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nant power, whom he sought to pacify by gifts and sacrifices. He had the usual superstitions of unenlightened men, hailing the new and full moon not only by offerings, but by shouts, cries, and dances, prolonged throughout the night. He attached a sacred character to certain woods, hills, and rivers, which he supposed haunted by departed friends, or by the spirits of the ancient heroes of his tribe. Lastly, to come to the very lowest, the Hottentots had a little shining beetle which they had exalted almost into a deity.

About the close of the last century, Southern Africa excited a particular interest among the lovers of natural history, from the brilliancy of its floral productions, and from those remarkable forms of the animal kingdom, which, though generally diffused over that continent, could be most safely and easily studied in the vicinity of the Cape. In 1778, Captain Henry Hope, who, under the authority of the Dutch government, had penetrated into the interior of the colony with a caravan of eighty-nine persons, published at Amsterdam a work containing plates of the giraffe or camelopard, the zebra, the hippopotamus, the gnu, and other animals then almost unknown in Europe. Soon after, the whole region was carefully surveyed by two eminent naturalists, first Sparrman, and then Le Vaillant,-the one distinguished by sound sense and accurate observation, the other by the splendid colouring which he succeeded in throwing over the narrative of his personal adventures. These travellers viewed with admiration the elegant forms of the giraffe and the zebra, the light shape and bright eye of the spring-bok, the most beautiful of antelopes, and of which herds were seen covering

these desert plains as far as the eye could reach. They were struck also with the odd shapes of the gnu and the quagga, combining, as it were, the most opposite natures. Sparrman's hunts were not very successful: he gave chase repeatedly to the gnu; but that animal, by its swift bounds, eluded pursuit. Herds of zebras were seen only at a distance; and of all the hippopotami which he attacked, he could carry off only one, three weeks old. He made a full examination, however, of the rhinoceros and the quagga, and brought to Europe the first precise account of that wonderful and destructive insect, the termes or white ant. Le Vaillant, more fortunate, conveyed to France the skin of the gi raffe, as well as that of a full-grown hippopotamus. He brought also a rich collection of birds, and many specimens of those beautiful and flowering shrubs which spring up only amid the sands of the African desert.

Mr Barrow, who, in 1797, while private secretary to Lord Macartney, made a tour through the Cape territory, communicated more important information than any of his predecessors, and exhibited for the first time a view of the social condition of this remote colony. He found the Hottentots reduced almost universally to the condition of slaves, not transferable indeed, but attached to the soil, and not on that account the better treated. Frequent use is made of a heavy leathern thong, the lashes inflicted with which are measured not by number but time. Connecting this punishment with his favourite luxury, the Dutchman orders the flogging of the culprit to continue while he himself smokes a certain number of pipes. Even when a Hottentot en

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gages for hire, the children, born during his period of service, are destined to become slaves. Nothing, in short, can more fully prove the cruel treatment of this unfortunate race, than the fact, that they do not keep up their numbers, but are gradually disappearing at present there are not supposed to be more than 15,000 in the colony. The few kraals of independent Hottentots, which still remain on its outer border, may perhaps amount to 10,000.

The Dutch planters or boors occupy lots of considerable extent, reaching usually to the extent of some miles in every direction; yet the nearest neighbours are engaged in almost constant feuds respecting the boundaries of these vast possessions. Their dissensions must doubtless be greatly fomented by the mode of measuring land according to the number of steps employed in walking over it. There is indeed an official pacer (felt-wagt-meester,) who receives three dollars for every perambulation; but this survey must always be more or less vague; and he is alleged sometimes to take partial steps in support of a favourite claimant. The boor, absolute master of these wide domains, covers them with flocks and herds, the care of which he commits to his Hottentots,-obtaining thus the entire disposal of his own time, which he devotes to the most listless indolence. He makes neither milk nor butter; nor does he produce either wine, fruits, or vegetables. The pipe never quits his mouth, except to take his sopie or glass of brandy, and to eat three meals of mutton soaked in the fat of the large-tailed sheep, without vegetables or even bread. The good lady of the house, equally disdainful of toil, remains almost as immoveable as the chair on which she sits, having before her a table,

always covered with hot coffee. The daughters sit round with their hands folded, resembling articles of furniture rather than youthful and living beings. No diversion, no event, breaks the monotony of this insulated existence; nor does knowledge for them ever" unrol her ample page." A schoolmaster, indeed, usually forms part of the establishment; but as it is thought too much to maintain one for teaching only, he is expected to make himself useful in sundry other capacities. Mr Barrow even saw one of this learned fraternity yoked in a plough. Amid such varied avocations, these sage instructors cannot be expected to convey to their pupils more than the mere elements of reading and writing. At the same time, hospitality knows scarcely any limits. With the exception of their nearest neighbours, with whom they are probably involved in boundary-feuds, any person, from any quarter, is welcome. The stranger opens the door, shakes hands with the master, kisses the mistress, sits down, and makes himself completely at home.

From Graaf-Reynet, at the eastern extremity of the colony, Mr Barrow pushed forward without delay to the country of the Caffres, it being one main object of his journey to adjust some differences between that people and the European settlers. The first party he met after passing the boundary made the most favourable impression upon him. The females flocked and danced round the strangers, showing the utmost curiosity, and receiving with delight presents of tobacco and brass buttons, yet never trespassing on the limits of decorum. Their persons were somewhat short and stunted, and the skin of a dark glossy brown; but the features were almost


European, and their dark sparkling eyes bespoke vivacity and intelligence. The men, again, were the finest figures that the traveller had ever seen, considerably above the middle size, robust and muscular, yet marked with the most elegant symmetry. Their deportment was easy, and their expression frank, generous, and fearless. In reply to the complaints which were made of their encroachments upon the territory of the colony, they asserted and seemed to prove, that much greater encroachments had been made by the colonists themselves, and expressed their readiness to accede to any arrangement which might obviate future dissension,-stating, however, that nothing could be done but through Gaika, the great King of the Caffres. The umpires immediately proceeded towards his residence, through a beautiful but uncultivated and somewhat entangled country. He was absent at the moment, employed in pursuing a band of wolves; but his wife and mother, with fifty or sixty attendants, sat round the strangers, and conversed, through an interpreter, in the most agreeable manner. At length the monarch was seen approaching at full gallop, mounted on a handsome ox. Alighting from this singular charger, he graciously welcomed the strangers, and seating himself and his attendants under the shade of a mimosa, immediately entered upon business. He showed himself extremely reasonable in every respect, declaring, that whatever inroads had taken place on the frontier were without his knowledge or sanction, and he agreed at once to a code of regulations which might put an end to future aggression. It seems probable indeed that, had the wise and conciliatory measures which Mr Barrow suggested been steadily adhered

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