Imatges de pągina

abandoned by their allies, were now confined to the territory between the Saale and the south side of the Hercynian forest. In the third century, they, with their former allies, were swallowed up in the great Frankish confederacy, and no longer appear as a distinct people.

CHESAPEAKE BAY; a spacious bay of North America, in the states of Virginia and Maryland. Its entrance is between cape Charles and cape Henry, 16 miles wide; and it extends 190 miles to the northward, through the states of Virginia and Maryland, dividing them into two parts, called the eastern and western shores. It is from 7 to 20 miles broad, and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep; affording many commodious harbors, and a safe and easy navigation. It receives the waters of the Susquehanna, Potomac, Rappahannoc, York and James rivers, which are all large and navigable.

CHESELDEN, William; a celebrated English surgeon and anatomist. He was born in Leicestershire, in 1688, and, after a common school education and some medical instruction in the country, he went to London to prosecute his studies. At the age of 22, he began to give lectures on anatomy, and, in 1711, he was chosen F. R. S. In 1713, he published a treatise on the Anatomy of the Human Body, 8vo., long esteemed a favorite manual of the science. He continued to read his lectures for more than 20 years, during which he gradually rose to the head of his profession. In 1723, he published a Treatise on the High Operation for the Stone. Cheselden, who was a very dexterous and successful operator, afterwards added to his reputation by practising what is termed the lateral method of operating for the stone, since generally adopted. A peculiar operation, which he performed on a youth of 14, who had been blind from his birth, and who obtained his sight by means of it, attracted much notice; and, in 1728, he published an account of it in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1733 was published his Osteography, or Anatomy of the Bones, folio, consisting of plates and short explanations, a splendid and accurate work. Cheselden obtained, in 1737, the appointment of chief surgeon to Chelsea hospital. This situation he held till his death, which took place at Bath, April 10, 1752, in consequence of a fit of apoplexy. Besides the productions already mentioned, he published a translation from the French of Le Dran's Surgery, and several anatomical and surgical papers in the Philosophical Transactions.

The private character of Cheselden was generally respectable; but he was not exempt from faults and foibles. Among these was a predilection for pugilism, and a degree of vanity which rendered him more ambitious of being thought a skilful architect or coachmaker than a good anatomist. He was, however, humane and liberal, and was much esteemed by Pope and other literary men with whom he was acquainted.

CHESS; the most celebrated and general of all sedentary games. One of the greatest charms of chess lies, no doubt, in the circumstance, that, whilst man is everywhere surrounded by chance; in this game, as generally played, he has entirely excluded it, except that it must be decided by chance which of the two players shall begin. The game affords so much variety, so much scope for calculation, so many opportunities to exhibit foresight and penetration, that it has been held in great esteem by all nations acquainted with it, and all persons who have conquered the difficulties of learning it. The Mohammedans except chess from the law against gambling. Whilst this game affords enjoyment worthy of mature minds, it is an excellent exercise for the young, as it teaches patience and circumspection, strengthens the judgment, and encourages perseverance in a plan affording a prospect of eventual success, though, at the moment, the situation of things may appear very critical. The Chinese pretend to have known it 200 years previous to our era. It was brought, in the sixth century, from India to Persia, whence it was spread by the Arabians and the crusaders all over the civilized world. It is most commonly played in Asia. In fact, its whole composition and its name prove its Asiatic origin. In Sanscrit, it is called schthrantsh, a word which is believed to indicate the most important component parts of an ancient Eastern army-elephants, infantry, sithed wagons, and horses. But this name was supplanted by the Persian term shah (king), which the game has retained, more or less corrupted, in all languages. Generally, chess is played by two persons upon a board, the same as that used in draughts or chequers, containing 64 squares. The board must be so placed, that each player has a white square at his right hand. The squares are named from the pieces, viz.; that on which the king is placed is called the king's square; that on which the king's pawn is placed, the king's second square; that before the pawn, the king's

third square; the next, the king's fourth; and so on with all the pieces of each side. Each player has eight pieces and eight pawns. In placing the pieces, the ancient rule is to be followed-servat regina colorem (the queen maintains the color)—that is, the black queen is to be placed on the black square, in the middle of the line next to the player; in a similar way, the white queen on the white field. On the side of the king and the queen stand the bishops; then follow the two knights; and last, the rooks or castles. The object of the game is, to bring the adversary's king into such a situation that he cannot move, which is called checkmating. The king can never be taken. The play ends with a checkmate. (It is related of doctor Franklin, that once, playing chess in Paris, and being checkmated, he said, "Take the king; I am a republican, and don't care for him.") It is not uninteresting to consider the different names which the pieces have received in various countries. In the East, the queen is called by the more proper name of vizier, or general. The bishops are called, in Germany, runners; and in France, fools (fous). These were, originally, elephants, with giants on them. The knights are called, in German, leapers. The castles were, originally, warchariots, which is also indicated by the word rook, from the Indian roch, or roth. With the old Germans, the pawns, now called peasants, were styled Wenden (Vandals), a tribe despised by the Germans. Don John of Austria had a room, the floor of which was made like a chess board. On this he played with living persons. The peasants of a German village, Ströpke, or Ströbeck, near Halberstadt, for about 300 years, have been distinguished as chessplayers. The reason for this is doubtful. The most probable opinion is, that a certain bishop, who lived among them, made them acquainted with this game, and freed them from several taxes, on condition that they would continue to practise it. Numerous anecdotes show how much the game of chess can absorb the mind. The elector of Saxony, John Frederic, was taken prisoner in the battle at Mühlberg, by the emperor Charles V, and was playing at chess with his fellow-prisoner, Ernest of Brunswick, when it was intimated to him that the emperor had sentenced him to death. He paused for a moment, to remark on the irregularity of the proceeding, and immediately resumed the game, which he won, and expressed, in a lively manner, the pleasure which he derived from his victory.

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Charles XII of Sweden played at chess when he was so closely besieged in the house near Bender, by the Turks. Al Amin, caliph of Bagdad, would not be disturbed in chess-playing when his city was carried by assault. Frederic the Great loved chess much. Napoleon did not play it particularly well. Among the most famous players and writers on the game are, a duke of Brunswick, named Augustus, who, in the 17th century, published, under the name of Selenus, an Introduction to the game (1616, 4to.), now very rare; Philidor, a Frenchman, who was particularly distinguished in' London, in 1780-90; Gioacchino Greco, celebrated in the beginning of the 17th century; and the Arabian Philip Stamma in Paris, 1737. Caxton's "Game and Playe of the Chesse," printed in 1474, is generally admitted to be the first typographical work executed in England. Anastasia, a German novel by Heynse, contains many ingenious ideas on chess-playing, and several fine games. Some very curious manuscripts, relating to this game, in the Chinese, Sanscrit, Persian and Arabic languages, have been partially translated; and the presses of Europe have teemed with similar productions, the most noted of which are enumerated by Mr. Lewis, in the preface to his edition of Saratt on Chess, 1822.-Laws of the game. 1. If the board, or pieces, be improperly placed, the mistake cannot be rectified after four moves on each side are played. 2. When a player has touched a piece, he must move it, unless it was only to replace it; when he must say, J'adoube, or Î replace. 3. When a player has quitted a piece, he cannot recall the move. 4. If a player touch one of his adversary's pieces without saying J'adoube, he may be compelled to take it, or, if it cannot be taken, to move his king. 5. When a pawn is moved two steps, it may be taken by any adversary's pawn, which it passes, and the capturing pawn must be placed in that square over which the other leaps. 6. The king cannot castle if he has before moved, if he is in check, if in castling he passes a check, or if the rook has moved. 7. Whenever a player checks his adversary's king, he must say Check, otherwise the adversary need not notice the check. If the player should, on the next move, attack the queen, or any other piece, and then say Check, his adversary may replace his last move, and defend his king. 8. When a pawn reaches the first row of the adversary's side, it may be made a queen, or any other piece the player chooses. 9. If a

false move is made, and is not discovered until the next move is completed, it cannot be recalled. 10. The king cannot be moved into check, nor within one square of the adverse king, nor can any player move a piece or pawn that leaves his king in check.

Chess Clubs; societies for the purpose of playing chess, and assembling the best players of a place. They flourish most in France and England, but there are many in Germany. They often challenge each other, and the game is carried on by letter.

CHEST (called, in anatomical language, the thorax) is the cavity of the body between the neck and the belly. The external parts of the thorax are the skin, the breasts, various muscles, and the bones which form the frame of the cavity. These are the sternum, running from the neck down the middle of the breast, and the ribs, which are inserted in the spine, and arched towards the sternum, with which they are firmly connected by means of a cartilage. The parts within the cavity of the thorax are the pleura and its productions, the lungs, heart, thymus gland, œsophagus, thoracic duct, arch of the aorta, part of the vena cava, the vena azygos, the eighth pair of nerves, and part of the great intercostal nerve.

CHESTER (anciently Deva); a city of England, capital of Cheshire, on the Dee, about 20 miles from the Irish sea, 145 N. Bristol, 181 N. W. London ; lon. 2° 53′ W.; lat. 53° 11′ N.; population, 19,949. It is a bishop's see. The city is square, and surrounded by a wall nearly two miles in circumference. It contains a cathedral, nine parish churches, a Roman Catholic chapel, and eight places of worship for dissenters of different persuasions. The streets are hollowed out of a rock to the depth of one story beneath the level of the ground on each side; and the houses have a sort of covered portico running on from house to house, and from street to street, level with the ground behind, but one story above the street in front. The castle is a noble structure; the walls are evidently Norman. It has two yearly fairs, the most considerable in the north of England, held on the 5th of July and 10th of Oct., each lasting 14 days. The manufactures are not extensive; they consist chiefly of tobacco, snuff, shot, white lead, iron, tobacco pipes and leather. It sends two members to parliament.

CHESTERFIELD (Philip Dormer Stanhope), earl of, a statesman, orator and author, born in London, in 1694, studied


with great success at Cambridge. 1714, he made a tour through Europe, and acquired, particularly at Paris, that polished grace of manners for which he was distinguished. On the accession of George I, general Stanhope, his great uncle, procured him the place of gentleman of the bed-chamber to the prince of Wales; and the borough of St. Germain's, in Cornwall, elected him to parliament, though he had not yet attained the legal age. At the close of the first month of his membership, he delivered a speech, in which he astonished the audience by the vigor of his thoughts no less than by the elegance of his style, and the facility and grace of his delivery. He distinguished himself equally in the house of lords, in which he took his seat after his father's death. In 1728, he was appointed ambassador to Holland, and succeeded in delivering Hanover from the calamities of a war, by which it was threatened. On his return, he was made knight of the garter and lord steward of the household to George II. He was afterwards appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and, on his return, in 1746, received the place of secretary of state; but he soon retired from public affairs, and devoted the remainder of his life to study and the society of his friends. His talents as an author are displayed in several moral, critical and humorous essays, in his parliamentary speeches, which were printed at a later period, and particularly in a collection of letters to his son, which are celebrated throughout Europe. To the charms of wit and grace he united good sense, a thorough knowledge of the manners, customs and the political condition of Europe, extensive information, a noble and unaffected elegance, and a style that would do honor to the most experienced writer. All this, however, cannot excuse the corrupt moral tone of his letters. One is shocked to hear a father recommending to his son grace of manners as the most essential quality for a man of the world, and even instigating him to licentious irregularities. It must be mentioned, however, in his excuse, that the young man to whom these letters were addressed (a natural son, whom he had adopted under the name of Stanhope), was remarkable for the awkwardness of his manners, and that his father, who set so high a value on elegance, hoped to inspire him with the same taste, by setting the subject in its strongest light. His efforts, however, were not successful. Towards the close of his life, Chesterfield became deaf, and suffered from other

bodily infirmities, which cast a gloom over his last days. He was intimate with Pope, Swift, Bolingbroke, and other distinguished scholars, and an acquaintance of doctor Johnson, who called him a wit among lords, and a lord among wits, and said of his letters, that they taught the morals of a prostitute and the manners of a dancing-master. He died in 1773, at the age of 79.

CHESTNUT. The sweet chestnut (fagus castanea) is a stately tree, and is distinguished by having spear-shaped and pointed leaves, with tapering serratures at the edge. The flowers appear in long, hanging spikes, or clusters, about the month of May; and the fruit, which is ripe in September, is enveloped in a husk defended by a great number of complicated prickles. Notwithstanding the known durability of the oak, there does not appear any well authenticated instance of the age of an oak being equal to that of the celebrated chestnut-tree at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, which was known as a boundary mark in the reign of king John. This tree is supposed to have been then more than 500 years old, making its age at this time above 1100 years. The diameter of its trunk is 15 feet, and it still continues to bear fruit. Few forest trees are more beautiful than the chestnut. It is true that the generality of painters prefer the oak for its picturesque form; yet, in the landscapes of Salvator Rosa, and other celebrated masters, chestnut-trees are very conspicuous. The timber of this tree was formerly much in use. It is frequently used for the beams and rafters of houses, and its appearance so nearly resembles that of the oak, that it requires the eye of a good judge to distinguish them from each other. For the heads and staves of casks, the wood of the chestnut is considered peculiarly excellent; and pipes made of it for the conveyance of water under ground are said to be more durable than those made of either elm or oak. For furniture, it may be stained so as somewhat to resemble mahogany. Hop-poles and poles for espaliers, and dead fences, made of young chestnut-trees, are preferred to most others. In the U. States, it is chiefly used in the manufacture of rails for fences.

CHESTNUT, HORSE. (See Horse-Chestnut.)

CHEVAL, À (French); on horseback; astride any object. In a military sense, a body of troops is said to be à cheval of a river, if one wing is stationed on the right and the other on the left bank.

CHEVAUX DE FRISE (Friesland horses,

so called because first used at the siege of Groningen, in that province, in 1658); an armed beam of square timber or iron, used to defend the fronts of camps, breaches, &c. They are usually from 15 to 18 feet long, and connected by chains, each being perforated with small holes, to receive rods of wood or iron, pointed at their extremities, and, when moved in any direction, affording a sort of hedge of spears.

CHÉZY, Antoine Leonard; born at Paris, in 1773; professor of the Oriental languages, first professor of the Sanscrit language and literature in the collège· royal, at Paris, the chair of which was established for him by Louis XVIII; and one of the conservators of the royal or national library. He has translated the poem Mejnun and Leila from the Persian into French, from which A. Th. Hartmann (Leipsic, 1807) translated it into German. In 1814, he published an episode from the Sanscrit, entitled Death of Yajuadatta. His wife is known in Germany, under the name of Helmina, as a prose writer and a poetess. Her mother was a daughter of the well-known German poetess, madame Karschin. Helmina was born in Berlin, Jan. 26, 1783, lived for a time with madame de Genlis in Paris, and resides in or near Vienna. She has written poetry, novels, tales, and an opera, Euryanthe, for Maria von Weber.

CHIABRERA, Gabriel; a poet, born at Savona, in the Genoese territory, in 1552. Sound in mind and body, he lived to a great age, and died at Savona in 1638. His poetical genius developed itself late, and he was considerably advanced, when he began to study the poets attentively. He preferred the Greeks, and particularly Pindar, his admiration for whom inspired him with the desire of imitating him. Thus he created a manner and style which was altogether different from that of the other Italian lyric poets, and which procured him the surname of the Italian Pindar. Equally successful were his attempts to imitate Anacreon; his canzonets are as easy and elegant as his canzoni are sublime. He is, besides, the author of several epic, dramatic, pastoral and other poems. His fame soon spread over all Italy. He visited Rome, and resided a considerable time at Florence and Genoa. Wherever he went, he was loaded with presents and honors.

CHIAOUS, OF CHIAOUX, is a French corruption of the Turkish word chaush, or chavush, the title of the royal messengers or gentlemen-ushers in the court of the

grand signor. Their office partakes both of a civil and military character, and they act as the heralds and messengers of the empire.

CHIARAMONTI; the family name of pope Pius VII. (q. v.) Like his predecessors, Clement XIV and Pius VI, from whom the museum Pio-Clementinum is called, he augmented the treasures of art in the Vatican. The museums established there by him and during his government are called after him; but this name is particularly applied to that collection of ancient statues and reliefs, which are placed in the hall adjoining the museum Pio-Clementinum. The selection and arrangement of these were committed to Canova. The description of this museum (Il Museo Chiaramonti descritto ed illustrato da Filippo Aurelio Visconti e Gius. Ant. Guattani, &c., Rome, 1818, fol.) forms a supplement to the work on the museo PioClementino, published by Giamb. and Ennio Quir. Visconti.-The entrance into the museo Chiaramonti, as well as into the library of the Vatican, is by the museo (Chiaramonti) delle inscrizioni, the museum of Greek and Roman inscriptions, which are inserted in the walls of a long corridor a collection which has not its equal in Europe. The pope caused it to be arranged by Gaet. Marini. The entrance to it is through the loggie of the Vatican. There is also a Biblioteca Chiaramonti, containing the whole library of cardinal Zelada, which has been added to the Vatican.

CHIARI, Pietro; a prolific writer of comedies and novels; born at Brescia, towards the beginning of the 18th century. After having completed his studies, he entered the order of Jesuits, but soon changed the monastic for the secular life, and, thus becoming free from all official duties, devoted himself solely to letters. He resided at Venice, with the title of poet to the duke of Modena, and, in the space of 10 or 12 years, brought more than 60 comedies on the stage. Chiari and Goldoni were rivals, but the public adjudged the palm to the latter. Chiari's dramas in verse fill 10 vols.; those in prose, 4. He is not destitute of invention nor of art in the management of his subjects, but his works are deficient in animation, vigor and humor. He died at Brescia, at a very advanced age, in 1787 or 1788.

CHIARO SCURO (an Italian phrase, meaning clear-obscure; in French, clair-obscur), in painting, is the art of judiciously distributing the lights and shadows in a picture. A composition, however perfect in

other respects, becomes a picture only by means of the chiaro scuro, which gives faithfulness to the representation, and therefore is of the highest importance for the painter; at the same time, it is one of the most difficult branches of an artist's study, because of the want of precise rules for its execution. Every art has a point where rules fail, and genius only can direct. This point, in the art of painting, is the chiaro scuro. The drawing of a piece may be perfectly correct, the coloring may be brilliant and true, and yet the whole picture remain cold and hard. This we find often the case with the ancient painters before Raphael; and it is one of the great merits of this sublime artist, that he left his masters far behind him in chiaro scuro, though he is considered not so perfect in this branch as Correggio and Titian, who were inferior to him in many other respects. The mode in which the light and shade are distributed on any single object is easily shown by lines supposed to be drawn from the source of the light which is shed over the figure; but chiaro scuro comprehends, besides this, aerial perspective, and the proportional force of colors, by which objects are made to advance or recede from the eye, produce a mutual effect, and form a united and beautiful whole. Chiaro scuro requires great delicacy of conception and skill of execution; and excellence in this branch of art is to be attained only by the study of nature and of the best masters.Chiaro scuro is also understood in another sense, paintings in chiaro scuro being such as are painted in light and shade and reflexes only, without any other color than the local one of the object, as representations of sculpture in stone or marble. There are some fine pieces of this sort in the Vatican at Rome, by Polidoro da Caravaggio, and on the walls of the staircase of the royal academy of London, by Cipriani and Rigaud.


CHIHUAHUA; a state or province of Mexico, bounded E. by Coaghuila, S. by Durango, and W. by Cinaloa and Sonora. It is an elevated district, and suffers for want of water.

Chihuahua; a town of Mexico, and capital of the province of the same name, on a small branch of the Conchos; 180 miles N. W. of Mexico; lon. 104° 30′ W.; lat. 28° 50′ N.; population, 11,600. It is surrounded by rich silver mines.

CHILBLAINS are painful inflammatory swellings, of a deep purple or leaden color,

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