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the paradox that verse is useless in the tragedy and ode, he was answered by Chaussée, in his Epitre à Clio, which is still esteemed. His first dramatical work, La Fausse Antipathie, written after he had passed the age of 40, was received with approbation. The following circumstance gave rise to the new species of drama which he introduced. The actress Quinault, perceiving a good subject for an affecting drama in a farce, proposed it to Voltaire, who declined the attempt. She then applied to Chaussée, who, at her suggestion, wrote Le Préjugé à la Mode. Thus the sentimental comedy (comédie larmoyante) originated from the farce. Chaussée then attempted tragedy, and wrote the unsuccessful piece Maximien, a subject which had already been treated of by Th. Corneille. His École des Mères, and his Gouvernante, which followed, are still acted. He died in 1754. Voltaire says he is one of the first writers, after those of genius.
CHAUVEAU-LAGARDE; one of the most celebrated orators of the French bar, at the time of the revolution; born at Chartres in 1767. He defended, at the peril of his life, and with a rare eloquence, the victims of the revolutionary tribunal. With Deseze, the bold and eloquent defender of Louis XVI, and Tronçon-Ducoudray, who, with him, conducted the defence of Marie Antoinette, he will be remembered as one of those who continue faithful to honor and their duty, under all circumstances. Among the most celebrated of his unfortunate clients, besides the queen, were Charlotte Corday and Brissot. His defence of Miranda saved the latter from the scaffold. In 1814, he received letters of nobility from the king, and the cross of the legion of honor. In 1816, he published an account of the trial of the queen, and of that of the princess Elizabeth.
CHAUVELIN, François, marquis de; a distinguished member of the constitutional or left side in the chamber of deputies; descended from a celebrated French family, son of the marquis de Chauvelin, who was lieutenant-general, minister to Genoa and Parma, French ambassador to Turin, and equally distinguished among his contemporaries for his amiable character, and his highly-cultivated mind. His uncle, also, the abbé Chauvelin, was equally eminent for his patriotism, his courage and intelligence, which were rewarded by lettres de cachet, and several years of arbitrary imprisonment. The abbé took an important part in the expul
sion of the Jesuits from France. François Chauvelin, born about 1770, and educated in the military academy at Paris, had been in the service but two years at the commencement of the revolution. He embraced its principles with all the ardor of early youth, and, in 1791, became first aide-de-camp of general, afterwards marshal, Rochambeau, who was sent to organize the army of the north. Chauvelin displayed such extraordinary talents, that he was appointed, in 1792, on the proposal of Dumouriez, ambassador to England, at that time a post of the very highest importance. After the execution of Louis XVI, England broke off all diplomatic intercourse with France, and Chauvelin was sent to Florence, but was compelled to leave this city by the threat of lord Hervey, the English ambassador, who declared to the duke, that, if Chauvelin did not depart within 24 hours, he would forthwith have Leghorn bombarded. During the reign of terror, Chauvelin was thrown into prison, from which he was released by the 9th of Thermidor. Under the directory, he devoted himself entirely to the sciences. After the 18th of Brumaire, he was appointed, by the senate, a member of the tribunate. With Benjamin Constant and several others, he distinguished himself by a firm but circumspect resistance to the encroachments of the consular power. Thus he opposed the establishment of the legion of honor. He was, therefore, removed from the tribunate. His character and patriotism were, however, appreciated by Napoleon, who appointed him prefect of the department of the Lys. This post he held with honor during a space of eight years, after the lapse of which, in 1811, he was called into the council of state, and afterwards sent into Catalonia as intendant-general. After the restoration, he was elected a member of the chamber of deputies by the department of the Côte-d'Or. From that period, he has continued to rise in the esteem of the nation, and has been repeatedly reelected. Chauvelin is not surpassed by any orator in the chamber in brilliancy, ingenuity, rapidity of conception, presence of mind and liveliness of wit. In the salon he speaks like a Beaumarchais; from the tribune, like a Barnave or a Vergniaud. In examining the transactions of the chamber of deputies, we find him, in every debate, in the first ranks; and even his feeble state of health could not prevent his attendance during the important session of 1820.
CHAUX DE FONDS, LA; the name of a
village in the district of Vallengen, in the Swiss canton of Neufchatel. The valley that bears this name is unfit for agriculture, but rich in cattle, and carries on much trade in cheese. It is remarkable, as is also the neighboring village of Locle, for its manufactures of watches and lace. La Chaux de Fonds has about 5800 inhabitants, among whom are upwards of 400 watch-makers, and 600 females that gain their living by making lace. About 40,000 gold and silver watches are annually made here, beside clocks. The vil lage of Locle has about 5000 inhabitants. The village of Fleurier is the chief place for the trade in lace.
CHECK; a draft or bill on a banking house, to be paid, at sight, to the bearer. (See Bill of Exchange, vol. 2, page 104.)
CHEKE, sir John; an eminent English statesman and cultivator of classical literature in the 16th century. He was born at Cambridge in 1514, and received his education at St. John's college, in the university of that place. After having travelled on the continent, he returned to Cambridge, and was made regius professor of Greek, in which office he distinguished himself by introducing improvements in the pronunciation of that language. Bishop Gardiner, chancellor of the university, opposed these innovations, and a literary correspondence took place between the professor and the chancellor, which was, some time after, published at Basil, 8vo. In 1544, Cheke was appointed tutor to the prince of Wales, afterwards Edward VÌ, and he appears, likewise, to have assisted in the education of the princess Elizabeth. On the accession of Edward, he received a pension of 100 marks, was made provost of King's college, Cambridge, and obtained grants of considerable landed property. He soon after married, and, in 1547, retired from court to the university, in consequence of some disappointment, but was soon recalled, and remained a great favorite with the king to the end of his reign. In 1550, he was made gentleman of the king's bedchamber, the next year he was knighted, and, in 1553, he obtained the post of secretary of state. He was also a privy counsellor. The death of his royal patron occasioned a revolution in his fortunes. Cheke was a sincere Protestant, and was deeply involved in the measures adopted for the reformation of the church of England; and, having had the imprudence to engage in the scheme for raising lady Jane Grey to the crown, he was, on its failure, committed to the Tower. After
a few months, however, he was set at liberty, and, having obtained from queen Mary permission to travel, he went into Italy, and thence to Strasburg, in Germany. His conduct while abroad gave offence to the Catholic zealots in England, who procured the confiscation of his estates, on the pretext of his having exceeded the leave of absence which had been granted him. He was then obliged to support himself by giving lectures on the Greek language. In 1556, having been induced to visit Brussels (probably through the contrivance of his enemies), he was there arrested, by order of Philip II, then sovereign of the Netherlands, and sent prisoner to England. Powerful means were adopted to convert him to popery. The fear of death prevailed over his constancy, and he was induced to make a public abjuration of his former faith. His estates were not restored, but he received an equivalent for them from the queen, and he was much caressed by the heads of the Catholic party, who, however, with cruel policy, obliged himn to sit on the bench at the trials of the unfortunate Protestants. It is a circumstance honorable to his character, that he appears to have keenly felt his degraded situation. He died of grief not long after, in September, 1557. Sir John Cheke published several small treatises, original and translated, chiefly relating to theology. He was also the author of many works preserved in manuscript. Among these is an English translation of the gospel of St. Matthew, intended to exemplify his plan for the reformation of the English language, by banishing from it all words but such as are of Saxon origin.
CHELSEA HOSPITAL. (See Hospital.) CHELTENHAM; a town of England, in Gloucester, on the Chelt; 94 miles N. W. London; lon. 2° 4′ W.; lat. 51° 54′ N.; population, 13,396. It is celebrated for its medicinal waters, and, within a few years, has become a place of public resort, and was honored with the residence of the royal family in the year 1788. About 4000 persons, during the summer, visit the waters, which are used as a laxative and restorative to invalids. It has a weekly market on Thursday. The water of these springs has no briskness or pungency, but is brackish, rather bitter, and chalybeate. Its temperature is uniformly from 52° to 53° Fahr. The first effects of drinking these waters are some drowsiness, and sometimes headache, which ceases, however, even previously to the bowels being opened.
A moderate dose acts
promptly and decisively on the prima viæ, without, however, producing any griping, or leaving languor or faintness after its operation.
CHEMICAL AFFINITY. (See Chemistry.) CHEMISTRY. By this name, the etymology of which is uncertain, we understand the science which teaches the nature of bodies, or rather the mutual agencies of the elements of which they are composed, with a view to determine the nature, proportions and mode of combination of these elements in all bodies. Natural philosophy, or physics, examines the reciprocal influence of matter in masses. Chemistry treats of the mutual action of the integrant parts. In the former, the phenomena are produced by the general attraction or repulsion of bodies; in the latter, by minute combination or decomposition. With our present knowledge of matter and its laws, we cannot separate physics entirely from chemistry: one science cannot be studied without the other. Those artisans who first discovered the means of melting, combining and moulding the metals; those physicians who first extracted vegetable substances from plants, and observed their properties, were the first chemists. Instead, however, of observing a philosophical method in their examinations; instead of passing from what was known to what was unknown, early inquirers suffered themselves to be led astray by astrological dreams, the fables of the philosopher's stone, and a hundred other absurdities. (See Alchemy.) Until the year 1650, we find little worthy of notice in the history of chemistry. Rhazis, Roger Bacon, Arnaud de Villeneuve, Basilius Valentin, Paracelsus, Agricola, &c., observed some of the properties of iron, quicksilver, antimony, ammoniac, saltpetre. They discovered sulphuric, nitric and other acids; the mode of rectifying spirits, preparing opium, jalap, &c., and of purifying the alkalies. Glauber was distinguished for the accuracy of his observations. He endeavored to improve certain instruments; advised operators not to throw away any residuum, in performing experiments, as useless; discovered the salt which is called, from him, Glauber's salt, &c. Such isolated discoveries, however, could not form a complete science. Stahl appeared, and, although his theory was unsatisfactory and entirely gratuitous, and, as later observations have proved, erroneous, yet he laid the foundations of a regular science. He was himself much indebted to the celebrated Becher, whose views he corrected and extended. He was sensible that the
greater part of chemical phenomena might depend on a general cause, or, at least, on a few general principles, to which all combinations must necessarily be referred. He supposed that bodies contained a combustible element, which inflammable bodies lost by being burned, and which they could regain from other more inflammable bodies. This element he called phlogiston. The establishing of a hypothesis, which connected almost all phenomena with each other, was an important step. Boerhaave adopted Stahl's system, and contributed much to its general diffusion. He is the founder of philosophical chemistry, which he enriched with numerous experiments, in regard to fire, the caloric of light, &c. Although the principles on which those philosophers proceeded were false, yet the science was much advanced by their labors. It was reserved for Black, Priestley, Cavendish and Lavoisier to overturn Stahl's system, and substitute the pneumatic or antiphlogistic chemistry, the best history of which is to be found in Fourcroy's Philosophie Chimique, and his Système des Connaissances Chimiques. As soon as the composition of the atmospheric air was known, it was observed that combustible bodies, burning in contact with it, instead of losing one of their elements, absorbed one of the component parts of the air, and were thus increased in weight. This component part has received the name of oxygen, because many of the combustible bodies are changed by its absorption into acids. Oxygen now took the place of phlogiston, and explained the difficulties which beset the phlogistic theory. Light and unity were introduced into chemistry by the new technical nomenclature adopted in 1787, by the aid of which all the individual facts are easily retained in the memory, since the name of each body is expressive either of its composition or of its characteristic property. 12 or 15 terms have been found sufficient for creating a methodical language, in which there is no inexpressive term, and which, by changing the final syllables of certain names, indicates the change which takes place in the composition of the bodies. Lavoisier, Fourcroy, Guyton de Morveau and Berthollet were the authors of this felicitous innovation. The chemical terminology admits of nothing arbitrary, and is adapted not only to express known phenomena, but also any which may be hereafter discovered. It is the first example of a systematic and analytic language.
The commencement of the 19th cen
tury forms a brilliant era in the progress of chemistry. The galvanic apparatus of Volta presented to the experimenter an agent unequalled in the variety, extent and energy of its action upon common matter. With this apparatus, sir Humphrey Davy commenced a series of researches, which resulted in a greater modification of the science than it had ever before experienced. He proved that the fixed alkalies were compounds of oxygen with metallic bases, and thus led the way to the discovery of an analogous constitution in the alkaline earths. To the same individual the science is principally indebted for the establishment of the simple nature of chlorine, and for the investigation of iodine. His researches concerning the nature of flame, resulting as they did in the invention of the miner's safety-lamp, afforded to mankind a new demonstration of the utility of philosophy in contributing to the improvement of the arts of life.-But that department of chemistry, which has of late been most successfully investigated, relates to the definite proportions in which bodies unite to form the various chemical compounds. To establish the conclusions which have been arrived at, a multitude of exact analyses were requisite. These were accomplished principally through the labors of Vauquelin, Gay-Lussac, Thénard, Berzelius and Thompson; and have terminated in the establishment of the general truth, that, when bodies combine chemically and intimately with each other, they combine in determinate quantities; and that, when one body unites with another in more than one proportion, the ratio of the increase may be expressed by some simple multiple of the first proportion. Upon this general fact, doctor Wollaston constructed the logametric scale of chemical equivalents an invention which has contributed, in an eminent degree, to render our knowledge of the constitution of compounds precise, by introducing the sure basis of arithmetical relations, which, when fixed with accuracy, are not susceptible of change. The doctrine of definite proportions may, therefore, be regarded as having communicated to the principles of chemistry that certainty which has long been considered as peculiar to the mathematical sciences; and it is in the developement of these important relations that the advancement of the science has been most conspicuous.-Among the still more recent improvements in chemistry may be cited the discovery of Döbereiner, relating to the power of platinum in effecting the combination of ox
ygen and hydrogen; the researches of Faraday, in which many of the gases have been reduced to the liquid form; the discovery of new compounds of carbon and hydrogen, and the singular fact, which they exhibit, of different combinations being established in the same proportions; the elucidation of the new compounds of chlorine with carbon; of the peroxide of chlorine; the hydriodide of carbon; the perchloric, iodous, fulminic, and other acids; the discovery of the real bases of silex and zircon, and that of the new principle, brome: add to these, that our knowledge of light and electricity has been greatly enlarged, and that the phenomena of electro-magnetism are altogether new, and it becomes strikingly obvious that chemistry is still a progressive science. "Nor can any limits be placed to the extent of its investigations. Its analysis is indefinite; its termination will have been attained only when the real elements of bodies shall have been detected, and all their modifications traced: but how remote this may be from its present state we cannot judge. Nor can we, from our present knowledge, form any just conception of the stages of discovery through which it has yet to pass."
Chemistry has two ways of becoming acquainted with the internal structure of bodies, analysis and synthesis (decomposition and combination). By the former, it separates the component parts of a compound body; by the latter, it combines the separated elements, so as to form anew the decomposed body, and to prove the correctness of the former process. These methods depend on a complete knowledge of the two powers, by which all bodies in nature are set in motion, viz., attraction and repulsion. Attempts have been made to distinguish the attraction of elementary particles from planetary attraction; the former being designated as chemical affinity: but nature has only one kind of attraction. The alternate play of attraction and repulsion produces a great number of sensible phenomena, and a multitude of combinations, which change the nature and the properties of bodies. The study of these phenomena, and the knowledge of these combinations, appertain to the department of chemistry. The history of a body must always precede its analysis. The mere examination of its form, its color, its weight, and the place where it was found, &c., is often sufficient, by a comparison, to lead to a knowledge of its chemical properties. There is no science n:ore extensive than chemistry, nor is it possible for one person to embrace it in its
whole extent. To facilitate the study, it is considered in different points of view, and thrown into divisions and subdivisions, so that a person may devote himself to one department of it, although the method of observing, analyzing and combining is the same in all, and although all the phenomena must be explained by the general theory, and refer to certain laws, of which a previous knowledge is requisite. These laws constitute what is called philosophical chemistry, which explains what is meant by the affinity of aggregation or cohesion, and by the affinity of composition, or chemical affinity. It treats of the phenomena of solution, saturation, crystallization, ebullition, fusion, neutralization. Chemical processes, by changing or modifying the properties of bodies, suggest to the observer important considerations on the changes of form, density and temperature. Philosophical chemistry weighs these considerations. It shows, further, that affinity may be exerted, 1. between two simple bodies; 2. between a simple and a compound one; 3. between compound bodies; and, establishing the principle, that the same body has not the same affinity for all others, but attracts them unequally; it shows us the laws which determine this preference, and the circumstances which modify it; such as cohesion, mass, insolubility, elasticity and temperature. It measures the degree of affinity, whether of simple or compound bodies. It observes the circumstances which aid or obstruct the play of attraction, and shows that two bodies will not act upon each other, unless one of them, at least, is in a fluid state; that bodies, even in a state of solution, act upon each other only at imperceptible distances; that two bodies, which have no perceptible affinity, may be made to combine by the interposition of a third; and, finally, that the peculiar properties of bodies are destroyed by their combination, and the compound possesses entirely new properties. Proceeding from these principles to the examination of bodies themselves, philosophical chemistry considers the effects of light, heat and electricity; the nature of the simple and compound inflammable bodies; of air and water; the composition and decomposition of acids; the nature and properties of the salts; their relations to the acids; the calcination, solution and alloying of metals; the composition and nature of plants; the characteristics of the immediate elements of vegetable substances; the phenomena of animalization; the properties of animal compounds, and the decay of organic
substances. This is the sphere of philosophical chemistry, while it confines itself to general views.-According to the application of these general views, chemistry is divided into seven or eight branches, which we have yet briefly to survey. The study of the great phenomena which are observed in the atmosphere, and which are called meteors, constitutes meteorological chemistry. This explains the formation of the clouds, rain, mist, snow, waterspouts; the state of the atmosphere in relation to the hygrometer, barometer and thermometer; the nature of the aurora borealis, meteoric stones; in short, all the chemical processes going on above the surface of the earth. Geological chemistry treats principally of the great combinations of nature, which produce volcanoes, veins of metals, beds of mineral coal, basalt, mineral waters, the enormous masses of salt and lime, the saltpetre in the bed of the Indus, the natron of the lakes of Egypt, the borax of the lakes of Thibet. The geological chemist endeavors to discover and explain the causes of deluges, earthquakes, the decrease of the waters on the globe, the influence of climate on the color of animals and plants, on the smell of flowers, and the taste of fruits. In these general views, he needs the aid of natural philosophy and physics. Chemistry, in its application to natural history, is divided in the same manner. There is a chemistry of the mineral kingdom, which comprises metallurgy and assaying, and the examination of all inorganic substances, as stones, salts, metals, bitumen, waters; a chemistry of the vegetable kingdom, which analyzes plants and their immediate products; and a chemistry of the animal kingdom, which studies all substances derived from living or dead animals. This last is subdivided into physiological chemistry, which considers the changes produced in animal substances by the operation of life; pathological chemistry, which traces the changes produced by disease or organic defects; therapeutic or pharmaceutic chemistry, which teaches the nature and preparation of medicines, shows the means of preserving them, and exposes the pretensions of empirics; hygietic chemistry, which acquaints us with the means of constructing and arranging our habitations, so as to render them healthy, of examining the air which we must breathe in them, guarding against contagious diseases, choosing wholesome food, discovering the influence of occupation, fashion and custom on the health. Agricultural chemistry