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abandoned by their allies, were now con- The private character of Cheselden was fined to the territory between the Saale generally respectable ; but he was not exand the south side of the Hercynian forest. empt from faults and foibles. Among In the third century, they, with their for- these was a predilection for pugilism, and mer allies, were swallowed up in the great a degree of vanity which rendered him Frankish confederacy, and no longer ap- more ambitious of being thought a skilful pear as a distinct people.
architect or coachmaker than a good anatCHESAPEAKE BAY; à spacious bay of omist. He was, however, humane and North America, in the states of Virginia liberal, and was much esteemed by Pope and Maryland. Its entrance is between and other literary men with whom he was cape Charles and cape Henry, 16 miles acquainted. wide; and it extends 190 miles to the ČHESS; the most celebrated and gennorthward, through the states of Virginia eral of all sedentary games. One of the and Maryland, dividing them into two greatest charms of chess lies, no doubt, in parts, called the eastern and western shores. the circumstance, that, whilst man is everyIt is from 7 to 20 miles broad, and gener- where surrounded by chance; in this game, ally as much as 9 fathoms deep; afford- as generally played, he has entirely exing many commodious harbors, and a safe cluded it, except that it must be decided and easy navigation. It receives the wa- by chance which of the two players shall ters of the Susquehanna, Potomac, Rap- begin. The game affords so much varipahannoc, York and James rivers, which ety, so much scope for calculation, so are all large and navigable.
many opportunities to exhibit foresight CHESELDEN, William ; a celebrated and penetration, that it has been held in English surgeon and anatomist. He was great esteem by all nations acquainted born in Leicestershire, in 1688, and, after with it, and all persons who have cona common school education and some quered the difficulties of learning it. The medical instruction in the country, he Mohammedans except chess from the law went to London to prosecute his studies. against gambling. Whilst this game afAt the age of 22, he began to give lectures fords enjoyment worthy of mature minds, on anatomy, and, in 1711, he was chosen it is an excellent exercise for the young, F. R. S. În 1713, he published a treatise as it teaches patience and circumspection, on the Anatomy of the Human Body, 8vo., strengthens the judgment, and encourages long esteemed a favorite manual of the perseverance in a plan affording a prosscience. He continued to read his lec- pect of eventual success, though, at the tures for more than 20 years, during which moment, the situation of things may aphe gradually rose to the head of his pro- pear very critical. The Chinese pretend fession. In 1723, he published a Treatise to have known it 200 years previous to on the High Operation for the Stone.
It was brought, in the sixth cenCheselden, who was a very dexterous and tury, from India to Persia, whence it was successful operator, afterwards added to spread by the Arabians and the crusaders his reputation by practising what is term- all over the civilized world. It is most ed the lateral method of operating for the commonly played in Asia. In fact, its stone, since generally adopted. A pecu- whole composition and its name prove its liar operation, which he performed on a Asiatic origin. In Sanscrit, it is called youth of 14, who had been blind from his schthrantsh, a word which is believed to birth, and who obtained his sight by means indicate the most important component of it, attracted much notice; and, in 1728, parts of an ancient Eastern army-elehe published an account of it in the Phi- phants, infantry, sithed
wagons, and losophical Transactions. In 1733 was horses. But this name was supplanted published his Osteography, or Anatomy by the Persian term shah (king), which of the Bones, folio, consisting of plates and the game has retained, inore or less corshort explanations, a splendid and accu- rupted, in all languages. Generally, chess rate work. Cheselden obtained, in 1737, is played by two persons upon a board, the appointment of chief surgeon to Chel- the same as that used in draughts or sea hospital. This situation he held till chequers, containing 64 squares.
The his death, which took place at Bath,
April board must be so placed, that each player 10, 1752, in consequence of a fit of apo- has a white square at his right hand." The plexy. Besides the productions already squares are named from the pieces, viz.; mentioned, he published a translation that on which the king is placed is called from the French of Le Dran's Surgery, the king's square; that on which the and several anatomical and surgical pa- king's pawn is placed, the king's second pers in the Philosophical Transactions. square ; that before the pawn, the king's
third square; the next, the king's fourth; Charles XII of Sweden played at chess and so on with all the pieces of each side. when he was so closely besieged in the Each player has eight pieces and eight house near Bender, by the Turks. Al pawns. In placing the pieces, the ancient Amin, caliph of Bagdad, would not be disrule is to be followed—servat regina colo- turbed in chess-playing when his city was rem (the queen maintains the color)that carried by assault. Frederic the Great is, the black queen is to be placed on the loved chess much. Napoleon did not black square, in the middle of the line play it particularly well
. Among the next to the player; in a similar way, the most famous players and writers on the white queen on the white field. On the game are, a duke of Brunswick, named side of the king and the queen stand the Augustus, who, in the 17th century, pubbishops; then follow the two knights; and lished, under the name of Selenus, an Inlast, the rooks or castles. The object of troduction to the game (1616, 4to.)
, now the game is, to bring the adversary's king very rare; Philidor, a Frenchman, who into such a situation that he cannot move, was particularly distinguished in London, which is called checkmating. The king in 1780—90; Gioacchino Greco, celecan never be taken. The play ends with brated in the beginning of the 17th centua checkmate. (It is related of doctor ry; and the Arabian Philip Stamma in Franklin, that once, playing chess in Paris, Paris, 1737. Caxton's “Game and Playe and being checkmated, he said, “Take the of the Chesse," printed in 1474, is generalking; I am a republican, and don't care ly admitted to be the first typographical for him.”). It is not uninteresting to con- work executed in England. Anastasia, a sider the different names which the pieces German novel by Heynse, contains many have received in various countries. In ingenious ideas on chess-playing, and sevthe East, the queen is called by the more eral fine games. Some very curious manproper name of vizier, or general. The uscripts, relating to this game, in the bishops are called, in Germany, runners ; Chinese, Sanscrit, Persian and Arabic and in France, fools (fous). These were, languages, have been partially translated ; originally, elephants, with giants on them. and the presses of Europe have teemed The knights are called, in German, leap- with similar productions, the most noted ers. The castles were, originally, war- of which are enumerated by Mr. Lewis, in chariots, which is also indicated by the the preface to his edition of Saratt on word rook, from the Indian roch, or roth. Chess, 1822.-Laws of the game. l. If With the old Germans, the pawns, now the board, or pieces, be improperly placed, called peasants, were styled Wenden (Van- the mistake cannot be rectified after four dals), à tribe despised by the Germans. moves on each side are played. When Don John of Austria had a room, the floor a player has touched a piece, he must of which was made like a chess board. move it, unless it was only to replace it; On this he played with living persons. when he must say, J'adoube, or I replace. The peasants of a German village, Strőp- 3. When a player has quitted a piece, he ke, or Ströbeck, near Halberstadt,
for about cannot recall the move. 4. If a player touch 300 years, have been distinguished as chess- one of his adversary's pieces without sayplayers. The reason for this is doubtful. ing J'adoube, he may be compelled to take The most probable opinion is, that a cer- it
, or, if it cannot be taken, to move his tain bishop, who lived among them, made king. 5. When a pawn is moved two them acquainted with this game, and freed steps, it may be taken by any adversary's them from several taxes, on condition that pawn, which it passes, and the capturing they would continue to practise it. Nu- pawn must be placed in that square over merous anecdotes show how much the which the other leaps. 6. The king cangame of chess can absorb the mind. not castle if he has before moved, if he is The elector of Saxony, John Frederic, in check, if in castling he passes a check, was taken prisoner in the battle at Mühl- or if the rook has moved. 7. Whenever berg, by the emperor Charles V, and a player checks his adversary's king, he was playing at chess with his fellow-pris- must say Check, otherwise the adversary oner, Ernest of Brunswick, when it was need not notice the check. If the player intimated to him that the emperor had should, on the next move, attack the queen, sentenced him to death. He paused for or any other piece, and then say Check, a moment, to remark on the irregularity his adversary may replace his last move, of the proceeding, and immediately re- and defend his king. 8. When a pawn sumed the game, which he won, and ex- reaches the first row of the adversary's pressed, in a lively manner, the pleasure side, it may be made a queen, or any which he derived from his victory. other piece the player chooses. 9. If a
false move is made, and is not discovered with great success at Cambridge. In until the next move is completed, it can- 1714, he made a tour through Europe, not be recalled. 10. The king cannot be and acquired, particularly at Paris, that moved into check, nor within one square polished grace of manners for which he of the adverse king, nor can any player was distinguished. On the accession of move a piece or pawn that leaves his king George I, general Stanhope, his great unin check.
cle, procured him the place of gentleman Chess Clubs ; societies for the purpose of the bed-chamber to the prince of Wales; of playing chess, and assembling the best and the borough of St. Germain's, in Cornplayers of a place. They flourish most wall, elected him to parliament, though he in France and England, but there are had not yet attained the legal age. At many in Germany. They often challenge the close of the first month of his memeach other, and the game is carried on by bership, he delivered a speech, in which letter.
he astonished the audience by the vigor Chest (called, in anatomical language, of his thoughts no less than by the elethe thorax) is the cavity of the body be- gance of his style, and the facility and tween the neck and the belly. The ex- grace of his delivery. He distinguished ternal parts of the thorax are the skin, the himself equally in the house of lords, in breasts, various muscles, and the bones which he took his seat after his father's which form the frame of the cavity. death. In 1728, he was appointed ambasThese are the sternum, running from the sador to Holland, and succeeded in delivneck down the middle of the breast, and ering Hanover from the calamities of a the ribs, which are inserted in the spine, war, by which it was threatened. On his and arched towards the sternum, with return, he was made knight of the garter which they are firmly connected by means and lord steward of the household to of a cartilage. The parts within the cav- George II. He was afterwards appointity of the thorax are the pleura and its ed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and, on his productions, the lungs, heart, thymus return, in 1746, received the place of secgland, oesophagus, thoracic duct, arch of retary of state ; but he soon retired from the aorta, part of the vena cava, the vena public affairs, and devoted the remainder azygos, the eighth pair of nerves, and part of his life to study and the society of his of the great intercostal nerve.
friends. His talents as an author are disCHESTER (anciently Deva); a city of played in several moral, critical and huEngland, capital of Cheshire, on the Dee, morous essays, in his parliamentary speechabout 20 miles from the Irish sea, 145 N. es, which were printed at a later period, Bristol, 181 N. W. London ; lon. 20 53 W.; and particularly in a collection of letters lat. 53° 11' N.;
population, 19,949. It is a to his son, which are celebrated throughbishop's see. The city is square, and sur- out Europe. To the charms of wit and rounded by a wall nearly two miles in cir- grace he united good sense, a thorough cumference. It contains a cathedral, nine knowledge of the manners, customs and parish churches, a Roman Catholic chapel, the political condition of Europe, extenand eight places of worship for dissenters sive information, a noble and unaffected of different persuasions. The streets are elegance, and a style that would do honor hollowed out of a rock to the depth of one to the most experienced writer. All this, story beneath the level of the ground on however, cannot excuse the corrupt moral each side; and the houses have a sort of tone of his letters. One is shocked to hear covered portico running on from house to a father recommending to his son grace house, and from street to street, level with of manners as the most essential quality the ground behind, but one story above for a man of the world, and even instigatthe street in front. The castle is a noble ing him to licentious irregularities. It structure; the walls are evidently Nor- must be mentioned, however, in his exman. It has two yearly fairs, the most cuse, that the young man to whom these considerable in the north of England, held letters were addressed (a natural son, on the 5th of July and 10th of Oct., each whom he had adopted under the name of lasting 14 days. The manufactures are Stanhope), was remarkable for the awknot extensive; they consist chiefly of to- wardness of his manners, and that his fabacco, snuff, shot, white lead, iron, tobac- ther, who set so high a value on elegance, co pipes and leather. It sends two mem- hoped to inspire him with the same taste, bers to parliament.
by setting the subject in its strongest light. CHESTERFIELD (Philip Dormer Stan- His efforts, however, were not successful. hope), earl of, a statesman, orator and au- Towards the close of his life, Chesterfield thor, born in London, in 1694, studied became deaf, and suffered from other
bodily infirmities, which cast. a gloom so called because first used at the siege over his last days. He was intimate with of Groningen, in that province, in 1658); Pope, Swift, Bolingbroke, and other dis- an armed beam of square timber or iron, tinguished scholars, and an acquaintance used to defend the fronts of camps, breachof doctor Johnson, who called him a wit es, &c. They are usually from 15 to 18 among lords, and a lord among wits, and feet long, and connected by chains, each said of his letters, that they taught the being perforated with small holes, to remorals of a prostitute and the manners of ceive rods of wood or iron, pointed at a dancing-master. He died in 1773, at their extremities, and, when moved in any the age of 79.
direction, affording a sort of hedge of CHESTNUT. The sweet chestnut (fagus spears, castanea) is a stately tree, and is distin- Chézy, Antoine Leonard; born at Paris, guished by having spear-shaped and point- in 1773; professor of the Oriental laned leaves, with tapering serratures at the guages, first professor of the Sanscrit edge. The flowers appear in long, hang- language and literature in the collège ing spikes, or clusters, about the month of royal, at Paris, the chair of which was May, and the fruit, which is ripe in Sep- established for him by Louis XVIII; and tember, is enveloped in a husk defended one of the conservators of the royal or by a great number of complicated prickles. national library. He has translated the Notwithstanding the known durability of poem Mejnun and Leila from the Persian the oak, there does not appear any well into French, from which A. Th. Hartauthenticated instance of the age of an oak mann (Leipsic, 1807) translated it into being equal to that of the celebrated chest- German. În 1814, he published an epinut-tree at Tortworth, in Gloucestershire, sode from the Sanscrit, entitled Death of which was known as a boundary mark in Yajuadatta. His wife is known in Gerthe reign of king John. This tree is sup- many, under the name of Helmina, as a posed to have been then more than 500 prose writer and a poetess. Her mother years old, making its age at this time above was a daughter of the well-known Ger1100 years. The diameter of its trunk is man poetess, madame Karschin. Helmina 15 feet, and it still continues to bear fruit. was born in Berlin, Jan. 26, 1783, lived Few forest trees are more beautiful than for a time with madame de Genlis in the chestnut. It is true that the generali- Paris, and resides in or near Vienna. She ty of painters prefer the oak for its pic- has written poetry, novels, tales, and an turesque form; yet, in the landscapes of opera, Euryanthe, for Maria von Weber. Salvator Rosa, and other celebrated mas- CHIABRERA, Gabriel; a poet, born at ters, chestnut-trees are very conspicuous. Savona, in the Genoese territory, in 1552. The timber of this tree was formerly much Sound in mind and body, he lived to a in use. It is frequently used for the beams great age, and died at Savona in 1638. and rafters of houses, and its appearance His poetical genius developed itself late, so nearly resembles that of the oak, that it and he was considerably advanced, when requires the eye of a good judge to distin- he began to study the poets attentively. guish them from each other. For the He preferred the Greeks, and particularly heads and staves of casks, the wood of the Pindar, his admiration for whom inspired chestnut is considered peculiarly excel- him with the desire of imitating him. lent; and pipes made of it for the convey- Thus he created a manner and style ance of water under ground are said to which was altogether different from that be more durable than those made of either of the other Italian lyric poets, and which elm or oak. For furniture, it may be procured him the surname of the Italian stained so as somewhat to resemble ma- Pindar. Equally successful were his athogany. Hop-poles and poles for espal- tempts to imitate Anacreon; his canzoiers, and dead fences, made of young nets are as easy and elegant as his canzoni chestnut-trees, are preferred to most oth- are sublime. He is, besides, the author ers. In the U. States, it is chiefly used in of several epic, dramatic, pastoral and the manufacture of rails for fences. other poems. His fame soon spread over
CHESTNUT, HORSE. (See Horse-Chest- all Italy. He visited Rome, and resided a nut.)
considerable time at Florence and Genoa. CHEVAL, À (French); on horseback; Wherever he went, he was loaded with astride any object. In a military sense, a presents and honors. body of troops is said to be à cheval of a CHIAous, or Chiaoux, is a French corriver, if one wing is stationed on the right ruption of the Turkish word chaush, or and the other on the left bank.
chavush, the title of the royal messengers CHEVAUX DE FRISE (Friesland horses, or gentlemen-ushers in the court of the grand signor. Their office partakes both other respects, becomes a picture only by of a civil and military character, and they means of the chiaro scuro, which gives act as the heralds and messengers of the faithfulness to the representation, and empire.
therefore is of the highest importance for CHIARAMONTI; the family name of pope the painter; at the same time, it is one of
l Pius VII. (q. v.) Like his predecessors, the most difficult branches of an artist's Clement XIV and Pius VI, from whom study, because of the want of precise the museum Pio-Clementinum is called, rules for its execution. Every art has a he augmented the treasures of art in the point where rules fail, and genius only can Vatican. The museums established there direct. This point, in the art of painting, by him and during his government are is the chiaro scuro. The drawing of a called after him; but this name is partic- piece may be perfectly correct, the colorularly applied to that collection of ancient ing may be brilliant and true, and yet the statues and reliefs, which are placed in whole picture remain cold and hard. the hall adjoining the museum Pio-Cle- This we find often the case with the anmentinum. The selection and arrange- cient painters before Raphael; and it is ment of these were committed to Canova. one of the great merits of this sublime The description of this museum (N Museo artist, that he left his masters far behind Chiaramonti descritto ed illustrato da Fi- him in chiaro scuro, though he is considlippo Aurelio Visconti e Gius. Ant. Guat- ered not so perfect in this branch as Cortani, &c., Rome, 1818, fol.) forms a sup- reggio and Titian, who were inferior to plement to the work on the museo Pio- him in many other respects. The mode Clementino, published by Giamb. and in which the light and shade are distribEnnio Quir. Visconti.—The entrance into uted on any single object is easily shown the museo Chiaramonti, as well as into by lines supposed to be drawn from the the library of the Vatican, is by the museo source of the light which is shed over the (Chiaramonti) delle inscrizioni, the muse- figure ; but chiaro scuro comprehends, beum of Greek and Roman inscriptions, sides this, aërial perspective, and the prowhich are inserted in the walls of a long portional force of colors, by which objects corridor-a collection which has not its are made to advance or recede from the equal in Europe. The pope caused it to eye, produce a mutual effect, and form a be arranged by Gaet. Marini. The en- united and beautiful whole. Chiaro scuro trance to it is through the loggie of the requires great delicacy of conception and Vatican. There is also a Biblioteca Chi- skill of execution; and excellence in this aramonti, containing the whole library of branch of art is to be attained only by the cardinal Zelada, which has been added to study of nature and of the best masters.the Vatican.
Chiaro scuro is also understood in anCHIARI, Pietro ; a prolific writer of other sense, paintings in chiaro scuro comedies and novels; born at Brescia, being such as are painted in light and towards the beginning of the 18th centu- shade and reflexes only, without
other ry. After having completed his studies, color than the local one of the object
, as he entered the order of Jesuits, but soon representations of sculpture in stone or changed the monastic for the secular life, marble. There are some fine pieces of and, thus becoming free from all official this sort in the Vatican at Rome, by Poliduties, devoted himself solely to letters. doro da Caravaggio, and on the walls of He resided at Venice, with the title of the staircase of the royal academy of Lonpoet to the duke of Modena, and, in the don, by Cipriani and Rigaud. space of 10 or 12 years, brought more CHICKEN, MOTHER CAREY'S. (See Pethan 60 comedies on the stage. Chiari trel.) and Goldoni were rivals, but the public CHIHUAHUA; a state or province of adjudged the palm to the latter. Chiari's Mexico, bounded E. by Coaghuila, S. by dramas in verse fill 10 vols.; those in prose, Durango, and W. by Cinaloa and Sonora. 4. He is not destitute of invention nor It is an elevated district, and suffers for of art in the management of his subjects, want of water. but his works are deficient in animation, Chihuahua ; a town of Mexico, and vigor and humor. He died
at Brescia, at capital of the province of the same name, a very advanced age, in 1787 or 1788. on a small branch of the Conchos; 180
CHIARO SCURO (an Italian phrase, mean- miles N. W. of Mexico; lon. 104° 30 W.; ing clear-obscure ; in French, clair-obscur), lat. 28° 50 N.; population, 11,600. It is in painting, is the art of judiciously dis- surrounded by rich silver mines. tributing the lights and shadows in a pic- CHILBLAINS are painful inflammatory ture. À composition, however perfect in swellings, of a deep purple or leaden color,