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the immediate consequence of the less CAVALCANTI, Guido ;. a Florentine phi. energetic caustics. In both cases, sup- losopher and poet of the 13th century, puration occurs sooner or later, and sep- the friend of Dante, and, like him, a zealarates the disorganized from the surround- ous Ghibelline. When the dissensions ing parts. Almost all the substances used of the Guelfs and Ghibellines disturbed as caustics have only a local action: the public peace of Florence, the citizens some, however, are capable of being ab- banished the chiefs of both parties. The sorbed, and of exercising a deleterious Ghibellines were exiled to Sarzana. On action on the economy in general: ar- account of the unhealthy air of that place, senical preparations are an instance of it. they were permitted to return; but CaThe employment of caustics is now con- valcanti had contracted a disease of which fined to a small number of cases. The he died (1300) at Florence. In his youth, actual cautery and the knife are, in gen. he made a pilgrimage to St. Jago de eral, preferred to them. They are used Compostella, in Galicia. Returning home principally in order to establish issues, through France, he fell in love, at Touparticularly in cases in which it is neces- louse, with a young lady of the name of sary to produce a powerful derivation; Mandetta. To her most of his verses to stop the progress of certain gangrenous which we possess are addressed. They affections, such as anthrax ; to open cer- are remarkable, considering the period at tain indolent abscesses ; to change the which they were written, for their beautimode of vitality of the skin in some can- ful style. His Canzone d'Amore has gained cerous or herpetic ulcers; to destroy the him the most fame. The learned cardinal excrescences of wounds or proud flesh; Egidio Colonna, and some others, have and, finally, to prevent the absorption of made commentaries on it. His Rime, the virus deposited at the surface of poi- published by Cicciaporci, appeared at soned wounds.
Florence in 1813. Caustic Potassa (potassa fusa; lapis CAVALIER, in fortification, is a work causticus); impure hydrate of protoxyde generally raised within the body of the of potassium; caustic kali with lime; place, 10 or 12 feet higher than the rest of common caustic. This is seen in flat, the works. It is most commonly situated irregular, brittle pieces, or in round sticks, within the bastion, and made much in like the nitrate of silver; of a grayish- the same form. Sometimes the cavaliers white, sometimes reddish; of a savor ex- are placed in the gorges, or on the middle tremely caustic, and a slight odor sui of the curtain ; they are then made in the generis. This substance is extremely form of a horse-shoe. Their use is to caustic; it decomposes quickly the parts command all the adjacent works and with which it is put in contact, and leaves surrounding country. They are seldom on the skin a soft, grayish eschar, which made except when a rising ground overcomes off slowly. Taken internally, it looks some of the works. In modern acts in the same way as all corrosive times, it is considered that cavaliers in a poisons: it has, nevertheless, been admin- bastion occupy too much room, render istered, in very dilute solutions, as an retrenchments impossible, and, unless a antacid, diuretic, and lithontriptic. It has ditch separates the cavalier from the parsucceeded in the
gravel, in nephritic col- apet of the bastion, cause the grenades to ics, and other affections proceeding from fall upon the defenders of the latter; for superabundance of uric acid. It has been which reasons it is considered best to put recommended, likewise, in the treatment them on the curtains or behind the bastions. of scrofula, and in some diseases of the CAVALRY; one of the three great skin, such as leprosy, &c. This solution, classes of troops, and a formidable power even when very diluted, soon irritates the in the hands of a leader who knows how stomach, and brings on anorexia, which to employ it with effect. This requires a prevents it from being used for any length bold and active spirit, able to avail itself, of time.
with quickness and decision, of every opCaustic SODA (soda); protoxyde of portunity. The efficacy of cavalry arises sodium. Its physical properties are sim- particularly from the moral impression ilar to those of potassa, and it may be which it produces on the enemy. This used with advantage as a succedaneum is greater in proportion to the size of the when employed as a caustic. In fact, the mass and the rapidity of its motion. Its - sub-carbonate, which forms during its ac- adaptation to speedy movements is antion on the skin, is not deliquescent, as other great advantage, which enables a that of potassa, and, consequently, is not commander to avail himself immediately subject to spread.
of a decisive moment, when the enemy
exposes a weak point, or when disorder The Persian cavalry, and, at a later peappears in his ranks. It is a very impor- riod, the Macedonian, were much more tant instrument in completing the defeat numerous. The Romans learnt its use of an enemy, in disconcerting him by a from Pyrrhus and the Carthaginians. At sudden attack, or overthrowing him by a a later period, the cavalry of the Gauls powerful shock. The use of cavalry is, was particularly good. In the middle it is true, oftentimes limited by the na- ages, the knights fought only on horseture of the ground. In forests, in moun- back, and disdained the foot-service. At tainous districts, on a marshy soil
, &c., it this period, however, regular warfare was is of but little avail in large bodies. In unknown, and was only gradually remodern times, cavalry has been led stored in the progress of time. After the against intrenchments, but only to its introduction of artillery, although cavalry own destruction. In some instances, too, was used, yet its mancuvres were awkthe cavalry has been dismounted, and ward and inefficient. The genius of Gusemployed as infantry; which may, on tavus Adolphus first perceived the imporpeculiar occasions, be advisable, but, on tant use which could be made of it. “He ihe whole, is contrary to their nature and was without the heavy cavalry, which, purpose, and, if made a part of their duty, since the time of chivalry, had gone out like other half measures, is usually disad- of use; but he found that the advantage vantageous. It is also unadvisable to of this species of troops did not consist in keep large bodies of cavalry united during its weight, but in its quickness of motion. a campaign. They are to be collected in With reference to this, he formed his large masses only for particular objects. regiments of horse, and showed their real To keep them together the whole time utility ; but it was left to Seidlitz, a genwould be troublesome, and their main- eral of Frederic the Great, to display this tenance frequently attended with diffi- most fully. Napoleon appears to have culty.—The unequal size of the horse, been well aware of the great value of the very great diversity in his strength cavalry in large masses, but he often sacand breed, have at all times rendered it rificed them unsparingly. This, together necessary to divide the cavalry into light with certain erroneous dispositions which and heavy horse. There is sometimes, had crept into some armies, and had also, an intermediate class. These dif- caused the cavalry to fail in services on ferent sorts are employed for different which they ought never to have been put, purposes. The heavy cavalry, with defen- and which were sometimes performed as sive armor (cuirassiers), is more frequently well or better by other troops, gave rise, employed in mass, where force is requi- of late years, to doubts concerning their site; the lighter troops are used singly, utility, which, however, are now abanand in small detachments, where swift- doned. The writings of general Bismark, ness and continued effort are required. on the subject of cavalry, are valuable; Nevertheless, cuirassiers and dragoons, as are also the Nachrichten und Betrachlancers and hussars, mounted riflemen tungen über die Thaten und Schicksale der and chevaux legers, must, in the main Reiterei in den Feldzügen Friederich II points, be equally exercised in the duties und in denen neuerer Zeit (Statements and appertaining to cavalry, and must be able Observations respecting the Conduct and to fight in the line as well as singly. Fate of the Cavalry in the Campaigns of The use of cavalry is probably nearly as Frederic Il and in those of a later Period). ancient as war itself; for in those coun- In the north of Europe, lances are now tries where horses thrive most, and man common among the light cavalry, as may be said to live on horseback, he has they have proved a formidable weapon always preferred to fight on horseback. when skilfully used. They will, no doubt, The Egyptians are said to have had cav- effect a change in the arms, and even in alry before the time of Moses. The the organization, of the infantry, who can Israelites, when at war with their neigh- do little against lancers, if rain prevents bors, often had to encounter cavalry, but them from firing. In the Prussian cavwere afraid to mount horses until the alry, which is among the finest in the time of Solomon. The Greeks appear world, lancers are very numerous. A not to have introduced cavalry into their French author calls the cavalry, very aparmies till the second Messenian war, propriately, l'arme du moment ; because and, even after that time, had compara- they are peculiarly fitted to take advantively few ; but with them it was consid- tage of decisive moments. A moment ered the most respectable class of troops, may occur, when a great victory can be in which only the wealthy citizens served. decided by the sudden irruption of a body VOL. III.
of cavalry, and the next moment it may be with copperplates, from the drawings of too late. A commander of cavalry must the author). The work was published at therefore be possessed of the rare courage the expense of the king, and intended as which shrinks not from responsibility. the first part of a similar work to embrace Many battles in the late wars prove the the whole of Spain. Thunberg has namtruth of these remarks. Napoleon won ed a family of plants Cavanilla. Cavanilthe battle of Marengo chiefly by Keller- les died in 1804. mann's daring charge, at the head of 500 CAVATINA ; a short air without a return horse, on an enemy almost sure of vic- or second part, and which is sometimes tory. The campaigns in Russia, and the relieved with recitative. following war in Germany, showed the Cave, or Grotto; an opening progreat disadvantage under which an army duced by nature in the solid crust of the labors from the want of cavalry. Napo- earth. Caves are principally met with in leon failed to follow up his advantages limestone of the transition and flætz periafter the victories of Lützen and Dresden, od, in gypsum, sometimes in sandstone, chiefly because his cavalry were raw and and in volcanic rocks (basalt, lava, tufa, inexperienced. The training of cavalry &c.); sometimes they are the effect of is much slower than that of infantry. crystallization. The form of the caves The best cavalry is now generally consid- depends partly upon the nature of the ered to be the Prussian and some species substance in which they exist; but it is of the Russian. The French never were frequently altered by external causes. In good horsemen, and the English have reference to their internal construction, not kept pace with the numerous im- the hollows in the earth may be divided provements introduced by the wars on into three classes: those of the first are the continent. It is a fact of interest, that wide clefts ; those of the second admit the more civilization takes root among a the day-light at both ends, and form natnation, the more importance is given to ural passages, which sometimes serve the infantry. All savage nations begin with rivers as beds'; the third and most comcavalry, if they have horses. At present, mon class consists of those which form a infantry is the most numerous class of line of grottoes, about of an equal height, troops, though, before the time of Charles running in the same direction, and conV, they were little esteemed.
nected by passages more or less narrow. CAVANILLES, Antonio Joseph; a cler- Out of some grottoes, rivers take their gyman and botanist; born 1745, at Valen- course; others, again, admit rivers, or may cia; died in Madrid, 1804 ; studied with be said to swallow them for a space, till the Jesuits and at the university of Valen- they again emerge. There are many and cia.
In 1777, he went to Paris with the various causes for the formation of caves. children of the duke of Infantado, and re- Those in limestone and gypsum are unmained there 12 years, occupied with the questionably the results of the dissolving study of several sciences, but chiefly with power of water; in fact, the almost perbotany. He published there, in 1784, fectly uniform direction, the gentle and Observations on the Article Spain in the equable declivity of most caves, appear New Encyclopedia, written with as much to be the effect of the long continuance of patriotism as profound reasoning. In the water in them, the action which has following year, he commenced his great widened the existing crevices. In trachyt botanical work, Monadelphiæ Classis Dis- and lava, caves appear to have been prosertationes decem (Paris
, 1785–89, Ma- duced by the effects of gas. The caves drid, 1790, 4to., with engravings). After of gypsum often contajn foul air; the his return to Spain, he wrote another caves of limestone, various figures of stabeautiful work, Icones et Descriptiones lactites, produced by the deposit of the Plantarum, quæ aut Sponte in Hispania lime dissolved in the water. The most crescunt aut in Hortis hospitantur (Ma- of these lime caves contain remnants of drid, 1791–99, 6 vols., folio, with 601 en- bones of animals, viz., of hyænas, elegravings). It contains a number of new phants, bears. Many caves are remarkgenera and species, natives of Spain, able only on account of their great size, America, India and New Holland. or sublime from the ful gloom which pursuance of a commission from the king, pervades them, and the echoes which roll Cavanilles travelled in Valencia, and col- like thunder through their vaulted paslected the materials for his Observaciones sages. Some are of great depth, as that of sobre la Historia Natural, Geografia, Ag- Fredericshall
, in Norway, which is calcuricultura, Poblacion, etc., del Reyno de Va-lated to be 11,000 feet in depth. One of lencia (Madrid, 1795–97, 2 vols., folio, the grandest natural caverns known is
Fingal's cave, in Staffa, one of the Western in France are both numerous and extenislands of Scotland. Its sides are formed sive, and abound in objects of curiosity. of ranges of basaltic columns, which are in South America is the cavern of Guaalmost as regular as hewn stone. The charo, which is said to extend for leagues. grotto of Antiparos, on the island of the CAVE, Edward, an English printer, the same name, in the Archipelago, is cele- founder of the Gentleman's Magazine, brated for its magnificence. The passage was born in 1691. His first occupation at the entrance glitters, in the torch-light, was that of clerk to a collector of the exas if it were studded with diamonds. The cise in the country. He then went to roof is adorned with stalactites, many of London, and put himself apprentice to a them 20 feet long, and hung with festoons printer. When his indentures expired, he of various forms and brilliant appearance. obtained a place in the post-office, and emIn some parts, immense columns descend ployed his leisure in writing for the newsto the floor; others present the appear- papers. He published, in January, 1731, ance of trees and brooks turned to marble. the first number of the Gentleman's MagThe Peak cavern, in Derbyshire, England, azine, which has continued till this day, is also a celebrated curiosity of this kind. amid the crowd of magazines which have It is nearly half a mile in length, and, at been established since. Cave was deprivits lowest part, 600 feet below the surface. ed of his place in the post-office on acThe caves of Kirkdale, in England, and count of his having resisted some abuses Gailenreuth, in Germany, are remarkable relative to the privilege of franking letters. for the quantities of bones of the elephant, He died January 10, 1754. rhinoceros and hyæna, found in them. CAVENDISH, Thomas; an eminent navThe mine of fluor spar, in Castleton, igator in the reign of Elizabeth. Having Derbyshire, passes through several stalac- consumed his property by his early extravtic caverns. Other caverns in England agances, he collected three small vessels contain subterraneous cascades. In the for the purpose of making a predatory rock of Gibraltar, there are a number of voyage to the Spanish colonies. He sail, stalactic caverns, of which the principal is ed from Plymouth in 1586, took and deSt. Michael's cave, 1000 feet above the stroyed many vessels, ravaged the coasts sea. The most famous caves in Germany of Chile, Peru and New Spain, and reare those of Baumann and Bielstein, in turned by the cape of Good Hope, having the Hartz. (See Buckland's_Reliquiæ circumnavigated the globe in 2 years
and Diluviane, London, 1823.) The most 49 days, the shortest period in which it celebrated caves in the U. States are Mad- had then been effected. In 1591, he set ison's cave, in Rockingham county, Vir- sail on a similar expedition, in which his ginia, extending 300 feet into the earth, principal success was the capture of the and adorned with beautiful incrustations town of Santos, in Brazil. After suffering of stalactites ; Wier's cave, in the same many hardships, he died, in 1592. county, extending 800 yards, but extreme- CAVENDISH, William, duke of Newly irregular in its course and size. Near castle, was born in 1592, and educated by Corydon, Indiana, is cave, which has his father, on whose death he was raised been explored for the distance of several to the peerage. On the approach of hosmiles, celebrated for producing Epsom tilities between the crown and parliament, salts. In Kentucky and Tennessee, caves he embraced the royal cause, and was inare numerous, which appear to have been vested with a commission, constituting used as burial-places. In the north-west him general of all his majesty's forces part of Georgia is a cave, called Nickojack raised north of the Trent, with very ample cave, 50 feet high and 100 wide, which powers. With great exertions, and the has been explored to the distance of three expenditure of large sums from his private miles. A stream of considerable size runs fortune, he levied a considerable army, through it, which is interrupted by a fall. with which, for some time, he maintained Caves are sometimes found which exhale the king's cause in the north. In military poisonous vapors. The most remarkable matters, he depended chiefly on his prinknown is the Grotto del Cane, a small cave cipal officers, whilst he himself indulged near Naples. In Iceland, there are many in the courtly pleasures and literary sociecaves, formed by the lava from its volca- ty to which he was attached. He obtainnoes. In the volcanic country near Rome, ed a complete victory over lord Fairfax there are many natural cavities of great on Adderton-heath, and, on the approach extent and coolness, which are sometimes of the Scotch army, and its junction with resorted to as a refuge from the heat. the parliamentary forces, threw himself The grottoes in the Cevennes mountains into York. Having been relieved by
prince Rupert, he was present at the bat- which was equal to the sum of the weights tle of Marston-moor, after which he left of the two gases. Lavoisier confirmed the kingdom. He returned, after an ab- this conclusion in later times. The same sence of 18 years, and was rewarded for spirit of accuracy in his experiments led his services and sufferings with the digni- Cavendish to another discovery, which ty of duke. He died in 1676.
had escaped Priestley. The latter had CAVENDISH, William, first duke of Dev- observed that a quantity of atmospheric onshire, was the son of William, third air, confined in a tube, through which the earl of Devonshire. He was born in 1640, electric spark was transmitted, lost in and instructed with great care in classical volume, and formed an acid, which redliterature. On various occasions, he dis- dened the tincture of litmus; but he cartinguished himself by his spirit and valor, ried this experiment no farther. Cavenand, in 1677, began that opposition to the dish repeated the experiment, by confinarbitrary measures of the ministers of ing in the tube a solution of pure potash, Charles II, which caused him to be re- which absorbed the acid, and thus proved garded as one of the most determined it to be nitric acid. The analysis of the friends of the liberties of his country. In- air, which remained in the tube after the timately connected with lord Russel, he experiment, showed that the weight of the joined him in his efforts for the security oxygen and azote, which had disappeared, of free government and the Protestant re- was equal to the weight of the acid thus ligion. On the trial of lord Russel, he ap- formed. He easily determined the propeared as a witness in his favor, and of- portion of the azote to the oxygen, which fered to assist him in escaping, after be was 2:2. It was found, also, that, when had been sentenced to death, by changing both gases, sufficiently pure, were mixed clothes with him in prison. In 1684, in that proportion, and exposed to the having succeeded to his father's title, and electric spark, the mixture disappeared being regarded as one of the most formid- entirely, by which his discovery was comable opponents of the arbitrary designs of pletely confirmed. Cavendish distinguishking James II, attempts were made to in- ed himself no less in natural philosophy, timidate him, but without success. Hav- by the accuracy of his experiments. He ing been insulted by a minion of the king, possessed, also, a profound knowledge of he dragged him from the chamber by the the higher geometry, of which he made a nose in the royal presence. He took an very happy use in determining the mean active part in promoting the revolution, density of the earth. He found it to be and was one of the first who declared for 5} times greater than the density of water the prince of Orange. His services were -a conclusion which differs but little rewarded with the dignity of duke of Dev- from that obtained by Maskelyne in anonshire. He still, however, maintained an
He was a member of the independent bearing in parliament. He royal society at London, and, in 1803, was died in 1707.
made one of the eight foreign members of CAVENDISH, Henry, born 1731, the son the national institute of France. Cavenof lord Charles Cavendish, and grandson dish was probably the richest among the of the second duke of Devonshire, devoted learned, and the most learned among the himself exclusively to the sciences, and rich, men of his time. An uncle left him acquired a distinguished rank among those a large fortune in 1773. This increase of learned men who have most contributed wealth made no change in his character to the progress of chemistry. He discov- and habits. Extremely regular and simered the peculiar properties of hydrogen, ple in his manner of living, he was liberal and the qualities by which it is distin- in encouraging science, and in his private guished from atmospheric air. To him charities. His large, well-chosen library we owe the important discovery of the was open for the use of learned men. He composition of water. Scheele had al- died in London, March, 1810, and left ready observed that, when oxygen is mix- £1,200,000 sterling to his relations. His ed with double the quantity of hydrogen, writings consist of treatises in the Philothis mixture burns with an explosion, sophical Transactions, from 1766 to 1792. without any visible residuum. Cavendish They are distinguished by acuteness and repeated this experiment with the accura- accuracy. cy for which he was distinguished. He CAVIARE (ickari) is made in Russia confined both the gases in dry earthen from the roe of sturgeons, belugas, and vessels, to prevent the escape of the prod- many other fish. The roe is separated uct of their combustion, and found that from the skin which encloses it, salted, this residuum was water, the weight of and, after eight days, pepper and finely