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was the case, the tempter evidently did not know it. For the temptations are as well arranged, for the excitement of the appetite in one of the cases, and of a propensity in another, as they could have been, had they been addressed to an ordinary man. The "judicious" arrangement of these temptations has attracted the special attention of Dr. Clarke.*

But the latter seems to be the hypothesis of the quotation. It is said, the temptations having reached the thoughts, "were immediately rejected"-" were instantly and fully repelled."-This presents a point of great interest; for if this could be done by our Saviour, we cannot wonder if others as well as the author of the strictures should conclude it might be done by good men.-Much that we have already said, bears directly on this question, but we are willing to look at it in another point of view. And for this purpose, let us paraphrase one of our Saviour's temptations, according to this hypothesis, and see what it is.-Being on the pinnacle of the temple, the "thought" was presented to his mind, to cast himself down,-trusting to Providence to prevent his destruction. This is all that can be made of it. There is evidently nothing remarkable in this,-nothing, in fact, which in the experience of an ordinary man would be considered worth recording. This thought may indeed have been suggested to the minds of thousands when standing in a similar situation; and if it never has been before, it will be likely to enter the mind of the reader, the next time he shall be in such a place. But what man-what holy man even -ever considered this a temptation, or gave it a moral character, so as to feel bound to hasten its expulsion from the mind;—unless, perchance, some Christian man, borne down by sorrow and affliction, in heaviness through manifold temptations, and whom (to make the cases in this respect parallel) Satan had been permitted grievously to afflict and torment-unless some such man may, in a similar situation, have had the horrible temptation thrust into his mind, there to test, by so fearful an experiment, the care which God had for him! And as this horrid suggestion entered into his very soul, and clung to him in spite of resistance, till he shuddering retired from the scene of danger; we apprehend it would have been a hard thing, on this hypothesis, to make him feel, that his Saviour had been tempted in all points as he was tempted; and that by his temptations he had become fully "able to succor those who are [thus] tempted!"-We know not how far our sentiment may be responded to; but, for ourselves, we believe our Saviour was tempted more sorely than man has ever been tempted. Who can * See his notes on these scriptures.

tell the full import of the apostle's declaration, "He suffered, being tempted!"

As the temptations of our Saviour seem to be referred to by the Herald for the purpose of illustrating "the innocent stage of [ordinary] temptation," we deem it important to add, that we believe it can be shown, that the explanation here given is unphilosophical, and incapable of a practical application by the Christian.—The moral bearings of our "thoughts" cannot be known even to ourselves, till they have time to develop their character. A "thought" which has been in the mind a thousand times, without giving us any trouble, may suddenly, and by means entirely beyond our control, become invested with the character of a temptation. As we know not the place where we may not be tempted, so we know not the "thought" which may not, in some of its possible associated relations, be developed into a temptation. As a mere thought, it may threaten no danger,-till invested with some other element, it may possess no moral character-nothing which could even suggest the propriety of its expulsion from the mind. Here, then, we arrive at the conclusion irresistibly, that temptation, as such, can never be arrested with the mere "thought;" but implies, in its very existence, something superadded to the thought, of which we can often have no knowledge or conception. And this something, the reader need not now be told, is the "excitement" of some of the sensibilities. Thus, in whatever way we come up to this subject, we find the general doctrine of the reviewer clearly and unequivocally affirmed.

We offer to the reader no apology for having thus revolved this subject, and set it in all the various lights which it would bear; though we have, by this means, extended the discussion far beyond the limits originally assigned to it. The immortal author of the Analogy, and both the reviewer and the writer of the strictures,all agree that this subject takes hold on the highest interests of man; and for ourselves, we are never more delighted than when we find philosophy and Christianity harmonizing in the adjustment of those great principles which determine man's relation to his God.

C.

Dickinson College, Nov. 9, 1841.

ART. X.-CRITICAL NOTICES.

1. Christian Baptism: its Mode, Obligation, Import, and Relative Order. By Rev. FREEBORN G. HIBBARD, of the Genesee Conference. 1 vol., 12mo., pp. 218. New-York: published by G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

ON reading the above title-page some readers will be likely to exclaim, What, another book on the vexed question of baptism? Who can give any new light upon this exhausted topic? To such we simply answer, Procure the book and read it carefully, and if you are not satisfied that the author is entitled to be heard, we are mistaken in our estimate of the character of his book. Indeed, we hesitate not to say, that it is the best thing upon the mode of baptism we have yet seen.

And here we would express a hope that without unnecessary delay the author will complete his plan by presenting us with his work upon infant baptism. Such a work, executed with the ability which characterizes the one before us, would greatly subserve the interests of truth.

2. The History of Christianity, from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire. By the Rev. H. H. MILMAN. With a Preface and Notes. By JAMES MURDOCK, D. D. 8vo., pp. 528. New-York: Harper & Brothers.

It is important the reader should clearly understand what he has to expect from this work. It is, as its title declares, a history of Christianity; but then a history peculiar in its character and design. The author observes in his preface, that "Christianity may be viewed either in a strictly religious, or in a temporal, social, and political light." "A candid and dispassionate survey," he says, "of the connection of Christianity with the temporal happiness, and with the intellectual and social improvement of mankind, even to the religious inquirer, cannot but be of high importance and interest; while with the general mass, at least of the reading and intelligent part of the community, nothing tends so powerfully to the strengthening or weakening of religious impression and sentiment, nothing acts so extensively, even though perhaps indirectly, on the formation of religious opinions, and on the speculative or practical belief or rejection of Christianity, as the notions we entertain of its influence on the history of man, and its relation to human happiness, and social improvement. This latter is the express design of the present work."

That it is written with distinguished ability, is universally admitted. Still, we can by no means agree with the author in all his sentiments. The German critics he has consulted with so much advantage in many respects, have evidently imparted not a little of their rationalistic bias to some of his religious views. Thus he is disposed to seek for a mythic or allegorical meaning to explain in some cases the plain declarations of Scripture; as in demoniacal possessions, angelical apparitions, &c. It is doubtless necessary to caution the reader against these views. But the book is generally sound in regard to the great vital doctrines of the gospel; and its entire freedom from every thing of a controversial character; its rigid impartiality; the elegance and fervidness of its style; and the vast amount of deeply interesting matter it contains, will cause it to be most extensively read.

3. A Treatise on the Church, designed chiefly for the use of Students in Theology. By the Rev. WILLIAM PALMER, M. A., of Worcester College, Oxford. With a Preface and Notes. By the Right Rev. W. R. WHITTINGHAM, D. D., Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the diocese of Maryland. From the second London edition. In two vols., pp. 529, 557. New-York: D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway. 1841.

AMONG the many works upon the Church with which the press is constantly teeming, the one whose title-page is given above occupies a high rank. The author exhibits much learning and research, and has doubtless succeeded in presenting to our high Churchmen a work which heretofore has been considered a desideratum.

In the present edition we have added to the labors of Mr. Palmer the critical skill of Bishop Whittingham. The bishop presents the work to American readers in no

faint notes of praise, considering it "as the first complete treatise on the subject in our language, so the best in any." The work may consequently be considered as constituting the best authority with Churchmen. The present edition is handsomely executed.

4. Remains of Rev. Joshua Wells Downing, A. M., late of the New-England Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. With a brief Memoir. Edited by ELIJAH H. DOWNING, A. M. 12mo., pp. 329. New-York: G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

THIS work consists of the writings of one who was cut down early in life-to quote the beautiful language of the Memoir prefixed to these Remains"Just at that age when the painter would have wished to fix his likeness, and the lover of poetry would delight to contemplate him, in the fair morning of his virtues, the full spring blossom of his hopes-just at that age hath death set the seal of eternity upon him, and the beautiful hath been made permanent."

The larger part of the volume consists of sermons and notes of sermons, prepared by the author during the brief period of his ministry. All of these are of a high character, and display a beauty of language and maturity of judgment seldom met with in writings of this class. We would particularly notice the one on Job xxxv, 6, as possessing in a high degree the essentials of a well-digested, systematic discourse. There are others in the work which are superior to it in beauty of diction, but none excel it in depth of thought.

Among the miscellaneous articles is a lecture on Intellectual Improvement, delivered before an association of sabbath-school teachers, which we wish might be read by every sabbath-school teacher in the land, not only on account of its literary merit, but from the correct views which it gives of their responsibility and of the obligations they are under to improve their intellectual faculties.

The letters are beautiful specimens of composition, and they display the riches of the author's mind, his fervent piety, and the deep sense of responsibility he felt in his holy calling-and we think they will be peculiarly interesting to the young.

5. The Early English Church. By EDWARD CHURTON, M. A., Rector of Crayke, Durham. With a Preface by the Right Rev. L. SILLIMAN IVES, D. D., Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the diocese of North Carolina. From the second London edition. 12mo., pp. 344. New-York: D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway. 1841.

THIS is, upon the whole, an interesting volume. The views taken by the author of some of the heroes of the early English Church, and of the monasteries and the monastic orders, will be considered by many as much too favorable. And though we incline to this opinion ourselves, yet we have been profited by the perusal of the work, and, as a whole, are not disposed to condemn it.

6. Fulfilment of Scripture Prophecy, as exhibited in Ancient History and Modern Travel. 18mo., pp. 352. New-York: G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

7. Conversations on the South Sea Missions. No. IV-Island of Rarotonga. By the author of "Conversations on the Life of Carey." Revised by the Editors. 18mo., pp. 320. G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

8. The Traveler; or, a Description of various Wonders in Nature and Art. Revised by the Editors. 18mo., pp. 226. G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

9. Memoirs of John Frederick Oberlin, Pastor of Waldbach, in the Ban de la Roche. 18mo., pp. 200. G. Lane & P. P. Sandford. 1841.

THE four little volumes, whose titles are last given, are all well written, and calcu lated to afford both pleasure and instruction to the reader.

18mo., pp. 174.

TALES FOR THE PEOPLE.-10. Dining Out. 11. Somerville Hall. 18mo., pp. 174. Both by Mrs. Ellis, and published in NewYork by D. Appleton & Co. 1842.

THESE works are upon the subject of temperance, and contain more truth than fiction. They deal with the sin of intemperance as it exists among the higher classes of society.

12. The Ladies' Repository, and Gatherings of the West: a Monthly Periodical, devoted to Literature and Religion. Edited by the Rev. L. L. HAMLINE, A. M. Volume I. Cincinnati: J. F. Wright & L. Swormstedt. 1841.

We have received the last number of the first volume of this important and useful periodical. We heartily congratulate our brethren of the west upon the success which has attended the enterprise. In addition to the talents, industry, and fidelity which have been exhibited on the part of the editor, the work evinces that he has been able to call to his help a corps of able contributors. We are happy to learn that the Repository is well received in the west: we wish it might have an extensive circulation among our people and friends east of the Alleghanies. Such a periodical has long been a desideratum in our church; and now that we have one, we hope it will be sustained in a manner answerable to its literary and moral worth.

13. The Classic; or, College Monthly. Middletown, Conn.

We have only space to say of this literary miscellany, that it is conducted with spirit, and is filled with interesting and useful matter. Commanding, as it does, the contributions of the literati of the Wesleyan University, it will doubtless act as an efficient agent in the improvement of the taste and the literature of the rising generation. We commend the work to the patronage of the friends of learning.

14. The Boston Quarterly Review, No. xvi. 1841.

In our number for January, 1841, a pamphlet written by Mr. Brownson, editor of the Boston Quarterly Review, and which he originally published in that work, was reviewed by one of our correspondents. In a private note to us Mr. B. complained that injustice had been done him by the reviewer. In our April number we had barely space to state what we understood as his correction; but an ambiguity in his language, it seems, led us into an error in our construction of it. The following very courteous notice taken of the whole matter by Mr. B. we now insert as a matter of justice to the reviewer of Carlyle on the laboring classes. Whether he has been consistent with himself throughout we do not now inquire.

"The Methodist Quarterly Review, Vol. I, Nos. 1, 2, 8vo. New-York.-This Review contained an article in its January number reflecting very severely upon ourselves, and most grossly misconceiving and misrepresenting our views. Among other things it charged us with contending that all laws on matrimony should be abolished. Holding as we do the marriage institution sacred, and regarding the family as the social unit, we wrote the editor, requesting him to correct the mistake into which he had fallen; which he promised us he would do, by inserting in his April number our letter contradicting the charge. But not having room to insert the letter itself, he undertook to give its substance. In doing this, he fell into another mistake, and presented us to his readers, not as denying the marriage institution; but as denying its religious character-as holding it to be a civil contract rather than a sacrament. We trust the very able and pious editor will do us the justice to tell his readers what he is now aware is the fact stated in our letter to him, that we do hold marriage to be a religious institution-a sacrament rather than a civil contract, and that it is in so holding that we differ, if we differ at all on this subject, from our countrymen generally.

"Of the Methodist Quarterly Review itself we can speak very highly. It is conducted with spirit, ability, and liberality, and we are pleased to find our Methodist friends sustaining a journal of so much positive merit. It may one day or other change its opinion of the Boston Quarterly. The original spirit of Methodism is a spirit with which we have great sympathy, and are always happy to meet it. We owe the principal part of our own early religious education to the Methodists."

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