come upon us; yet have we not forgotten thee, neither have we dealt falsely in thy covenant.
18 Our heart is not turned back, neither have our || steps declined from || Or, goings. thy way;
19 Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death.
20 If we have forgotten the name of our God, or stretched out our hands to a strange god;
21 Shall not God search this out? for he knoweth the secrets of the heart.
22 Yea, for thy sake are we killed e Rom. 8. 36. all the day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.
23 Awake, why sleepest thou, O LORD? arise, cast us not off for
22. Yea, for thy sake &c.] But our sufferings for the truth testify our fidelity to Thee; for it is our perseverance in religion which daily exposes us to the horrours of death. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
25.- our soul is bowed down &c.] The weight of our misery is so great, that it hath sunk us into this dejected condition, so that we have no strength left to help ourselves. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
Like the Israelites of old, we should in our afflictions comfort ourselves with the consideration of the goodness of the Lord, and the evident proofs He has in all ages given of His power and mercy. As they acknowledged that their fathers had become masters of the land of Canaan, not by their own strength, but by the power
The majesty and grace
+ Heb. a help 26 Arise for our help, and redeem us for thy mercies' sake.
! Or, of instruction.
+ Heb. baileth, or, bubbleth up.
1 The majesty and grace of Christ's kingdom.
¶ To the chief Musician upon Sho-
MY heart is inditing a good
matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready
2 Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips: therefore God hath blessed thee for
3 Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty.
Psalm XLV. This is a very remarkable Psalm, supposed to have been originally written on occasion of Solomon's marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh king of Egypt. But indeed many of the expressions in it are of so exalted a nature, that they cannot with any propriety be applied to any one but our Saviour; so that it may well be said, as our Lord doth in another case, Behold, a greater than Solomon is here!" Accordingly it has been generally understood to be a prophetical song, foretelling the marriage of Christ with His spouse the Church. St. Paul (Heb. i.) expressly applies the sixth and seventh verses of this Psalm to our Saviour. It is very properly appointed to be used on Christmasday, when we commemorate His actual coming into the world. Travell.
of Christ's kingdom.
4 And in thy majesty + ride pros- prosper thou, perously because of truth and meek- ride thou. ness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things.
5 Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king's enemies; whereby the people fall under thee.
of God; we should likewise give God the glory of all way so prosperous, by promoting all manner of virtue the blessings we enjoy. Ostervald. among thy subjects, and by terrifying thy enemies, that it may prove a lively emblem of the happy government of the Lord Christ: whose kingdom shall prevail over all, when He goes forth, like a great conqueror in His triumphal chariot, not to enslave men's persons, but to settle the true faith among them; to make them humble and meek, just and charitable: and for the accomplishing of this glorious work, Thy mighty power, O Lord, shall instruct Thee to perform miraculous and amazing things. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
5. Thine arrows are sharp &c.] Thy power shall be sufficient to subdue thy greatest enemies; so shall the grace of Christ be mightily successful in bringing the Gentile world into subjection to His kingdom. Dr. Hammond.
-Shoshannim,] By this term we may understand all those instruments which had six strings. Bp. Patrick. Ver. 1. My heart is inditing &c.] My heart is full and ready to overflow with an important and glorious subject, which I have meditated, and am ready to utter in honour of king Solomon; who is but a shadow of that great King whom we expect. Travell.
a ready writer.] That is, a well-instructed writer; a writer prepared and ready, by a perfect knowledge of the subject he undertakes to treat. Bp. Horsley.
2. Thou art fairer &c.] Thou, Ó king, art lovely above all other persons, thy speech is most acceptable and persuasive, because the Lord loves thee, and has poured His choicest blessings upon thee: yet do these but faintly represent the eternal blessings, which He will bestow on that great King, who shall be "in favour with God and man," and who shall make all men wonder at the gracious words which proceed out of His mouth." Bp. Patrick.
3. Gird thy sword &c.] Put on thy royal ornaments, and the ensigns of thy power, that thou mayest appear with such splendour and majesty, as may serve for an emblem of that sovereign authority, in which the Lord of all the world shall hereafter appear among men. Bp. Patrick.
4. And in thy majesty &c.] May thy kingdom be every
6 a Thy throne, O God, is for ever a Hebr. 1. 8. and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.
7 Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
8 All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.
9. Kings' daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.
6. Thy throne, O God, &c.] The kingdom of the Messiah is never to have an end. And herein is Solomon a type of Him: the kingdom of Judah, now settled on him, shall endure till the time of the Messiah's coming, and entering on His immutable kingdom. Dr. Hammond.
7. Thou lovest righteousness, &c.] Thou, O Christ, lovest righteousness and hatest iniquity; therefore God the Father hath advanced Thee above all angels and men, and exalted Thee to reign for ever at His own right hand. And herein also was Solomon a type of the Messiah, whose preference of wisdom to wealth was highly rewarded by God, beyond all other men. Dr. Hammond.
8. All thy garments &c.] Thy wedding garments, worn by thee on this joyful occasion, scatter through the royal apartments, richly inlaid with ivory, a fragrance of the sweetest perfumes: in like manner shall the heavenly graces of Christ be diffused, as a sweet odour over His faithful servants. Travell.
myrrh, and aloes, and cassia,] Perhaps these were the drugs, with which the oil for the anointing the kings of Israel and Judah was prepared. Two of them, the myrrh and cassia, are the same with those from which the oil for the consecration of Aaron and his sons was commanded to be made. See Exod. xxx. 23,
9. Kings' daughters &c.] Thy court was attended by
The duty and benefits of the church.
+ Heb. thy face.
13 The king's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold.
14 She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the
virgins her companions that follow
her shall be brought unto thee.
10 Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father's house;
11 So shall the king greatly desire thy beauty: for he is thy Lord; and worship thou him.
12 And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich
among the people shall intreat + thy 1 The confidence which the church hath in
God. 8 An exhortation to behold it.
15 With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: they shall enter into the king's palace.
kings' daughters; and next to thyself was placed the royal bride, clad in garments embroidered with gold; an image of Christ's spouse, the Church, which shall hereafter "sit" with Him "in heavenly places," (Ephes. ii. 6,) arrayed in the garments of righteousness and salvation. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
10. Hearken, O daughter, &c.] Understand, and consider seriously, O royal bride, the happiness of being married to such a prince; and let not the thoughts of thy own country and family dwell too much upon thy mind: in like manner must the true Christian, when brought to Christ, renounce the world, and even his dearest connexions, for His sake. Bp. Patrick, Travell. 12. And the daughter of Tyre &c.] The people of the rich and neighbouring city of Tyre shall come and bring presents; the most powerful among them shall solicit thy favour; as the kings of the earth shall hereafter bring their glory and honour into the church, Rev. xxi. 24. Bp. Patrick.
13. The king's daughter &c.] The bride of our prince is no less adorned with all excellent qualities of mind, than her body is with rich and splendid attire; so the ornaments of those that are born of God in the Christian church shall not be so much "that outward adorning of wearing of gold, as the hidden man of the heart, which is in the sight of God of great price," 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4. Bp. Patrick.
16 Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the earth.
17 I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever.
16. Instead of thy fathers &c.] And may this be the happy fruit of thy marriage, that, instead of thy royal ancestors in Egypt, thou mayest be the mother of children, who shall be rulers in all countries subject to king Solomon: so shall the Church continually bring forth children unto Christ, "whom He shall make kings and priests unto God; and they shall reign on the earth," Rev. v. 10. Travell.
17. I will make thy name &c.] By this song I will
make thy name to be mentioned with honour throughout all ages, which shall celebrate thy praise, as long as the world shall last and much more shall the name of Christ, and His blessed union with His Church, be celebrated with perpetual praises. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
As we are not apt to consider Christ Himself aright, and thereby may probably fail in prescribing good rules to ourselves for the performance of our duty to Him, so we have as little regard what service we are to do, and what reverence we are to pay to that dear spouse of His, the Church: many too superstitiously contracting all their devotion to her ivory palaces, and to her raiment of needlework, to outward forms and ceremonies, and to the pomp of Divine worship, without much considering the inward operation and effect of religion; and others as licentiously and profanely, under pretence of being "all glorious within," contemn all outward preparation for, and ornament of, God's service; and because Christ's Church consists of the multitude of believers, and that He looks principally upon the heart as the seat of religion, they will allow Him no other temple to be served in, and believe both churches and priests of no use to the exercise of their devotion. Whereas, though the "king's daughter be all glorious within, her clothing is" likewise to be "of wrought gold;" inward sanctity appears the more beautiful, for the outward decency and lustre that attends it. And 14. She shall be brought &c.] She shall be brought Christ Himself, though He expects and requires the home unto the king with magnificent pomp, in embroi-duty of the heart, and to be served by all persons, and dered raiment; and the virgins, that attend upon her, in all places, yet He reserves some offices in His service shall accompany her: in like manner shall Christ re- for a peculiar people, more particularly dedicated to it, ceive His spouse the Church, adorned with a robe of and vouchsafes more especially to reside in those places righteousness; and all they, who in afterages shall be which are more solemnly dedicated to, and consecrated acknowledged by Christ as His disciples, shall altoge- for, His worship. Lord Clarendon. ther form one glorious train of attendants. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
To the chief Musician || for the Or, of
GD is our refuge and strength,
a very present help in trouble. 2 Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into + the midst + Heb. the
heart of the
of the sea;
Psalm XLVI. This appears to be a thanksgiving Psalm for some victory or deliverance. Street. Probably it may have been composed in the reign of Jehoshaphat. See 2 Chron. xx. Rosenmüller.
- for the sons of Korah, A Song upon Alamoth.] The word Alamoth has by some been understood to specify the musical instrument, which was used to accompany the singing of the Psalm. But it also signifies virgins or maidens. The meaning of the title therefore may be," An ode by the sons of Korah together with virgins." Street,
in God's protection.
+ Heb. an
high place for
3 Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. The nations are exhorted cheerfully to enterSelah. tain the kingdom of Christ.
4 There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most high.
5 God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved: God shall help ↑ Heb. when her, † and that right early.
the morning appeareth.
6 The heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved: he uttered his voice, the earth melted.
7 The LORD of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is † our refuge. Selah.
8 Come, behold the works of the LORD, what desolations he hath made in the earth.
9 He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire.
10 Be still, and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen, I will be exalted in the earth.
11 The LORD of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah.
Ver.3, 4. Though the waters &c.] The sense is, Though the numerous forces which are come up against Jerusalem should, like a tempestuous sea, roar and rage, and threaten her with utter destruction; yet the small forces that guard her, which for their stillness may be compared to the soft flowing stream of Siloah, shall by the help of her God protect her. Green.
6. The heathen raged, &c.] How concise and energetick are these expressions of the Divine power! Bp. Horne.
he uttered his voice,] Alluding to the demonstration of God's power visibly exerted in the cause of Israel -and the inhabitants of the earth melted, as it were, with fear. Rosenmüller.
9.-he burneth the chariot &c.] Alluding to the heathen custom of burning the arms of those they had conquered, in honour of their gods, and as a sign of peace. Bp. Lowth.
10. Be still, and know &c.] In this verse there is a change of person; and Jehovah Himself is introduced, as commanding the world to cease its opposition, to own His power, and to acknowledge His sovereignty over all the kingdoms of the nations. Bp. Horne.
As we are continually beset by troubles, either bodily or spiritual, so we continually stand in need of a city of refuge and strength, into which we may flee and be safe. Religion is that city, whose gates are always open to the afflicted soul. We profess to believe this: do we act agreeably to such profession? Bp. Horne.
The nations exhorted to praise God.
Psalm XLVII. This Psalm was probably composed and sung on occasion of bringing the ark, either into
the tabernacle on mount Zion by David, or thence into the temple by Solomon. And the ark being a type of Christ, as mount Zion was of heaven, the carrying of the ark up to that mount may be considered as a type of Christ's ascension into heaven: and accordingly this Psalm is appointed by the Church to be used on Ascension-day. Dr. Wells, Travell.
Ver. 4. He shall choose &c.] Or, he hath chosen the good land of Canaan to be our inheritance. Dr. Wells. the excellency of Jacob] Meaning the land of Israel. Mudge.
5. God is gone up &c.] The ark, which is the emblem of the special presence of God, is gone up into the holy place on mount Zion with a shout of joy and praise. Dr. Wells. This carrying up of the ark mystically represents Christ's ascension into heaven, as may be gathered by comparing this with Eph. iv. 8, where the like words, uttered concerning the ark upon the same occasion, Psalm lxviii. 18, are directly applied to Christ's ascension. Poole.
9. The princes of the people &c.] This verse plainly describes the kings of the Gentiles as acceding to the Church, as becoming with their subjects, through faith, "the people of the God of Abraham," and a part of the sacred flock. Bp. Horne.
This Psalm should excite us to praise God, and to celebrate His glory with holy transports, as He is the King of the whole earth, and deserves the adoration of all men; but above all, because He has chosen us to be His people and His inheritance. But we should also apply this Psalm to the times of the Gospel, and especially to our Lord's ascension to the glory of His king
mount Zion rejoice, let the
GREAT is the Loud, and gre our daughters of Judah be glad, because
of thy judgments.
God, in the mountain of his holiness.
12 Walk about Zion, and
your heart to [Or, raise up.
3 God is known in her palaces for a refuge.
4 For, lo, the kings were assembled, they passed by together.
14 For this G is our God for ever and ever: he will be our guide even unto death.
5 They saw it, and so they marvelled; they were troubled, and hasted
6 Fear took hold upon them there, and pain, as of a woman in travail.
7 Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind.
dom, and to the happiness which the several nations of the earth now enjoy in being accounted the people of God. Ostervald.
Psalm XLVIII. This Psalm is appointed by our Church to be used on Whit-Sunday, because, under images taken from the earthly city Jerusalem, are celebrated the glory, the beauty, and the strength of the Christian Church, that city and temple of Messiah. Bp. Horne. Ver. 1. the mountain of his holiness.] That is, mount Zion, the holy spot which He has set apart for the place of His worship. Dr. Wells, Travell.
2.-the joy of the whole earth,] The joy of all the land of Judah then, and afterwards of the whole earth: because the law was to come out of Zion. Bp. Nicholson. on the sides of the north,] On the north side.
|| Or, of.
8 As we have heard, so have we
seen in the city of the LORD of hosts, HEAR this, all ye people; give
in the city of our God: God will es-
3. God is known &c.] God has made Himself known in her towers to be our defence. Edwards.
privileges of the church. 9 We have thought of thy lovingkindness, O God, in the midst of thy temple.
10 According to thy name, O God, so is thy praise unto the ends of the earth: thy right hand is full of righte
5. They saw it, &c.] The meaning is, that when the kings of neighbouring countries had united together and marched their forces against it, they were astonished at its strength and beauty; and, being seized with sudden amazement, they made haste to escape. Travell.
7. Thou breakest the ships &c.] The meaning evidently is, that as the east wind shatters in pieces the ships of Tarshish, so the Divine power struck the heathen kings with terrour and astonishment. Bp. Horne.
8. As we have heard, &c.] In other words, What we have heard from them of old time, we have now seen verified with our own eyes, in the salvation of this holy city, which is the city of the God of the armies of heaven, and which we trust He will protect in future ages. Bp. Patrick, Travell.
1 An earnest persuasion to build the faith of
To the chief Musician, A Psalm
The reflection we are to make upon this Psalm is, that the Church has often been attacked by the kings and nations of the world, who had conspired together to destroy it: but that God has always watched over it, and rendered the conspiracies of its enemies vain, and turned them to their own confusion. This Psalm assures us, that the Church is the dearest thing to God upon earth; that He dwells in the midst of it; that He encompasses it with His protection; and that He will always support it. These promises are still better suited to the Christian than to the Jewish Church, and ought to convince us of our happiness, in being members of Christ's Church, and to fill all sincere Christians with steadfast hope and confidence in God. Ostervald.
Psalm XLIX. The object of this very difficult Psalm seems to be, to expose the folly of those who place a confidence in their power and wealth, when, after all, neither of these can ransom their souls from death and their bodies from the tomb; while the author professes himself to believe, that God will redeem his soul from the power of the grave. Street.