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the paradox that verse is useless in the sion of the Jesuits from France. Frantragedy and ode, he was answered by çois Chauvelin, born about 1770, and eduChaussée, in his Epître à Clio, which is cated in the military academy at Paris, still esteemed. His first dramatical work, had been in the service but two years at La Fausse Antipathie, written after he the commencement of the revolution. He had passed the age of 40, was received embraced its principles with all the ardor with approbation. The following circum- of early youth, and, in 1791, became first stance gave rise to the new species of aide-de-camp of general, afterwards mardrama which he introduced. The actress shal, Rochambeau, who was sent to orQuinault, perceiving a good subject for ganize the army of the north. Chauvelin an affecting drama in a farce, proposed it displayed such extraordinary talents, that to Voltaire, who declined the attempt. he was appointed, in 1792, on the propoShe then applied to Chaussée, who, at sal of Dumouriez, ambassador to England, her suggestion, wrote Le Préjugé à la at that time a post of the very highest imMode. Thus the sentimental comedy portance. After the execution of Louis (comédie larmoyante) originated from the XVI, England broke off all diplomatic farce. Chaussée then attempted tragedy, intercourse with France, and Chauvelin and wrote the unsuccessful piece Maxim- was sent to Florence, but was compelled ien, a subject which had already been to leave this city by the threat of lord treated of by Th. Corneille. His École Hervey, the English ambassador, who dedes Mères, and his Gouvernante, which clared to the duke, that, if Chauvelin did followed, are still acted. He died in 1754. not depart within 24 hours, he would Voltaire says he is one of the first writers, forthwith have Leghorn bombarded. Durafter those of genius.

ing the reign of terror, Chauvelin was CHAUVEAU-LAGARDE; one of the most thrown into prison, from which he was celebrated orators of the French bar, at released by the 9th of Thermidor. Under the time of the revolution ; born at Char- the directory, he devoted himself entirely tress in 1767. He defended, at the peril to the sciences. After the 18th of Bruof his life, and with a rare eloquence, maire, he was appointed, by the senate, a the victims of the revolutionary tribunal. member of the tribunate. With BenjaWith Deseze, the bold and eloquent de- min Constant and several others, he disfender of Louis XVI, and Tronçon-Du- tinguished himself by a firm but circumcoudray, who, with him, conducted the spect resistance to the encroachments of defence of Marie Antoinette, he will be the consular power. Thus he opposed remembered as one of those who con- the establishment of the legion of honor. tinue faithful to honor and their duty, un- He was, therefore, removed from the der all circumstances. Among the most tribunate. His character and patriotism celebrated of his unfortunate clients, be- were, however, appreciated by Napoleon, sides the queen, were Charlotte Corday who appointed him prefect of the departand Brissot. His defence of Miranda ment of the Lys. This post he held with saved the latter from the scaffold. In honor during a space of eight years, after 1814, he received letters of nobility from the lapse of which, in 1811, he was called the king, and the cross of the legion of into the council of state, and afterwards honor. In 1816, he published an account sent into Catalonia as intendant-general. of the trial of the queen, and of that of After the restoration, he was elected a the princess Elizabeth.

member of the chamber of deputies by the CHAUVELIN, François, marquis de; a department of the Côte-d'Or. From that distinguished member of the constitution- period, he has continued to rise in the al or left side in the chamber of deputies; esteem of the nation, and has been repeatdescended from a celebrated French fam- edly reëlected. Chauvelin is not surpassily, son of the marquis de Chauvelin, ed by any orator in the chamber in brilwho was lieutenant-general, minister to liancy, ingenuity, rapidity of conception, Genoa and Parma, French ambassador to presence of mind and liveliness of wit. Turin, and equally distinguished among In the salon he speaks like a Beaumarhis contemporaries for his amiable char- chais; from the tribune, like a Barnave or acter, and his highly-cultivated mind. a Vergniaud. In examining the transacHis uncle, also, the abbé Chauvelin, was tions of the chamber of deputies, we find equally, eminent for his patriotism, his him, in every debate, in the first ranks; courage and intelligence, which were re- and even his feeble state of health could warded by lettres de cachet, and several not prevent his attendance during the imyears of arbitrary imprisonment. The portant session of 1820. abbé took an important part in the expul- CHAUX DE Fonds, LA; the name of a village in the district of Vallengen, in the a few months, however, he was set at Swiss canton of Neufchatel. The valley liberty, and, having obtained from queen that bears this name is unfit for agricul- Mary permission to travel, he went into ture, but rich in cattle, and carries on Italy, and thence to Strasburg, in Germamuch trade in cheese. It is remarkable, ny. His conduct while abroad gave ofas is also the neighboring village of Locle, fence to the Catholic zealots in England, for its manufactures of watches and lace. who procured the confiscation of his La Chaux de Fonds has about 5800 in- estates, on the pretext of his having exhabitants, among whom are upwards of ceeded the leave of absence which had 400 watch-makers, and 600 females that been granted him. He was then obliged gain their living by making lace. About to support himself by giving lectures on 40,000 gold and silver watches are annu- the Greek language. In 1556, having ally made here, beside clocks. The vil- been induced to visit Brussels (probably lage of Locle has about 5000 inhabitants. through the contrivance of his enemies), The village of Fleurier is the chief place he was there arrested, by order of Philip for the trade in lace.

II, then sovereign of the Netherlands, CHECK; a draft or bill on a banking and sent prisoner to England. Powerful house, to be paid, at sight, to the bearer. means were adopted to convert him to (See Bill of Exchange, vol. 2, page 104.), popery. The fear of death prevailed over

CHEKE, sir John; an eminent English his constancy, and he was induced to statesman and cultivator of classical liter- make a public abjuration of his former ature in the 16th century. He was born faith. His estates were not restored, but at Cambridge in 1514, and received his he received an equivalent for them from education at St. John's college, in the uni- the queen, and he was much caressed by versity of that place. After having trav- the heads of the Catholic party, who, elled on the continent, he returned to however, with cruel policy, obliged him Cambridge, and was made regius profess- to sit on the bench at the trials of the unor of Greek, in which office he distin- fortunate Protestants. It is a circumguished himself by introducing improve- stance honorable to his character, that he ments in the pronunciation of that lan- appears to have keenly felt his degraded guage. Bishop Gardiner, chancellor of situation. He died of grief not long

after, the university, opposed these innovations, in September, 1557. Sir John Cheke and a literary correspondence took place published several small treatises, original between the professor and the chancellor, and translated, chiefly relating to theology. which was, some time after, published at He was also the author of many works Basil, 8vo. In 1544, Cheke was appoint- preserved in manuscript. Among these ed tutor to the prince of Wales, after- is an English translation of the gospel of wards Edward VÌ, and he appears, like- St. Matthew, intended to exemplify his wise, to have assisted in the education of plan for the reformation of the English the princess Elizabeth. On the accession language, by banishing from it all words of Edward, he received a pension of 100 but such as are of Saxon origin. marks, was made provost of King's col- CHELSEA HOSPITAL. (See Hospital.) lege, Cambridge, and obtained grants of CHELTENHAM; a town of England, in considerable landed property. He soon Gloucester, on the Chelt; 94 miles N. W. after married, and, in 1547, retired from London; lon. 2° 4' W.; lat. 51° 54' N.; court to the university, in consequence of population, 13,396. It is celebrated for its some disappointment, but was soon re- medicinal waters, and, within a few years, called, and remained a great favorite with has become a place of public resort, and the king to the end of his reign. In 1550, was honored with the residence of the he was made gentleman of the king's royal family in the year 1788. About bedchamber, the next year he was knight- 4000 persons, during the summer, visit ed, and, in 1553, he obtained the post of the waters, which are used as a laxative secretary of state. He was also a privy and restorative to invalids.

It has a counsellor. The death of his royal patron weekly market on Thursday. The water occasioned a revolution in his fortunes. of these springs has no briskness or punCheke was a sincere Protestant, and was gency, but is brackish, rather bitter, and deeply involved in the measures adopted chalybeate. Its temperature is uniformly for the reformation of the church of Eng- from 52° to 53° Fahr. The first effects of land; and, having had the imprudence to drinking these waters are some drowsiness, engage in the scheme for raising lady and sometimes headache, which ceases, Jane Grey to the crown, he was, on its however, even previously to the bowels failure, committed to the Tower. After being opened. A moderate dose acts promptly and decisively on the primæ vie, greater part of chemical phenomena might without, however, producing any griping, depend on a general cause, or, at least, on or leaving languor or faintness after its a few general principles, to which all comoperation.

binations must necessarily be referred. CHEMICAL AFFINITY. (See Chemistry:) He supposed that bodies contained a com

CHEMISTRY. By this name, the etymol- bustible element, which inflammable bodogy of which is uncertain, we understand ies lost by being burned, and which they the science which teaches the nature of could regain from other more inflammable bodies, or rather the mutual agencies of the bodies. This element he called phlogiston. elements of which they are composed, with The establishing of a hypothesis, which a view to determine the nature, proportions connected almost all phenomena with and mode of combination of these elements each other, was an important step. Boerin all bodies. Natural philosophy, or phys- haave adopted Stahl's system, and contribics, examines the reciprocal influence of uted much to its general diffusion. He is matter in masses. Chemistry treats of the the founder of philosophical chemistry, mutual action of the integrant parts. In which he enriched with numerous experthe former, the phenomena are produced iments, in regard to fire, the caloric of by the general attraction or repulsion of light, &c. Although the principles on bodies; in the latter, by minute combina- which those philosophers proceeded were tion or decomposition. With our present false, yet the science was much advanced knowledge of matter and its laws, we can- by their labors. It was reserved for Black, not separate physics entirely from chem- Priestley, Cavendish and Lavoisier to overistry: one science cannot be studied with- turn Stahl's system, and substitute the out the other. Those artisans who first pneumatic or antiphlogistic chemistry, the discovered the means of melting, combin- best history of which is to be found in ing and moulding the metals ; those phy- Fourcroy's Philosophie Chimique, and his sicians who first extracted vegetable sub- Système des Connaissances Chimiques. As stances from plants, and observed their soon as the composition of the atmospherproperties, were the first chemists. In- ic air was known, it was observed that stead, however, of observing a philosoph- combustible bodies, burning in contact ical method in their examinations; instead with it, instead of losing one of their eleof passing from what was known to what ments, absorbed one of the component was unknown, early inquirers suffered parts of the air, and were thus increased themselves to be led astray by astrological in weight. This component part has redreams, the fables of the philosopher's ceived the name of oxygen, because many stone, and a hundred other absurdities. of the combustible bodies are changed by (See Alchemy.) Until the year 1650, we its absorption into acids. Oxygen now find little worthy of notice in the history took the place of phlogiston, and explained of chemistry. Řhazis, Roger Bacon, Ar- the difficulties which beset the phlogistic naud de Villeneuve, Basilius Valentin, theory. Light and unity were introduced Paracelsus, Agricola, &c., observed some into chemistry by the new technical nomof the properties of iron, quicksilver, anti- enclature adopted in 1787, by the aid of mony, ammoniac, saltpetre. They dis- which all the individual facts are easily covered sulphuric, nitric and other acids; retained in the memory, since the name the mode of rectifying spirits, preparing of each body is expressive either of its opium, jalap, &c., and of purifying the composition or of its characteristic propalkalies. Glauber was distinguished for erty. 12 or 15 terms have been found the accuracy of his observations. He en sufficient for creating a methodical landeavored to improve certain instruments ; guage, in which there is no inexpressive advised operators not to throw away any term, and which, by changing the final residuum, in performing experiments, as syllables of certain names, indicates the useless; discovered the salt which is called, change which takes place in the compofrom him, Glauber's salt, &c. Such iso- sition of the bodies. Lavoisier, Fourcroy, lated discoveries, however, could not form Guyton de Morveau and Berthollet were a complete science. Stahl appeared, and, the authors of this felicitous innovation. although his theory was unsatisfactory and The chemical terminology admits of entirely gratuitous, and, as later observa- nothing arbitrary, and is adapted not only tions have proved, erroneous, yet he laid to express known phenomena, but also the foundations of a regular science. He any which may be hereafter discovered. was himself much indebted to the cele- It is the first example of a systematic and brated Becher, whose views he corrected analytic language. and extended. He was sensible that the The commencement of the 19th century forms a brilliant era in the progress ygen and hydrogen ; the researches of of chemistry. The galvanic apparatus Faraday, in which many of the gases have of Volta presented to the experimenter been reduced to the liquid form; the disan agent unequalled in the variety, ex- covery of new compounds of carbon and tent and energy of its action upon com- hydrogen, and the singular fact, which mon matter. With this apparatus, sir Hum- they exhibit, of different combinations bephrey Davy commenced a series of re- ing established in the same proportions ; searches, which resulted in a greater modi- the elucidation of the new compounds of fication of the science than it had ever be- chlorine with carbon; of the peroxide of fore experienced. He proved that the fixed chlorine; the hydriodide of carbon, the alkalies were compounds of oxygen with perchloric, iodous, fulminic, and other metallic bases, and thus led the way to the acids; the discovery of the real bases of discovery of an analogous constitution in silex and zircon, and that of the new the alkaline earths. To the same individual principle, brome: add to these, that our the science is principally indebted for the knowledge of light and electricity has been establishment of the simple nature of greatly enlarged, and that the phenomena of chlorine, and for the investigation of iodine. electro-magnetism are altogether new, and His researches concerning the nature of it becomes

strikingly obvious that chemisflame, resulting as they did in the inven- try is still a progressive science. “Nor can tion of the miner's safety-lamp, afforded to any limits be placed to the extent of its inmankind a new demonstration of the util- vestigations. Its analysis is indefinite; its ity of philosophy in contributing to the termination will have been attained only improvement of the arts of life. But that when the real elements of bodies shall have department of chemistry, which has of been detected, and all their modifications late been most successfully investigated, traced: but how remote this may be from relates to the definite proportions in which its present state we cannot judge. Nor can bodies unite to form the various chemical we, from our present knowledge, form any compounds. To establish the conclusions just conception of the stages of discovery which have been arrived at, a multitude of through which it has yet to pass.” exact analyses were requisite. These were Chemistry has two ways of becoming accomplished principally through the la- acquainted with the internal structure of bors of Vauquelin, Gay-Lussac, Thénard, bodies, analysis and synthesis (decompoBerzelius and Thompson; and have ter- sition and combination). By the former, minated in the establishment of the gen- it separates the component parts of a comeral truth, that, when bodies combine pound body; by the latter, it combines the chemically and intimately with each other, separated elements, so as to form anew the they combine in determinate quantities; decomposed body, and to prove the corand that, when one body unites with an- rectness of the former process. These other in more than one proportion, the methods depend on a complete knowledge ratio of the increase may be expressed of the two powers, by which all bodies in by some simple inultiple of the first pro- nature are set in motion, viz., attraction portion. Upon this general fact, doctor and repulsion. Attempts have been made Wollaston constructed the logametric scale to distinguish the attraction of elementary of chemical equivalents an invention particles from planetary attraction; the which has contributed, in an eminent de- former being designated as chemical affinigree, to render our knowledge of the con- ty: but nature has only one kind of attracstitution of compounds precise, by intro- tion. The alternate play of attraction and ducing the sure basis af arithmetical rela- repulsion produces a great number of sentions, which, when fixed with accuracy, sible phenomena, and a multitude of comare not susceptible of change. The doc- binations, which change the nature and trine of definite proportions may, therefore, the properties of bodies. The study of be regarded as having communicated to these phenomena, and the knowledge of the principles of chemistry that certainty these combinations, appertain to the dewhich has long been considered as pecul- partment of chemistry. The history of iar to the mathematical sciences; and it a body must always precede its analysis. is in the developement of these important The mere examination of its form, its relations that the advancement of the sci- color, its weight, and the place where it ence has been most conspicuous.-Among was found, &c., is often sufficient, by a the still more recent improvements in comparison, to lead to a knowledge of its chemistry may be cited the discovery of chemical properties. There is no science Dőbereiner, relating to the power of plat- n:ore extensive than chemistry, nor is it inum in effecting the combination of ox- possible for one person to embrace it in its whole extent. To facilitate the study, it substances. This is the sphere of philois considered in different points of view, sophical chemistry, while it confines itself and thrown into divisions and subdivisions, to general views. According to the apso that a person may devote himself to plication of these general views, chemistry one department of it, although the method is divided into seven or eight branches, of observing, analyzing and combining is which we have yet briefly to survey. The the same in all, and although all the phe- study of the great phenomena which are nomena must be explained by the general observed in the atmosphere, and which theory, and refer to certain laws, of which are called meteors, constitutes meteorologia previous knowledge is requisite. These cal chemistry. This explains the formalaws constitute what is called philosophical tion of the clouds, rain, mist, snow, waterchemistry, which explains what is meant spouts; the state of the atmosphere in relaby the affinity of aggregation or cohesion, tion to the hygrometer, barometer and and by the affinity of composition, or thermometer; the nature of the aurora chemical affinity. It treats of the phe- borealis, meteoric stones; in short, all the nomena of solution, saturation, crystalli- chemical processes going on above the zation, ebullition, fusion, neutralization. surface of the earth. Geological chemChemical processes, by changing or mod- istry treats principally of the great combiifying the properties of bodies, suggest to nations of nature, which produce volcathe observer important considerations on noes, veins of metals, beds of mineral coal, the changes of form, density and temper- basalt, mineral waters, the enormous

ature.

Philosophical chemistry weighs masses of salt and lime, the saltpetre in these considerations. It shows, further, the bed of the Indus, the natron of the that affinity may be exerted, 1. between lakes of Egypt, the borax of the lakes of two simple bodies; 2. between a simple Thibet. The geological chemist endeavand a compound one; 3. between com- ors to discover and explain the causes of pound bodies; and, establishing the princi- deluges, earthquakes, the decrease of the ple, that the same body has not the same waters on the globe, the influence of affinity for all others, but attracts them climate on the color of animals and unequally; it shows us the laws which plants, on the smell of flowers, and the determine this preference, and the circum- taste of fruits. In these general views, stances which modify it; such as cohesion, he needs the aid of natural philosophy mass, insolubility, elasticity and tempera- and physics. Chemistry, in its application ture. It measures the degree of affinity, to natural history, is divided in the same whether of simple or compound bodies. manner. There is a chemistry of the It observes the circumstances which aid mineral kingdom, which comprises metal-. or obstruct the play of attraction, and lurgy and assaying, and the examination shows that two bodies will not act upon of all inorganic substances, as stones, salts, each other, unless one of them, at least, metals, bitumen, waters; a chemistry of is in a fluid state; that bodies, even in a the vegetable kingdom, which analyzes state of solution, act upon each other only plants and their immediate products; and at imperceptible distances; that two bodies, a chemistry of the animal kingdom, which which have no perceptible affinity, may studies all substances derived from living be made to combine by the interposition or dead animals. This last is subdivided of a third ; and, finally, that the peculiar into physiological chemistry, which conproperties of bodies are destroyed by their siders the changes produced in animal combination, and the compound possesses substances by the operation of life; pathentirely new properties. Proceeding from ological chemistry, which traces the these principles to the examination of changes produced by disease or organic bodies themselves, philosophical chemistry defects; therapeutic or pharmaceutic chemconsiders the effects of light, heat and istry, which teaches the nature and prepelectricity; the nature of the simple and aration of medicines, shows the means compound inflammable bodies ; of air and of preserving them, and exposes the prewater; the composition and decomposition tensions of empiries; hygietic chemistry, of acids; the nature and properties of which acquaints us with the means of the salts; their relations to the acids; the constructing and arranging our habitations, calcination, solution and alloying of metals; so as to render them healthy, of examinthe composition and nature of plants; the ing the air which we must breathe in them, characteristics of the immediate elements guarding against contagious diseases, of vegetable substances; the phenomena choosing wholesome food, discovering the of animalization; the properties of animal influence of occupation, fashion and cuscompounds, and the decay of organic tom on the health. Agricultural chemistry

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