Imatges de pÓgina

trcats of the nature of plants and soils, and are called supporters of combustion, because the laws of production. Sir Humphrey they combine with the others, producing Davy first gave it the character of a sci- a disengagement of heat and light, and ence. It treats, 1. of the general powers acidifying principles, because they are also of matter which have any influence on capable of producing acids by a similar vegetation, of gravity, cohesion, chemical combination. The 48 others are called affinity, heat, light, eléctricity, the elements simple combustibles, because their union of matter, especially such as are found in with the supporters of combustion, abovevegetables, and the laws of their composi- mentioned, is a real combustion. Comtion and arrangement; 2. of the organiza- pound bodies, as has been observed, are tion of plants, their structure, the chemical not so numerous as might be supposed. composition of their organs, and the sub- They result, 1. from the combination of stances found in them, &c.; 3. of soils; oxygen, or one of the other simple sup4. of the nature of manure.—Chemistry, porters of combustion, with one of the finally, exerts an influence on the routine simple combustibles; such are the acids: of domestic life, and on the arts. It sim- 2. from that of a simple body combined plifies and regulates the daily offices of with oxygen, with another similar comthe housekeeper; renders our dwellings pound; such are the salts: 3. from that healthy, warm, light; assists us in prepar- of two, three, rarely four, simple coming clothing, food, drink, &c.: it teaches bustibles with one another: 4. from that the best way of making bread; preparing of oxygen with hydrogen and carbon, and purifying oils; of constructing bake- forming vegetable matter: 5. from that of houses, ovens and hearths; of bleaching oxygen with hydrogen, carbon and azote, and washing all kinds of stuff; of pro- forming animal matter. Combustibles ducing artificial cold, &c. The applica- combined with the simple supporters of tion of chemistry to the arts and manufac- combustion are sometimes called burned tures is, however, still more important and bodies ; from the number of their elements, extensive. Here its aim is to discover, im- they are also called binary compounds. prove, extend, perfect and simplify the pro- When their taste is acid, and they have cesses by which the objects to be prepared the property of reddening vegetable blues, may be adapted to our wants. We close they are termed acids. If they are not our remarks with the observation, that a acid to the taste, and have the property of knowledge of chemistry may frequently be turning blue what has been reddened by useful in judicial proceedings, in exposing acids, they are distinguished by the

termicrime; e.g., in cases of poisoning, counter- nation ide, as oxide, chloride, &c. If only feiting coins and written documents, &c. one of the latter class is formed, that is,

Chemical Classification and Nomencla- if the supporter of combustion will unite ture. The chemist finds a small number with the combustible in only one proporof bodies, from which only one kind of tion, we call this compound simply the matter can be obtained, in the present oxide, chloride, &c., of the combustibles; state of his knowledge, and by the instru- as, oxide of carbon. If they unite in severments and agents which he now has at his al proportions, we call the first, or that disposal. On the other hand, there is a which contains the smallest proportion of large number of bodies, from which he oxygen, &c., protoride, &c.; the second, obtains several kinds of matter. The for- deutoride; the third, tritoride. The highmer he calls elements, or simple bodies; the est is also called peroxide. So, if only latter, compound bodies. The number of one acid is formed, we designate it by the simple bodies now known is 53: that of name of the combustible, with the termithe compounds is much greater, and might, nation ic. Thus carbon with oxygen forms at first, appear to be infinite, since not carbonic acid. If several are formed, that only a difference of elements, but even a which contains the larger proportion of difference of the proportions in which the acidifying principle is designated by they are combined, makes an essential the termination ic, and that which contains difference in the properties of the com- less, by the termination ous. Thus sulpound. It is, however, much less than phur forms sulphuric acid and sulphurous would be supposed, and even less than acid. If there are still intermediate comthe number of possible combinations of pounds, we annex hypo (signifying less), simple bodies. Twelve of the simple to designate a lower degree of acidity. bodies are oxygen, iodine, chlorine, bro- Thus we should have sulphuric, hyposulmine, fluorine, hydrogen, boron, carbon, phuric; sulphurous, hyposulphurous. In phosphorus, sulphur, azote and selenium; the acids and oxides, chlorides, &c., the and 41 are metals. (q. v.) The five first combustible is called the base. When


the base is the same, the peroxide, &c., quantities to the U. States and South always contains less oxygen, &c., than the America, besides furnishing most of the lowest acid. For the names of compounds European markets, through the fairs of of two binary burnt bodies, no rules have Leipsic, Frankfort and Brunswick. Withbeen adopted to express the union of two in a few years, they have even been sent oxides, two acids, or an acid with a non- to England, strange as this may sound. metallic oxide. But those formed of They are manufactured in the neighboracids and metallic oxides are called salts, ing villages. and their individual names are formed by CHEMNITZ, Martin, a distinguished changing the termination of the acid and Protestant theologian of the 16th century, placing it before the name of the metal; rose, by his extraordinary talents and prothe termination ous is changed into ite, found knowledge, from low circumstances and ic into ate; sulphurous acid with the to a high degree of celebrity. He was oxide of tin would form sulphite of tin; born at Treuenbrietzen, in the Mark of sulphuric acid and tin, sulphate of tin. If Brandenburg, Nov. 9, 1522, of poor pathe same acid combines with more than rents; received his education at Magdeone oxide of the same metal, then we burg and Frankfort on the Oder, and, in prefix the characteristic of the oxide to 1544, became a schoolmaster in Writzen the name of the acid; thus sulphuric on the Oder, to obtain the means of conacid, combined with the protoxide of tinuing his studies at Wittenberg. By iron, forms the protosulphate, with the the advice of Melancthon, he applied peroxide, the persulphate, of iron. Other himself to mathematics and astrology. In substances have also the property of unit- 1550, he became librarian of duke Albert ing with acids, neutralizing them, and of Prussia. He then wrote his Loci theoforming compounds analogous to salts. logici (edit. Polycarp. Leyser, Frankfort There are no general rules for the names on the Maine, 1591, fol.), a valuable comof these compounds; but the substances mentary on Melancthon's system of dogthemselves are called salifiable bases. The matics. Being invited to Brunswick, as rules of nomenclature, in regard to the minister, he attacked the Jesuits in his combination of the combustibles, vary:- Theologiæ Jesuitarum præcipua Capito, 1. If the constituents are metals, they (Leipsic, 1562), and, when the council of form alloys. 2. If the compounds are Trent thought itself assailed in this work, solid or liquid, and formed of a metallic he wrote his Examen Concilii Tridentini and a non-metallic combustible, we give best edit. 1707, fol., Frankfort on the to the latter the termination uret; as, car- Maine), a work of great historical value. bon with iron forms carburet of iron. If He adhered to Luther's doctrine concernboth are non-metallic, the termination ing the eucharist, wrote on this subject, uret may be attached to either; as, phos- composed the Corpus Doctrinæ prutenice phuret of sulphur, or sulphuret of phos- for the Lutherans, and gradually became phorus. 3. If the compound is gaseous, so implicitly attached to the Lutheran we name the gas, or one of the gases, if doctrine, that his efforts in support of it it is composed of two, and join the other contributed to check the progress of thecomponent as an adjective; as, phosphu- ological science. He died, April 8, 1586, reted hydrogen.

at Brunswick. He was the author of a CHEMNITZ, the principal manufacturing great number of works besides those altown in the kingdom of Saxony, in the ready mentioned.-His grandson, Philip department of the Erzgebirge, on the Bogislav von Chemnitz, born in 1605, river Chemnitz, is well built, and contains a soldier in the Swedish service, wrote 1000 houses, with 16,000 inhabitants, the celebrated work, De Ratione Status in amongst whom are 1197 master-weavers, Imperio nostro Romano-Germanico, &c. and 860 journeymen and apprentices. auct. Hippolito a Lapide (1640, 4to., and The principal manufactures are white and 1647, 12mo.), which did more injury to printed calicoes, ginghams, handkerchiefs, the interests of the emperor than the loss and various articles used for bed-quilts. of many battles. He then became SwedOf 12 cotton factories, founded about the ish historiographer, and wrote a history middle of the last century, several employ of the Swedish and German war (1648 from 300 to 500 workmen. 40 spinning- and 1653). He died at his estate near mills, in the town and its environs, man- · Hallstadt, in Sweden, in 1678. ufacture upwards of 1,000,000 pounds of CHÉNIER, Marie Joseph de, born, Aug. yarn annually. The manufacture of cot- 28, 1764, in Constantinople' (where his ton hose has been brought to very great father, Louis Chénier, known as the auperfection, and they are exported in large thor of valuable works on the Moors, Morocco and the Ottoman empire, was in the erection of piers, deepening and consul-general), went, when very young, enlarging the harbor, and erecting fortifito Paris, served as an officer of dragoons, cations. After the peace of 1783, the left the service, and devoted himself to French government determined to make literary pursuits in Paris. After an inter- Cherburg a great naval depôt, and in difval of three years, he published his ferent attempts, before 1808, expended Charles IX, which may be considered as more than £2,000,000 in constructing a a monument of the taste prevailing in vast bulwark to break the water, renderFrance at the beginning of the revolution, ing the road a safe anchorage. Afterand is not without poetical merit. Ché- wards, under Napoleon, a basin was nier, by flattering the passions of the peo- formed, 1000 feet long and 770 wide, ocple, soon gained great popularity. His cupying 18 acres, having a depth of 50 Henri VIII, La Mort de Calas, and Caius feet, and capable of containing 50 sail of Gracchus, were received with great ap- the line. In addition to this, a wet plause. He was chosen a member of the dock has been constructed of equal 'diconvention, where, for a considerable mensions. The cost of the basin and time, he belonged to the party of the dock was nearly £5,000,000, without the most violent democrats. This spirit ap- expense of improving the roads. The pears even in his Fenelon and Timoleon, mud, however, already begins to accumupublished in 1793 and 1794. In the last late in the basin. The current, if the tide years of his life, he was engaged in pre- sets in, is so strong, that sometimes 10 or paring a history of French literature. His 12 cables are necessary to hold a vessel. discourses at the Athenæum, in Paris, in Napoleon's views respecting Cherburg, as 1806 and 1807, contain the history of the given in count Las Cases Journal, are French language, and of the different de- very interesting. partments of poetry and prose, down to CHERIBON; a principality of Java, on the the times of Francis I. In an introduc- N.coast; lat. 6° 46' S.; lon. 108° 35' E. It tion, published in 1806, he explained the is divided into 9 districts, and contains plan of the work, together with the prin- about 90,000 inhabitants, besides strancipal results of his researches. (See his gers. This country is divided between two Fragmens du Cours de Littérature, fait à princes, both of whom are feudatories of l'Athénée en 1806 et 1807, &c., Paris, the Dutch East India company. The 1808.) Chénier also treated of the char- productions are coffee, timber, cotton yarn, acteristic features of the principal works areca, indigo, sugar, and also a little pepin French literature, from 1788 to 1808, in per: this last article formerly grew here in his Tableau historique de l'État et des such abundance, that, in the year 1680, the Progrès de la Littérature Française depuis bhar, of 375 pounds, was paid for at the 1789. In his last piece on the decennial rate of no more than 10 Spanish dollars. prizes, he maintained that the prize prom- The rhinoceros is seen on the hills and in ised for the best didactic work was due to the forests in this district. The horses one of his former enemies. His criticism are small and well made, but vicious. on La Harpe's Lycée is the most correct Cheribon, Sheribon, or Tcheribon ; a town and impartial view which has been given in Java, capital of the principality of the of that work. He died Jan. 11, 1811. same name, 170 miles E. Batavia. It is CHEQUERS. (See Draughts.

situated at the bottom of a deep bay, and CHERBURG, or CHERBOURG; a seaport was formerly a station of some imporof France, on the Channel, in the depart- tance. 25,000 inhabitants. ment of La Manche (the Channel); 16 Cheribon Reef; a reef in the East Inleagues N. St. Lo, 34 W. N. W. Paris; dian sea, near the north coast of Java; lat. lon. 1° 37' 3' W.; lat. 49° 38 30" N, 6° 9 S.; lon. 108° 34' E. population, 15,600. It has a commercial CHEROKEES, or TSULLAKEES, the more court, an exchange, a school of navigation proper name. (See Indians.) The name and a learned society. It is situated at Cherokee is now perfectly settled (it is used, the bottom of a large bay, between cape in fact, by the Indians themselves); but the Barfleur and cape La Hogue. The build- condition of this tribe is of so interesting a ing of small vessels and the manufacture character, that we have thought proper to of woollen stuffs form the principal em- defer our account of them to a place ployment of the inhabitants. This port where we may be able to give the reader has always been considered, by the something more satisfactory than would French, as an object of great importance now be in our power, particularly in respect in the navigation of the English channel, to the subject of their political relations and immense sums have been expended to the U. States and the state of Georgia,

which have already occasioned much dis- contains about 2000 houses, partly of stone, cussion, and are likely to remain some with 20,000 inhabitants. The city consists time longer in controversy.

of four parts:-1. the fortress, with a CHERONEA. (See Chæronea.)

church, a mint, an arsenal and a cannonCHERRY. The cherry is a fruit of the foundery; 2. the naval office, with extenFrune or plum tribe, the original stock of sive naval magazines and dock-yards ; 3. which is the wild cherry (prunus cerasus). the Grecian suburb, with a large wareThe gradual effect of cultivation on the house; and, 4. the suburb for soldiers. cherry has been the production of several The naval office has been transferred to kinds, which, both in size and flavor, Nikolajev_(at the confluence of the Ingul greatly exceed the fruit of the parent stock. with the Bug), founded in 1789, the situaThe kinds that are best known are the tion of which is more convenient and May-duke, white-heart and black-heart healthy. The harbor is annually entered cherries. The trees are propagated by by 400 Greek boats, besides several Ausgrafting them usually upon the stocks of trian and French vessels. Wherever large wild black and red cherry-trees, which rivers have but a slight descent towards are reared for that purpose. This agree their mouths, a great quantity of mud acable fruit is eaten fresh or dried. It is cumulates, which renders the bed gradusometimes preserved with sugar as a ally shallower, finally, rises above the sweet-meat, made into jam, used in the surface of the water, forming morasses preparation of the liquor called cherry, and islands, which leave a narrower bed brandy, and made into wine. From wild for the stream. Such an accumulation black cherries the Swiss distil an ardent takes place more rapidly, if two rivers of spirit, by the sale of which to the French considerable size, like the Dnieper and and Germans, they derive considerable Bug, empty into the same bay. "A deep profit.—The wood of the cherry-tree, bed should, therefore, be dug and embankwhich is hard and tough, is much used, ed for the united rivers, which will be particularly by turners and cabinet-makers, kept free by the action of the current, at in many places, for the manufacture of least for some time. This was overlooked chairs and other furniture. The gum that by Potemkin, when he formed the plan exudes from the bark is, in many respects, of this city; and large vessels are, thereequal to gum arabic, and is considered fore, obliged to discharge part of their carvery nutritive. Hasselquist informs us goes in the harbor of Oczakow, which has that, during a siege, more than 100 men i7 feet of water; and those which are outwere kept alive for nearly two months, ward bound complete their cargoes there. without any other sustenance than a little In 1823, however, the bed of the Ingul, of this gum, which they occasionally took which discharges its waters into the Black into their mouths, and suffered gradually sea, was deepened to 18} feet, so that, in to dissolve.

1826, a ship of 110 guns could be launched CHERRY-LAUREL. The cherry-laurel at Nikolajev. The province of Cherson (prunus lauro-cerasus) is remarkable only or Nikolajev (containing. 25,500 square as producing the celebrated laurel-water. miles, and 371,000 inhabitants) is a dry This is a most powerful poison, the heath, rising gradually towards the south, strength of which (like that of peach- containing rich meadows here and there, kernels, bitter almonds, cherry-leaves, &c.) and, along the rivers, about 18 limens, or depends upon the presence of prussic marshy lakes. The soil along the shores acid, now so well known. Laurel-water is every where impregnated with iron, and is obtained from the leaves and flowers, produces salt plants in abundance. It is, or the leaves only, of this plant, by distilla- therefore, suitable for raising sheep. The tion, and was formerly much used, and climate, in summer, is hot; in winter, cold. much dreaded, as a poison. Of late years, The mulberry-tree, which loves a soil imit has gone out of use. The German pregnated with salt, thrives here luxurikirschwasser is a strong spirit, possessing antly; but the inhabitants do not turn it the same properties, in a less degree, to advantage by the cultivation of silkas do inoyau, and other similar cordials, worms: agriculture is yet in its infanwhich should all be used with great cau- cy here. În 1787, the emperor Joseph and tion.

the empress Catharine II met at Cherson, CHERSON, capital of the Russian gov- and, amid the splendid festivities of that ernment of Cherson, on the Dnieper, about occasion,

formed an alliance against the 60 miles from its mouth, formerly the Porte. The tomb of Potemkin is in the chief naval station on the Black sea, city, and that of Howard a few miles from founded in 1778, is well fortified, and it. The cities of Odessa and Oczakow,



and the ruins of Olbia, at the mouth of the ringian forest, where the Catti were their Bug, are in the government of Cherson. neighbors, and the Saale. Drusus, on

CHERSONESUS (Greek; a peninsula). his retreat from the Saale to the Rhine, This name has been given to several pen- passed through the southern part of their insulas; as, 1. the Cimbrian chersone- country. But, in advancing from the tersus (chersonesus Cimbrica), now Jutland, ritory of Paderborn, over the Weser, to&c. (see Cimbri); 2. the Taurian cher- wards the Elbe, he took his course through sonesus (ch. Taurica, also called Magna), the northern part. Here the Aller seems the peninsula formed by the Black sea to have been their northern and eastern and the sea of Azof-the Crimea; 3. the boundary. They also possessed some terThracian chersonesus (ch. Thracica, or ritory on the west bank of the Weser. merely Chersonesus), the great peninsula Their national league comprised all the in Thrace, now the peninsula of the Dar- tribes_ between the Weser, the Rhine and danelles.

the Lippe—the Cattuarii, Ansibarii, DulCHERUB, in the Scriptures; an angel of gumnii, Marsi, Chamaveri, &c. The Rothe second choir of the first hierarchy. mans first became acquainted with the Cherubim is the Hebrew plural of cherub, Cherusci in the year 10 B. C., when Druas seraphim is of seraph. The former sig- sus forced his way as far as the Weser, nifies, as children; the latter, as flames of but, for want of provisions, was obliged to fire. The church has assigned to them return. In the following year, he advancTheir rank in the heavenly hosts. Paint- ed from the Weser towards the Elbe, on ers and sculptors commonly represent the the north side of the Hercynian forest, cherubim by a child's head, between through the midst of the Cherusci. At wings. Raphael's paintings are beautifully that time, they were not very formidable. adorned with these lovely creations of In the year 7 B.C., they even entered into

an alliance with the Romans, and served CHERUBINI, Luigi, born at Florence, in in their armies. But when Varus attempt1760, a disciple of Sarti, at the age of 18 ed to make them tributary to Rome, and composed an opera, Adriano in Siria, at subject them to the Roman laws, they reLeghorn, which was, however, too learn- volted. Varus, being decoyed by them ed for the connoisseurs of that city. He into the forest of Teutoburg, in the year was better understood at Mantua and Tu- 9 A. D., was destroyed, with his whole rin. At the former place, in 1784, his sec- army, in a battle which lasted three days. ond opera, Alessandro nell' Indie, and, at (See Arminius and Germania. Upon the latter, in 1788, his Ifigenia in Aulide, this, the Cherusci became the chief object were received with universal applause. He of the attacks of the Romans. Germaniwas then invited to Paris, where he attract- cus (q. v.), victorious over the Marsi and ed attention by his operas Demophoon, Catti, marched against the Cherusci, Lodoiska, Medea, &c." But the triumph whose leaders, Segestus and Arminius of his genius was the celebrated opera (the latter of whom had carried off the Les deux Journées, which is a master- daughter of the former), were at war with piece of musical composition. The merits each other. Segestus, pressed by Arminiof Cherubini are enhanced by his singular us, called Germanicus to his aid, who demodesty, in which he resembles the great livered him, indeed, from his danger, but Mozart, whose sublime genius he reveres. was obliged to return, after several camHe is one of the five superintendents of paigns, without having obtained any perthe conservatoire in Paris. In 1805, he manent advantages. By their last successwas invited to Vienna, to compose an op-' es,the Cherusci had become very powerful. era for the imperial theatre. There he Their alliance with the Lombards and produced his Faniska, which was repre- Semnones, who had renounced the Marsented with the greatest applause in 1806, comannic confederacy, and the victory of and displays great depth of feeling and Arminius over the Marcomanni under power of awakening emotion. He has Maroboduus, raised the Cherusci to the composed much since his return to Paris. first rank among the German nations. But, In 1821 appeared his Blanche de Provence after the assassination of Arminius (21 ou la Cour des Fées, in three acts, in A. D.), new disturbances broke out among which he was assisted by Berton, Boïel- them. They committed the supreme comdieu, Kreutzer and Paër.

mand to Italicus, the last survivor of the CHERUSCI; the most celebrated German family of Arminius, but soon after expeltribe among the Istævones. They inhab- led him. The Lombards restored him to ited both sides of the Hartz mountains, be- his rights and dignity, after a long and tween the south-western part of the Thu- destructive war with the Cherusci, who,

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