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made use of the wealth of the one, and death of Crassus, the civil commotions the reputation of the other, to attain his increased, and Cato, as the only means of own objects. At the head of the senate, preventing greater evils, proposed that the sole prop of the republic, stood Catu- Pompey should be made sole consul, conlus, Cicero and Cato. Lucullus, who trary to the constitution, and the proposistood very high in the favor of the army, tion was adopted. The year following, wbich he had so victoriously commanded, Cato lost the consulship by refusing to might alone have upheld the senate, had take the steps necessary for obtaining it. he not been more desirous to enjoy his. At this time the civil war broke out. wealth than to devote himself to the care Cato, then propretor in Sicily, on the arof the commonwealth. Cato, keeping rival of Curio with three of Cæsar's lealoof from all parties, served the common- gions, departed for the camp of Pompey, wealth with sagacity and courage ; but he at Dyrrachium. He had still been in often injured the cause, which he was hopes to prevent the war by negotiation; trying to benefit, by the inflexibility of his and when it broke out, he put on mourncharacter. He was on the way to his ing in token of his grief. Pompey, havestate, when he met Metellus Nepos, who ing been victorious at Dyrrachium, left was travelling to Rome to canvass for the Cato behind to guard the military chest tribuneship. Knowing him to be a dan- and magazine, while he pushed after his gerous man, Cato returned immediately, rival. For this reason, Cato was not stood candidate for the office himself, present at the battle of Pharsalia, after and was chosen, together with Metellus. which he sailed over with his troops to About this time, the conspiracy of Cati- Cyrene, in Africa. Here he learned that line broke out. Cato supported, with all Pompey's father-in-law, Scipio, had gone his power, the consul Cicero, first gave to Juba, king of Mauritania, where Varus him publicly the name of father of his had collected a considerable force. Cato country, and urged, in a fine speech pre- immediately set off to join him, and, afserved by Sallust, the rigorous punish- ter undergoing hunger, thirst and every ment of the traitors. He opposed the hardship, reached Utica, where the two proposition of Metellus Nepos to recall armies effected a junction. The soldiers Pompey from Asia, and give him the wished him to be their general, but he command against Catiline, and came near gave this office to Scipio, and took the losing his life in a riot excited against him command in Utica, while Scipio and Laon this account by his colleague and bienus sallied out against Cæsar. Cato Cæsar. After the return of Pompey, he had advised them to protract the war, frustrated many of his ambitious plans, but they ventured an engagement, in and first predicted the consequences of which they were entirely defeated, and his union with Crassus and Cæsar. He Africa submitted to the victor. Cato had afterwards opposed, but in vain, the di- at first determined to defend himself to vision of lands in Campania. Cæsar at the last, with the senators in the place; that time abused his power so much as but he afterwards abandoned this plan, to send Cato to prison, but was constrain- and dismissed all who wished to leave ed, by the murmurs of the people, to set him. His resolution was taken. On the him at liberty. The triumvirate, in order evening before the day which he had fixto remove him to a distance, had him ed upon for executing it, he took a transent to Cyprus, to depose king Ptolemy, quil meal, and discussed various philounder some frivolous pretext. He was sophical subjects. He then retired to his compelled to obey, and executed his com- chamber, and read the Phædo of Plato. mission with so much address that he en- Anticipating his intentions, his friends riched the treasury with a larger sum had taken away his sword. On finding than had ever been deposited in it by any that it was gone, he called his slaves, and private man. In the mean time, he con- demanded it with apparent equanimity; tinued his opposition to the triumvirate. but when they still delayed to bring it, he Endeavoring to prevent the passage of struck one of the slaves, who was enthe Tribonian law, which invested Cras- deavoring to pacify him. His son and sus with an extraordinary power, he was his friends came with tears, and besought a second time arrested; but the people him to refrain from his purpose. At first followed him in a body to the prison, and he reproached his son for disobedience, his enemies were compelled to release then calmly advised those present tr subhim. Being afterwards made pretor, he mit to Cæsar, and dismissed all but the carried into execution a law against brib- philosophers Demetrius and Apollonius, ery, that displeased all parties. After the whom he asked if they knew any way by

which he could continue to live without being false to his principles. They were silent, and left him, weeping. He then received his sword joyfully, again read Phado, slept awhile, and, on awaking, sent to the port to inquire if his friends had departed. He heard, with a sigh, that the sea was tempestuous. He had again sunk into slumber, when word was brought him that the sea was calm, and that all was tranquil in the harbor. He appeared satisfied, and was scarcely alone when he stabbed himself with his sword. The people rushed in, and took advantage of a swoon, into which he had fallen, to bind up his wounds; but, on coming to himself, he tore off the bandages, and expired (44 B. C.). The Uticans buried him honorably, and erected a statue to him. But Cæsar, when he heard the news of his death, exclaimed, "I grudge thee thy death, since thou hast grudged me the honor of sparing thy life." The truly Roman virtue of Cato has been celebrated by Lucan, in his Pharsalia, in a truly Roman style, with the words

Victrix causa diis placuit, sed victa Catoni. CATOPTRICS (from KárоRTрov, a mirror); the science which treats of reflected light. (See Optics.)

CATS, James; born in 1577, at Brouwershaven, in Zealand; one of the fathers of the Dutch language and poetry. He studied at Leyden and Orleans. In 1627 and 1631, he was ambassador to England, and afterwards grand pensioner of Holland. His poetry is distinguished for simplicity, naïveté, richness of imagination, and winning though unpretending morality. His works consist of allegories, according to the taste of his times, poems on the different ages and situations of life, idyls, &c. He died in 1660.

CAT'S-EYE. (See Asteria and Quartz.) CATSKILL MOUNTAINS; a range of mountains in New York, much the highest in the state. They extend along to the west of the Hudson, from which their base is, at the nearest point, eight miles distant. The principal summits are in Greene county. The two most elevated peaks are Round Top and High Peak. The former, according to the measurement of captain Partridge, is 3804 feet above the level of tide water; and the latter, 3718 feet. The Catskill mountains present scenery of singular beauty and grandeur, and have become a noted resort of travellers during the summer. On a level tract of about 7 acres, called Pine Orchard, elevated 2214 feet

above the level of tide water, a large and commodious house has been erected for the accommodation of visitors. It is situated directly on the brow of the mountain, and commands an enchanting view of the country on both sides of the Hudson, embracing a tract about 100 miles in length and 50 in breadth. This place, which is 12 miles from the town of Catskill, is approached by a good turnpike road, which winds up the side of the mountain. Two miles west of Pine Orchard are the fine cascades of the Kaaterskill, a stream which is supplied by two small lakes situated high in the mountains. The upper fall is 175 feet in height; and a few rods below is the other, of 80 feet, both perpendicular. The stream passes into a deep and very picturesque ravine, which is bordered by mountains rising abruptly 1000 or 1500 feet.

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CATSUP. (See Ketchup.)

CATTARO; a seaport in Dalmatia, capital of a circle of the same name (formerly called Venetian Albania), at the bottom of the gulf of Cattaro (bocche di Cattaro), on the E. side of the Adriatic; 25 miles W. N. W. Scutari, 30 S. S. E. Ragusa; lon. 18° 58′ E.; lat. 42° 17′ N.; population, 2500. It is a bishop's see. It contains a cathedral, 17 Catholic churches and chapels, 1 Greek church, and an hospital. It has a remarkable harbor, one of the most secure in Europe, being defended by a castle and strong battlements, and enclosed with rocks of such height, that the sun is seen in winter only a few hours in the day. Population of the circle, 31,570; square miles, 296.

CATTEGAT; a large gulf of the North sea, between North Jutland to the W., Norway to the E., and the Danish islands of Zealand, Funen, &c. to the S.; about 120 miles from N. to S., and between 60 and 70 from E. to W. The adverse winds which often prevail_here_render the navigation dangerous. The Cattegat is noted for its herring fishery. It contains the islands Samsoe, Anholt, Lessoe and Hertzholm.

CATTI; one of the most renowned and valiant German tribes. They inhabited what is now Hesse, also part of Franconia and Westphalia. They carried on bloody wars with the Hermunduri and Cherusci. In the time of Cæsar, they dwelt on the Lahn, and opposed him with effect. Drusus defeated without reducing them. In the reign of Marcus Aurelius, they made incursions into Germany and Thrace, but were afterwards defeated by Didius Juli


anus. In 392, they made their last ap- Western Asia, extending from south-east pearance in history in union with the to north-west, and occupying the isthmus Franks. According to Cæsar, their terri- (containing 127,140 square miles) between tory was divided into 100 districts, each the Black and Caspian seas. The length of which was obliged to send annually is computed at 644 miles; the breadth is 1000 men into the field, whose place was various; from Mosdok to Tiflis it may supplied the following year by those who be estimated at 184 miles.

Torrents, had before remained at home to cultivate precipices and avalanches render the the ground. Their food was milk, cheese mountains almost impassable. The Cau- . and game; their dress, the skins of ani- casus is divided into two parallel chains. mals. Their limited princes, who gov- The central ridge, from which the mounerned in connexion with a diet, annually tains fall off on each side, consists of varidistributed the lands among the families. ous sorts of granite. The summits are (See Germania.)

covered with snow and ice, and are mostly CATULLUS, Cajus Valerius, a famous barren; the lower parts are clothed with Roman poet, born, B. C. 86, at Verona thick forests. On the western declivity is (according to some, at Sirmium, a small the Elburs, which a Russian measuretown on a peninsula of lake Benacus, ment makes 16,700 feet high. The Casinow lago di Garda), of rich and respect- beg is 17,388 feet high. The most eleable parents, went, in his youth, to Rome, vated summit (the Snowy mountain) is where his accomplishments soon on the eastern side, west of the Cuban. him the favor of those who adorned that It was first ascended by a European splendid era. He was the friend of Cicero, traveller in 1810. It is also called Schahof Plancus, Cinna, and Cornelius Nepos; dagh (King's mountain) and Schah-Elburs; to the last he subsequently dedicated the Elburs being the common name of all the collection of his poems. This collection high, conical summits rising from the is not of great extent, but shows what he chain of the Caucasus. The limit of was capable of doing in several kinds of perpetual snow on these mountains is poetry, had he preferred a steady course 1890 feet higher than on the Alpine reof study to pleasure and travelling. Prob- gions of Savoy and Switzerland. Two ably a part of his poems bave not come of the passes, or gates, as they are often down to us. Of the merit of his produc- called, are remarkable--the Caucasian tions, there has been but one opinion pass and the Albanian or Caspian pass. among the ancients as well as moderns. Most of the rivers, which take their rise Tibullus and Ovid eulogize him; and in the Caucasus, flow in an easterly diMartial, in one of his epigrams, grants to rection to the Caspian sea, or in a westerhim alone a superiority over himself. In ly course to the Black sea. On the northsportive composition and in epigrams, ern declivity, the Terek flows easterly when he keeps within the proper limits into the Caspian, and the Cuban westerly of that species of poetry, he is a model. into the Black sea : beyond these rivers, He succeeded, also, in heroic verse, as in the mountainous chain sinks down, by his beautiful episode of Ariadne, which degrees, to the sandy plains in the south appears to have inspired the poet who of Russia. On the southern declivity, afterwards sung of Dido. He was the the Kur flows easterly into the Caspian, first of the Romans who successfully im- and the Rioni (called by the ancients the itated the Greek lyric poetry. The four Phasis) westerly into the Black sea : beodes of his that remain to us make us yond these rivers rise the mountains of feel a lively regret for the loss of the Turkish and Persian Armenia, which others. A weighty objection, however, connect the Caucasus with the other against most of his writings, is their li- chains of Western Asia. The highest centiousness and indelicacy. The com- ridge of the Caucasian chain is rugged mon opinion is, that he died 57 B. C., in and barren, but the southern declivity is the 30th year of his age. Scaliger main- extremely fruitful. The whole surface of tains, but without sufficient proof, that he the country abounds in forests and foundied in his 71st year. The edition of his tains, orchards and vineyards, cornfields works by Volpius (Padua, 1737), and that and pastures, in rich alternation. Grapes of Döring (Leipsic, 1788–90, 2 vols.), and various kinds of fleshy fruits, chestdeserve honorable mention. His poems nuts and figs, grow spontaneously. Grain are usually published with those of Ti- of every description, rice, cotton and hemp bullus and Propertius.

flourish abundantly. But agriculture is CAUBUL, or CABUL. (See Afghanistan.) much neglected; partly owing to the inCAUCASUS; a chain of mountains in dolence of the inhabitants, and partly to

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their want of numbers and of security, as 12 rubles of silver apiece. They underthe people of the mountains, particularly take private expeditions, lull their enethe Lesghians, in their plundering expe- mies into security, and then attack them ditions, rob the cultivators of the fruits of unawares. They show the greatest fortitheir industry, and carry off the men for tude in enduring hardships and reverses slaves. There are multitudes of wild an- of fortune. Among them, and, in fact, imals of every description here. The throughout the Caucasus, hospitality and pheasant is a native. The mineral king- an implacable spirit of revenge prevail. dom is full of the richest treasures, which No stranger can travel in their country are nearly untouched. Mineral waters without having a friendly native or Kunak abound, and there are fountains of petro- to accompany him, by whom he is every leum and naphtha in many districts. Some where introduced, and kindly received fountains throw up a slime with the pe- and entertained. All the regions on and troleum, which, being deposited, forms about the Caucasus are comprehended hills, styled by the natives growing moun- under the name of Caucasian countries tains. The medicinal baths of Caucasia (containing 116,078 square miles and are called by the general name of the 1,673,500 inhabitants). Since the peace baths of Alexander. The inhabitants con- concluded between Russia and Persia, in sist of small tribes of various origin and 1813, they have belonged to the Russian language-Georgians, Abassians, Lesghi- empire, though without being completely ans, Ossetes, Čircassians, Taschkents, subject to it; for only a small portion, the Khists, Ingooshes, Charabulaks, Tshet- Georgian territories, have a well ordered shenzes, Tartars, Armenians, Jews, and, government, mostly military. The Cauin some regions, wandering Arabs. Some casian provinces are, at present, six in of them are Greek and Armenian Chris- number :-1. The province of Tiflis or

others are Mohammedans; others, Grusia, also called Georgia (17,630 square Jews; and others worship stars, moun- miles, and 390,000 inhabitants ; the capitains, rocks and trees. Many of the tribes tal, Tiflis, q. v.).—2. Imiretta, called by the are distinguished for the beauty, symme- Russians Melitenia (13,667 square miles, try and strength of their frames, particu- and 270,000 inhabitants; capital, Cotatis). larly the Circassians and Georgians, who -3. The province of Circassia, (32,526 are the handsomest people in the world; square miles, and 550,000 inhabitants). hence the charming Circassian and Geor- Here are Russian military posts (to guard gian females are sought for by the Eastern against the attacks of the independent monarchs for their harams. The Cau- princes of the mountains), the Great and casians (about 900,000 in all) are partly Little Kabarda, Besghistan, &c.-4. Daunder petty sovereigns, who often rule ghestan, i. e., the mountain land on the over a few villages, and partly under Caspian sea (9196 square miles, and elders. The most famous are the Les- 184,000 inhabitants; Derbent is its capghians, who inhabit the Eastern regions, ital).—5. Schirvan (9429_square miles, and are the terror of the Armenians, Per- 133,000 inhabitants), with Bakou, the best sians, Turks and Georgians. Freedom harbor in the Caspian. This region, from makes them courageous and formidable its abundance of beautiful flowers, is to all their neighbors. They are forced, called the Paradise of Roses. In the by the want of the most common neces- neighborhood are the fountains of naphsaries of life, to resort to plunder. Hence tha, to which the Parsees perform piltheir weaker neighbors seek to appease grimages from India. Here, too, is the them with presents. The rocks and crags, temple of fire, where a fire is kept peron the other hand, protect the Lesghians petually burning.-Beyond Terek, on the effectually from all external assaults. northern side of Caucasus, lies, 6. the This tribe entirely neglects the arts ; and province of Caucasia (previous to 1822, their agriculture and pasturage together the government of Georgievsk), containare insufficient for their support. The ing 33,586 square miles, with 146,500 inmanagement of domestic affairs rests habitants, of whom 21,000 are Russians wholly with the females. These pre- and 48,000 colonists. Here are 22 fortipare, from soft and fine wool, cloth dress- fied places (as Georgievsk, Kizliar (a es and coverings of various kinds. The commercial city, with a population of men have no employment but war and 9000), Alexandrovsk, &c.) along the Cuplunder, whereby to procure the necessa- ban, the Kama and the Terek, as defences ries of life. Every prince in the neigh- against the savage tribes of the mountains. borhood can purchase their aid, by fur- Since 1825, Stavropol has been the capinishing them with provisions and 10 or tal of this province, and general Jermoloff

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(q. v.) the governor. The trade is mostly seen of this extraordinary word is in Gorin the hands of the Armenians. Here is don's History of the American Revolution, the Scottish missionary station of Kara, London, 1788, vol. i. p. 240, note. Gordon founded in 1803, and enlarged by Mora- says that, more than 50 years previous to vians from Sarepta, with schools and a the time of his writing, Samuel Adams' printing-office.

father, and twenty others, in Boston, one CauchoiS-LEMAIRE, Louis Augustin or two from the north end of the town, François ; à spirited French political where all ship-business is carried on, used writer, known on account of his political to meet, make a caucus," &c. From the persecutions. He was born in Paris, in fact that the meetings were first held in 1789, where he went through a complete a part of Boston "where all the shipcourse of study, and devoted himself to business was carried on,” Mr. Pickering the work of education. After the restora- inferred that caucus might be a corruption tion, he published a journal, Nain Jaune of caulkers, the word meeting being under(The Yellow Dwarf), which was constitu- stood. Mr. Pickering was afterwards in. tional in its sentiments, and, at the same formed that several gentlemen had men time, contained so much pungent satire, tioned this as the origin of the word. He that it was suppressed, after the second thinks he has sometimes heard the exrestoration, in 1815. He was obliged to pression a caucus meeting (caulkers' meetleave Paris, went to Brussels, published ing). Mr. Pickering says that this cant there the Nain Jaune refugie, and changed word and its derivatives are never used in the title, when the work was suppressed good writing. We must add, however, in that place also, to that of Le Vrai that all the newspapers of the U. States Liberal (The True Liberal), under which, use it. in spite of complaints and prosecutions, CAULAINCOURT. (See Vicenza.) and a constant change of publishers, it CAUDINE FORKS. (See Avellino.) still continues. Cauchois, through the CAULKING, or CAUKING, of a ship, conrepresentations of the French ministry, sists in driving a quantity of oakum, or became an object of so much suspicion old ropes untwisted and drawn asunder, to the Belgian government, that he, with into the seams of the planks, or into the 19 other French refugees, was ordered to intervals where the planks are joined toquit the country, and go to Hamburg. gether, in the ship's decks or sides, in orHe was carried, by gendarmes, over the der to prevent the entrance of water. frontiers, but escaped to the Hague, where After the oakum is driven very hard into he was hospitably received, and concealed these seams, it is covered with hot melted from the police, which was in pursuit of pitch or resin, to keep the water from him. Here he composed a very ener- rotting it. Among the ancients, the first getic memorial to the states-general, in who made use of caulking were the inwhich he represented his persecutions as habitants of Phoeacia, now Corfu. Wax a violation of national law. This occa- and resin appear to have been commonly sioned a most animated debate in the used previously to that period. The Belgian parliament, in which Hogendorp Poles use a sort of unctuous clay for the and Dotrenge distinguished themselves, same purpose on their navigable rivers. but was finally rejected. Under Decazes' CAUSTIC. The name of caustic (Lat. ministry, Cauchois returned to Paris, causticus, from Gr. kalw, I burn) is given where he has since been an industrious to substances, which, by their chemical contributor to several liberal journals. action, disorganize the parts of the body

Caucus; one of the very few Ameri- with which they are put in contact. canisms, which belong entirely to the U. They are called, likewise, potential cauStates, and cannot be traced back to the teries, to distinguish them from the fire mother country. (See Americanism.) Mr. called actual cautery. Caustics, in genJohn Pickering, in his Vocabulary or Col- eral, act by decomposing chemically the lection of Words and Phrases, which have tissues to which they are applied, by debeen supposed to be peculiar to the U. priving them of life, and producing a real States (Boston, 1816), calls it a cant term, local and circumscribed gangrene, called used, throughout the U. States, for those eschar, or slough. Those, the action of meetings which are held by the different which is powerful,--for instance, caustic political parties, for the purpose of agree- potassa, concentrated sulphuric acid, &c., ing upon candidates for office, or concert- --produce these phenomena with such ing any measure which they intend to rapidity, that inflammation takes place carry at the subsequent public or town- only after the formation of the eschar ; meetings. The earliest account he has whilst, on the contrary, inflammation is

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