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to which the fingers, toes, heels and other extreme parts of the body are subject, on being exposed to a severe degree of cold. The pain is not constant, but rather pungent and shooting at particular times, and an insupportable itching attends it. In somne instances, the skin remains entire; but in others, it breaks, and discharges a thin fluid. When the degree of cold has been very great, or the application long continued, the parts affected are apt to mortify, and slough off, leaving a foul, ill-conditioned ulcer behind. Children and old people are more apt to be troubled with chilblains than persons of middle age; and such as are of a scrofulous habit are remarked to suffer severely from them.
CHILDERMAS DAY; a festival celebrated by the church on the 28th of Dec., in commemoration of the massacre of the Innocents. Bourne, in his Antiquitates Vulgares, mentions a popular superstition, that "it is very unlucky to begin any work upon Childermas day." Revels, however, were held on this day.
CHILE; a country of South America, bounded N. by Buenos Ayres, E. by Buenos Ayres and Patagonia, from which it is separated by the Andes, S. by Patagonia, and W. by the Pacific ocean; lon. 69° to 74° W.; lat. 24° to 45° S.; about 1400 miles long, and from 100 to 200 broad; square miles about 200,000. Population stated, in 1806, at 720,000; by Malte-Brun, in 1820, and a Spanish journal, at 900,000. Another statement, said to be founded on a census, makes it 1,200,000, exclusive of independent Indians. It is divided into two intendencies, St. Jago and Conception, which are subdivided into 13 provinces, viz. Copiapo, Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Melippa, St. Jago, Rancagua, Colchagua, Maule, Itata, Chillan, Puchacay and Huilquilemu. The islands are Coquimbanes, Mugillan, Tortoral, Pajaro, Masapiero, Juan Fernandes, Mocha, and the archipelago of Chiloe. The chief towns are Santiago or St. Jago (the capital), Conception, Valparaiso, Valdivia, Chillan, Coquimbo, St. Fernando and Petorca. The rivers are numerous, but small, and have generally rapid currents. Some of the principal ones are the Maule, Biobio, Cauten, Tolten, Valdivia, Chaivin, Bueno and Sinfondo. Chile presents a plain, gradually rising in elevation as it recedes from the coast and approaches the Andes. From this sloping conformation, it is fertilized and beautified by numerous rivers flowing from the Andes; and of these, 53 communicate directly with the Pacific ocean. The coun
try, intercepted between the foot of the Andes and the Pacific ocean, is divided into two equal parts, the maritime and midland. The maritime part is intercepted by three ridges of mountains, running parallel with the Andes, between which are numerous well-watered valleys. The midland country is generally level, of great fertility, and enjoying a delightful climate. The great chain of the Andes traverses the country from north to south, and presents a number of summits, the height of which has been estimated at upwards of 20,000 feet. Among the Chilean Andes there are said to be 14 volcanoes in a state of constant eruption, and a still greater number that discharge smoke at intervals. Chile abounds with vegetable, animal and mineral productions. Maize, rye, barley, pulse, wine, oil, sugar, cotton, and fruits of various kinds, are cultivated. It has luxuriant pastures, which feed numerous herds of cattle. It is rich in mines of gold, silver, copper, tin and iron. All the metals are found; also a variety of earths and precious stones. It is free from dangerous or venomous animals, which are so much dreaded in hot. countries, and has but one species of small serpent, and that perfectly harmless. The climate is remarkably salubrious, and the weather generally serene. In the northern provinces, it rarely rains, in some parts never, but dews are abundant; in the central part, rain often continues 3 or 4 days in succession, followed by 15 or 20 days of fair weather; in the southern provinces, rains are much more abundant, and often continue 9 or 10 days without cessation. The rainy season commences in April, and continues through August. Snow falls abundantly on the Andes, but is never seen on the coast. Earthquakes are common. Chile was formerly a colony of Spain, but, in 1810, the people took the government into their own hands, and, in 1818, made a declaration of absolute independence, which has been hitherto uninterrupted, and recently acknowledged by Portugal. The supreme authority was administered by an elective magistrate, called the supreme director, until May, 1827, when a president was substituted, in imitation of the government of the U. States. The Roman Catholic is the established religion of Chile, and the church is very rich. There are said to be about 10,000 monks and nuns in this country, and the religious institutions with which they are connected hold nearly one third of the landed property of the country. The army, in 1818, was stated at 8400
regular troops; the militia at 28,960 men, and the revenue at $2,177,967. The part of Chile lying south of the river Biobio, in lat. 36° 44' S., is inhabited chiefly by Indians. The Araucanians, a celebrated and warlike tribe, inhabit the region lying between the rivers Biobio and Valdivia. They are enthusiastically attached to liberty, and have never been subdued. Of the history of Chile, previous to the middle of the 15th century, nothing more is known than what may be derived from the vague traditions of the natives. In 1535, the Spaniards first visited it. They were, at first, received by the Chileans with the utmost respect; but a cruel massacre of some of their chief men, by order of Almagro, the Spanish general, produced opposite feelings; and Almagro, advancing into the country of the Promancians, was defeated with loss, when the Spaniards, disgusted with their general, and with the state of affairs, returned to Peru, where they arrived in 1538. Two years afterwards, Pizarro despatched Pedro de Valdivia, with 200 Spaniards and a numerous body of Peruvians, to Chile, for the purpose of settling such districts as he should conquer. Valdivia succeeded in overcoming the resistance of the natives, and founded the city of Santiago, Feb. 24, 1541. Hostilities with the natives ensued, till Valdivia, having settled his power in the northern provinces of Chile, turned his arms against the southern portion of the country. In 1550, he founded the city of Conception, and was soon afterwards attacked by the Araucanians, with whom he fought several battles, and was finally defeated and taken prisoner, Dec. 3, 1553. Many battles were subsequently fought between the Spaniards and this tribe of Indians, which, though they generally terminated in favor of the former, were destructive to them, and impeded the progress of the settlements. In 1598, a general insurrection of the Araucanians took place; and, with the assistance of their allies, they put to death every Spaniard whom they found outside of the forts. Villanca, Valdivia, Imperial, and several other towns, were attacked and taken, and Conception and Chillar were burnt. To add to the misfortunes of the Spaniards, the Dutch landed on the Chiloe islands, plundered Chiloe, and put the Spanish garrison to the sword. Hostilities were continued for many years without any extraordinary result. Each party seemed obstinate in its determination, and each committed cruelties and outrages, with which the history of South
America is unhappily too familiar. At length, in 1641, preliminaries of peace were finally settled between the marquis of Baydes, then governor of Chile, and the Araucanians. By the terms of the treaty, the two nations agreed to suspend hostilities, and the Araucanians engaged to prevent any foreign power from landing on their territories. Two years afterwards, the Dutch made an attempt to settle a colony at Valdivia; but, hearing that an army of Spaniards and Araucanians were marching against them, they evacuated Chile. The peace between the Spaniards and Araucanians lasted until 1655, when hostilities again broke out with their former fury, and continued for 10 years with various success. At the end of this period, a formal treaty was made. This peace was more lasting than the former, and, until the beginning of the 18th century, the history of Chile presents little deserving of record. Though tranquil for so long a time, the spirit of the Araucanians was not broken, nor was their aversion to the Spaniards abated. In 1722, a general conspiracy was formed by the nations from the borders of Peru to the river Biobio. At a fixed moment, when the watch-fires were to blaze on the mountains, the Indians were to rise against the whites, and release the country from their yoke. The design, however, miscarried only the Araucanians took up arms; and, after a short contest, peace was again concluded. In 1742, don Josef Manto, then governor, collected the colonists into towns, divided the country into provinces, and founded several new cities. In 1770, an attempt of den Antonio Gonzago to compel the Araucanians to adopt habits of industry, and to associate in towns, was the cause of a new war. At length, peace was restored, one condition of which was that the Araucanians should keep a resident minister at Santiago-a stipulation which proves their power and importance. Chile appears to have enjoyed tranquillity during the remainder of the 18th century, and, being relieved from the hostility of the Araucanians, agriculture and commerce, which had been greatly neglected, soon revived. The occupation of Spain by the French troops, in 1809, caused a revolutionary movement in Chile, as well as in other parts of Spanish America. July 10, 1810, the president Carrasco was deposed by the native inhabitants, and a junta of government was formed, under the pretext of holding the country for Ferdinand, but with the secret intention of ultimately proclaiming inde
pendence. At this period, the most active and influential persons were the three Carreras, Rodriguez and O'Higgins, the government being, in reality, exercised by the Carreras. In 1814, Chile was invaded by a royalist army from Peru, under the command of general Osorio; and the defeat of the patriots at Rancagua, Oct. 1, 1814, compelled the leading individuals to cross the Andes, and seek refuge in Buenos Ayres, leaving their country in possession of the Spaniards. In 1817, the patriots obtained succors from Buenos Ayres, commanded by general San Martin, and reentered Chile at the head of a powerful body of troops, which defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco, Feb. 12, 1817, and again at Maypu, April 5, 1817, and thus permanently secured the independence of the country. By the intrigues of San Martin, the three Carreras and their friend Rodriguez, the best men in Chile, were shamefully murdered, and his favorite, don Bernardo O'Higgins, was placed at the head of the government, with the title of supreme director. Mean while, San Martin, with the liberating army, and aided by a Chilean fleet under lord Cochrane, invaded Peru in return, and gave it a temporary independence. O'Higgins continued to administer the government until Jan. 23, 1823, when he was compelled to resign the supreme authority, owing chiefly to the dissatisfaction of the people with his financial measures. He was succeeded by general Ramon Freire, the latter being appointed supreme director. In January, 1826, the archipelago of Chiloe, which had remained to that time in the hands of the Spaniards, surrendered to the government of Chile. But disturbances have existed among the Araucanians, on the southern frontier, down to the present time, occasioning more or less inconvenience to the Chile
In other respects, Chile has been wholly unmolested by foreign enemies, unless an attempt of the exile O'Higgins upon Chiloe, in 1826, can be considered such. But the unsettled state of the government, and the maladministration of its affairs, have impeded the prosperity of the country. In July, 1826, the director Freire resigned his office, and admiral Manuel Blanco was appointed in his place. In May, 1827, the form of the government was changed, and, Blanco having resigned, Freire was again called to the head of affairs as president, but refused to be qualified; and the administration of the government devolved upon don Francisco A. Pinto, the vice-president. Three attempts
have been made to effect a solid organization of the government by means of a permanent constitution. One constituent congress assembled in 1823, another in 1824, and a third in 1826; but neither of them accomplished the object of their meeting, and the country is agitated still between the advocates of a central and of a federal constitution. (Stevenson's South Am., vol. iii.; Amer. An. Reg., vol. i. and ii.)
CHILLICOTHE; a post-town and capital of Ross county, Ohio, on the west bank of the Scioto, 45 miles in a right line, and 70 according to the windings, from its mouth; 42 miles S. Columbus; 93 E. by N. Cincinnati; lon. 82° 57′ W.; lat. 39° 18′ N.; population, 2426. It is pleasantly situated on the borders of an elevated, extensive and fertile plain, regularly laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles, and is a flourishing town. It contains a court-house, a jail, a market-house, 3 houses of public worship, a rope-walk, 4 cotton manufactories, and a steam mill. In the vicinity of the town there are many valuable mills.
CHILLINGWORTH, William; an eminent divine and writer on controversial theology. He was born at Oxford, in 1602, and received his education at Trinity college, in the university of that city. He did not confine his academical studies to divinity, but also distinguished himself as a mathematician, and cultivated poetry. Metaphysics and religious casuistry, however, appear to have been his favorite pursuits; and lord Clarendon, who was particularly intimate with him, celebrates his rare talents as a disputant, and says he had " contracted such an irresolution and habit of doubting, that, by degrees, he grew confident of nothing." This sceptical disposition laid him open to the arguments of a Jesuit, who persuaded him that the church of Rome, in establishing the authority of the pope as an infallible judge, afforded the only means for ascertaining the true religion. He was convinced by this reasoning, and converted, but subsequently came to the conclusion that he had acted erroneously, and wrote several pieces to justify his second conversion, especially The Religion of Protestants a safe Way to Salvation, first published in 1637. Some scruples of conscience, relative to signing the thirty-nine articles, prevented him, for a time, from obtaining church preferment. His scruples, however, were so far overcome, that he made the subscription in the usual form, and was promoted to the chancellorship of Salisbury, with the prebend of Brixworth annexed, in July, 1638.
On the civil war taking place, Chillingworth joined the king's party, and employed his pen in a treatise Of the Unlawfulness of resisting the lawful Prince, although most impious, tyrannical and idolatrous. This tract was not, however, committed to the press. He did not confine himself to literary efforts in support of the royal cause, having, at the siege of Gloucester, in 1643, acted as engineer. His classical reading suggested to him an imitation of some Roman machine for the attack of fortified places; but the approach of the parliamentary army prevented the trial of it against the walls of Gloucester. Not long after, he retired to Arundel castle, in an ill state of health, and was made a prisoner on the surrender of that fortress to sir William Waller. Being removed, at his own request, to Chichester, he died in the episcopal palace, in January, 1644. Chillingworth published sermons and other theological works, of which the best edition is that of doctor Birch, 1742, folio.
CHILOE; a considerable island in the south Pacific ocean, on the coast of Chile; lon. 72° 45′ W.; lat. 43° S.; 140 miles long, and 60, where widest, broad. It produces most of the necessaries of life; and much ambergris is found here. The cedar-trees grow to an amazing size. There are many small islands east of Chiloe, in a narrow sea, called the archipelago of Chiloe, which separates the island from the continent. Population of the whole, 26,000. Chief town, San Carlos. There are 47 islands in the archipelago of Chiloe, 32 of them inhabited.
French ambassador at the Spanish court. Her family, however, favored the suit of M. de Fontenay. Theresa married him, and followed her husband to Paris, where they arrived a short time before the breaking out of the revolution. She embraced its principles with the greatest zeal, cultivated the friendship of the most distinguished members of the constituent assembly, and made her house the centre of the most splendid society. Her union with M. de Fontenay not being a happy one, she had recourse to the new law of divorce, and, in 1793, her marriage was dissolved, and M. de Fontenay became an emigrant. She now became the patroness of all societies devoted to literature or art, and took a particular interest in the lectures (cours de littérature) of La Harpe, which were delivered in the Lyceum, and were frequented by the most elegant society of Paris. After the 31st of May, when the reign of terror became so appalling in the capital, Theresa retired to Bordeaux, where she met Tallien, a member of the convention, whom she had formerly slightly known as a clerk in the office of Alexander Lameth, chairman (rapporteur) of the military committee in the constituent assembly. Tallien was on a mission at Bordeaux, executing the bloody decrees of the national convention. He conceived an affection for madame de Fontenay, who was not less amiable than beautiful, and they soon formed the tenderest connexion. She seems to have yielded to Tallien's wishes only on condition that he would use his influence to avert from the city of Bordeaux the cruel fate of Lyons and Nantes, where fusillades and noyades were the order of the day. It was soon perceived by the committee of public safety, that Tallien was no longer sufficiently zealous in his revolutionary_principles; he was therefore recalled to Paris to defend himself against the charges which had been brought against him. Theresa was arrested, and likewise carried to Paris, to appear before the revolutionary tribunal. The 9th Thermidor (27th of July, 1794) was near at hand: Danton's blood was yet steaming. Robespierre intended a new act of violence. The adherents of his enemy, that tribune, formerly so terrible, but now crushed, were to be destroyed with one blow. At their head stood Tallien. Theresa was destined to follow him to the guillotine. But the secret of the tyrant was betrayed. Love inspired Tallien with energy, and the 9th of Thermidor delivered France from Robespierre.
A few days afterwards, Tallien and Theresa confirmed their union before the altar. She had the most beneficent influence upon her husband's public life, and all her efforts were exerted to assist the unfortunate and the sufferers by the revolution. By her political influence, and by her beauty, which was then in the highest bloom, she again attracted the eyes of all Paris, and, wherever she appeared in public, was received with acclamations. Theresa and Josephine de Beauharnais, afterwards empress of France, were the principal ornaments of the splendid circle which Barras had assembled around him. Gratitude to her husband did not, however, prevent her from entering into other passing connexions, as taste or caprice prompted. Tallien followed Bonaparte to Egypt, and was soon forgotten. On her application, she was formally divorced, but a friendly intercourse always subsisted between her and Tallien. Napoleon, who, before his connexion with Josephine, had shown much attention to madame Tallien, broke off all intercourse with her when first-consul and emperor, and could never be induced to grant her admission to court. She was thus thrown into the opposition, and led to her connexion with madame de Staël and her third husband, count François Caraman, whom she married in 1805, and who afterwards, in consequence of inheriting an estate, assumed the title of prince of Chimay. Four children are the offspring of this marriage. She lives, at present, in Paris, or on the estate of her husband.
CHIMBORAZO; a mountain of Colombia, in the province of Quito, about 100 miles S. by W. Quito; lat. about 2° S. It is the most elevated summit of the Andes, rising to the height of 21,440 feet above the level of the sea, and covered with perpetual snow 2600 feet from the summit and upwards. It presents a magnificent spectacle when seen from the shores of the Pacific ocean after the long rains of winter, when the transparency of the air is suddenly increased, and its enormous circular summit is seen projected upon the deep azure-blue of the equatorial sky. The great rarity of the air, through which the tops of the Andes are seen, adds very much to the splendor of the snow, and aids the magical effect of its reflection. This mountain was ascended, in 1802, by Humboldt and Bonpland, who reached to within 2140 feet of the summit, being, by barometrical measurement, 19,300 feet above the level of the sea-a greater elevation than ever was
before attained by man. Their further ascent was prevented by a chasm 500 feet wide. The air was intensely cold and piercing, and, owing to its extreme rarity, blood oozed from their lips, eyes and gums, and respiration was difficult. One of the party fainted, and all of them felt extreme weakness. Condamine ascended, in 1745, to the height of 15,815 feet.
CHIMERA; a fabulous monster, breathing flames, with the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, which laid waste the fields of Lycia, and was at last destroyed by Bellerophon. (See Hipponous.) Her form is described by the poets as an unnatural mixture of the most incongruous parts. Therefore the name of chimera is used for a nondescript, an unnatural production of fancy. According to some, Chimera was a volcano in Lycia, around the top of which dwelt lions, around the middle goats, and at the foot poisonous serpents. Bellerophon is said to have been the first who rendered this mountain habitable.
CHIMES, in horology, is a species of music, mechanically produced by the strokes of hammers against a series of bells, tuned agreeably to a given scale in music. The hammers are lifted by levers, acted upon by metallic pins, or wooden pegs, stuck into a large barrel, which is made to revolve by clock-work, and is so connected with the striking part of the clock-mechanism, that it is set in motion by it at certain intervals of time, usually every hour, or every quarter of an hour. The music thus produced may consist of a direct succession of the notes constituting an octave, frequently repeated, or otherwise may be a psalm-tune, or short popular air in the key to which the bells are tuned. This species of mechanical music most probably had its origin, like clock-work itself, in some of the monastic institutions of Germany, in the middle ages. The first apparatus for producing it, is said to have been made at Alost, in the Netherlands, in 1487. The chime mechanism may be adapted to act with the large bells of a church steeple, by means of wheel-work strong enough to raise heavy hammers; or a set of bells, of different diameters, may be arranged concentrically within one another on common axis, sufficiently small to be introduced into the frame of a clock, or even of a watch. The chime mechanism is sometimes so constructed, that it may be played like a piano, but with the fist instead of the fingers. This is covered with leather, that the blow on the key