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to which the fingers, toes, heels and other try, intercepted between the foot of the extreme parts of the body are subject, on Andes and the Pacific ocean, is divided being exposed to a severe degree of cold. into two equal parts, the maritime and The pain is not constant, but rather pun- midland. The maritime part is interceptgent and shooting at particular times, and ed by three ridges of mountains, running an insupportable itching attends it. In parallel with the Andes, between which some instances, the skin remains entire; but are numerous well-watered valleys. The in others, it breaks, and discharges a thin midland country is generally level, of great fluid. When the degree of cold has been fertility, and enjoying a delightful climate. very great, or the application long contin- The great chain of the Andes traverses ued, the parts affected are apt to mortify, the country from north to south, and and slough off, leaving a foul, ill-condi- presents a number of summits, the height tioned ulcer behind. Children and old of which has been estimated at upwards people are more apt to be troubled with of 20,000 feet. Among the Chilean Andes chilblains than persons of middle age; and there are said to be 14 volcanoes in a state such as are of a scrofulous habit are re- of constant eruption, and a still greater marked to suffer severely from them. number that discharge smoke at intervals.

CHILDERMAS Day; a festival cele- Chile abounds with vegetable, animal and brated by the church on the 28th of Dec., mineral productions. Maize, rye, barley, in commemoration of the massacre of the pulse, wine, oil, sugar, cotton, and fruits Innocents. Bourne, in his Antiquitates of various kinds, are cultivated. It has Vulgares, mentions a popular superstition, luxuriant pastures, which feed numerous that “it is very 'unlucky to begin any herds of cattle. It is rich in mines of work upon Childermas day.” Revels, gold, silver, copper, tin and iron. All the however, were held on this day.

metals are found ; also a variety of earths CAILE; a country of South America, and precious stones. It is free from danbounded N. by Buenos Ayres, E. by gerous or venomous animals, which are Buenos Ayres and Patagonia, from which so much dreaded. in hot.countries, and it is separated by the Andes, S. by Pata- has but one species of small serpent, and gonia, and W. by the Pacific ocean; lon. that perfectly harmless. The climate is 69° to 74° W.; lat. 24° to 45° S.; about remarkably salubrious, and the weather 1400 miles long, and from 100 to 200 generally serene. In the northern provbroad; square miles about 200,000. Pop- inces, it rarely rains, in some parts never, ulation stated, in 1806, at 720,000; by but dews are abundant; in the central Malte-Brun, in 1820, and a Spanish jour- part, rain often continues 3 or 4 days in nal, at 900,000. Another statement, said succession, followed by 15 or 20 days of to be founded on a census, makes it fair weather; in the southern provinces, 1,200,000, exclusive of independent In- rains are much more abundant, and often dians. It is divided into two intendencies, continue 9 or 10 days without cessation. St. Jago and Conception, which are sub- The rainy season commences in April, divided into 13 provinces, viz. Copiapo, and continues through August. Snow Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Melippa, falls abundantly on the Andes, but is never St. Jago, Rancagua, Colchagua, Maule, seen on the coast. Earthquakes are comItata, Chillan,

Puchacay and Huilquilemu. mon. Chile was formerly a colony of , The islands are Coquimbanes, Mugillan, Spain, but, in 1810, the people took the Tortoral, Pajaro, Masapiero, Juan Fernan- government into their own hands, and, in des, Mocha, and the archipelago of Chi- 1818, made a declaration of absolute indeloe. The chief towns are Santiago or St. pendence, which has been hitherto uninJago (the capital), Conception, Valparaiso, terrupted, and recently acknowledged by Valdivia, Chillan, Coquimbo, St. Fernando Portugal. The supreme authority was and Petorca. The rivers are numerous, administered by an elective magistrate, but small, and have generally rapid cur- called the supreme director, until May, rents. Some of the principal ones are the 1827, when a president was substituted, Maule, Biobio, Cauten, Tolten, Valdivia, in imitation of the government of the U. Chaivin, Bueno and Sinfondo. Chile pre- States. The Roman Catholic is the essents a plain, gradually rising in elevation tablished religion of Chile, and the church as it recedes from the coast and ap- is very rich. There are said to be about proaches the Andes. From this sloping 10,000 monks and nuns in this country, conformation, it is fertilized and beautified and the religious institutions with which by numerous rivers flowing from the An- they are connected hold nearly one third des; and of these, 53, communicate di- of the landed property of the country. rectly with the Pacific ocean. The coun- The army, in 1818, was stated at 8400 regular troops ; the militia at 28,960 men, America is unhappily too familiar. At and the revenue at $2,177,967. The part length, in 1641, preliminaries of peace of Chile lying south of the river Biobio, were finally settled between the marquis in lat. 36° 44_S., is inhabited chiefly of Baydes, then governor of Chile, and by Indians. The Araucanians, a cele- the Araucanians. By the terms of the brated and warlike tribe, inhabit the re- treaty, the two nations agreed to suspend gion lying between the rivers Biobio and hostilities, and the Araucanians engaged Valdivia. They are enthusiastically at- to prevent any foreign power from landing tached to liberty, and have never been sub- on their territories. Two years afterdued.—Of the history of Chile, previous to wards, the Dutch made an attempt to setthe middle of the 15th century, nothing tle a colony at Valdivia; but, hearing that more is known than what may be derived an army of Spaniards and Araucanians from the vague traditions of the natives. were marching against them, they evacIn 1535, the Spaniards first visited it. uated Chile. The peace between the They were, at first, received by the Chi- Spaniards and Araueanians lasted until leans with the utmost respect; but a cruel 1655, when hostilities again broke out massacre of some of their chief men, by with their former fury, and continued for order of Almagro, the Spanish general, 10 years with various success. At the produced opposite feelings; and Almagro, end of this period, a formal treaty was advancing into the country of the Pro- made. This peace was more lasting than mancians, was defeated with loss, when the former, and, until the beginning of the the Spaniards, disgusted with their gen- 18th century, the history of Chile presents eral, and with the state of affairs, returned little deserving of record. Though tranto Peru, where they arrived in 1538. quil for so long a time, the spirit of the Two years afterwards, Pizarro despatched Araucanians was not broken, nor was Pedro de Valdivia, with 200 Spaniards their aversion to the Spaniards abated. and a numerous body of Peruvians, to In 1722, a general conspiracy was formed Chile, for the purpose of settling such by the nations from the borders of Peru districts as he should conquer. Valdivia to the river Biobio. At a fixed moment, succeeded in overcoming the resistance when the watch-fires were to blaze on the of the natives, and founded the city of mountains, the Indians were to rise against Santiago, Feb. 24, 1541. Hostilities with the whites, and release the country from the natives ensued, till Valdivia, having their yoke. The design, however, missettled his power in the northern prov- carried : only the Araucanians took up inces of Chile, turned his arms against the arms; and, after a short contest, peace was southern portion of the country. In 1550, again concluded. In 1742, don Josef he founded the city of Conception, and Manto, then governor, collected the colowas soon afterwards attacked by the Arau- nists into towns, divided the country into canians, with whom he fought several provinces, and founded several new cities. battles, and was finally defeated and taken In 1770, an attempt of don Antonio Gonprisoner, Dec. 3, 1553. Many battles were zago to compel the Araucanians to adopt subsequently fought between the Span- habits of industry, and to associate in iards and this tribe of Indians, which, towns, was the cause of a new war. At though they generally terminated in favor length, peace was restored, one condition of the former, were destructive to them, of which was that the Araucanians should and impeded the progress of the settle- keep a resident minister at Santiago-a ments. In 1598, à general insurrection stipulation which proves their power and of the Araucanians took place; and, with importance. Chile appears to have enthe assistance of their allies, they put to joyed tranquillity during the remainder of death every Spaniard whom they found the 18th century, and, being relieved from outside of the forts. Villanca, Valdivia, the hostility of the Araucanians, agriculImperial, and several other towns, were ture and commerce, which had been attacked and taken, and Conception and greatly neglected, soon revived. The ocChillar were burnt. To add to the misfor- cupation of Spain by the French troops, tunes of the Spaniards, the Dutch landed in 1809, caused a revolutionary movement on the Chiloe islands, plundered Chiloe, in Chile, as well as in other parts of Spanand put the Spanish garrison to the sword. ish America. July 10, 1810, the president Hostilities were continued for many years Carrasco was deposed by the native inwithout any extraordinary result. Each habitants, and a junta of government was party seemed obstinate in its determina- formed, under the pretext of holding the tion, and each committed cruelties and country for Ferdinand, but with the secret outrages, with which the history of South intention of ultimately proclaiming inde

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pendence. At this period, the most active have been made to effect a solid organiand influential persons were the three zation of the government by means of a Carreras, Rodriguez and O'Higgins, the permanent constitution. One constituent government being, in reality, exercised by congress assembled in 1823, another in the Carreras. In 1814, Chile was invaded 1824, and a third in 1826; but neither of by a royalist army from Peru, under the them accomplished the object of their command of general Osorio; and the de- meeting, and the country is agitated still feat of the patriots at Rancagua, Oct. 1, between the advocates of a central and of 1814, compelled the leading individuals a federal constitution. (Stevenson's South to cross the Andes, and seek refuge in Am., vol.iii.; Amer. An. Reg., vol. i. and ii.) Buenos Ayres, leaving their country in CHILLICOTHE; a post-town and capital possession of the Spaniards. In 1817, the of Ross county, Ohio, on the west bank patriots obtained succors from Buenos of the Scioto, 45 miles in a right line, and Ayres, commanded by general San Mar- 70 according to the windings, from its tin, and reëntered Chile at the head of a mouth; 42 miles S. Columbus ; 93 E. by N. powerful body of troops, which defeated Cincinnati; lon. 82° 57' W.; lat. 39° 18' N.; the Spaniards at Chacabuco, Feb. 12, population, 2426. It is pleasantly situ1817, and again at Maypu, April 5, 1817, ated on the borders of an elevated, extenand thus permanently secured the inde- sive and fertile plain, regularly laid out, pendence of the country. By the in- the streets crossing each other at right irigues of San Martin, the three Carreras angles, and is a flourishing town. It conand their friend Rodriguez, the best men tains a court-house, a jail

, a market-house, in Chile, were shamefully murdered, and 3 houses of public worship, a rope-walk, his favorite, don Bernardo O'Higgins, was 4 cotton manufactories, and a steam mill. placed at the head of the government, In the vicinity of the town there are many with the title of supreme director. Mean- valuable mills. while, San Martin, with the liberating CHILLINGWORTH, William; an eminent army, and aided by a Chilean fleet under divine and writer on controversial theololord Cochrane, invaded Peru in return, gy. He was born at Oxford, in 1602, and, and gave it a temporary independence. received his education at Trinity college, O'Higgins continued to administer the in the university of that city. He did not government until Jan. 23, 1823, when he confine his academical studies to divinity, was compelled to resign the supreme au- but also distinguished himself as a mathethority, owing chiefly to the dissatisfaction matician, and cultivated poetry. Metaof the people with his financial measures. physics and religious casuistry, however, He was succeeded by general Ramon appear to have been his favorite pursuits; Freire, the latter being appointed supreme and lord Clarendon, who was particularly director. In January, 1826, the archipel- intimate with him, celebrates his rare talago of Chiloe, which had remained to ents as a disputant, and says he had " that time in the hands of the Spaniards, tracted such an irresolution and habit of surrendered to the government of Chile. doubting, that, by degrees, he grew

confiBut disturbances have existed among the dent of nothing. This sceptical disposiAraucanians, on the southern frontier, tion laid him open to the arguments of a down to the present time, occasioning Jesuit, who persuaded him that the church more or less inconvenience to the Chile- of Rome, in establishing the authority of

In other respects, Chile has been the pope as an infallible judge, afforded wholly unmolested by foreign enemies, the only means for ascertaining the true unless an attempt of the exile O'Higgins religion. He was convinced by this reaupon Chiloe, in 1826, can be considered soning, and converted, but subsequently such. But the unsettled state of the gov- came to the conclusion that he had acted ernment, and the maladministration of its erroneously, and wrote several pieces to affairs, have impeded the prosperity of the justify his second conversion, especially country. In July, 1826, the director Freire The Religion of Protestants a safe Way resigned his office, and admiral Manuel to Salvation, first published in 1637. Some Blanco was appointed in his place. In scruples of conscience, relative to signing May, 1827, the form of the government the thirty-nine articles, prevented him, for was changed, and, Blanco having resigned, a time, from obtaining church preferment. Freire was again called to the head of af- His scruples, however, were so far overfairs as president, but refused to be quali- come, that he made the subscription in the fied; and the administration of the gov- usual form, and was promoted to the ernment devolved upon don Francisco A. chancellorship of Salisbury, with the prePinto, the vice-president. Three attempts bend of Brixworth annexed, in July, 1638.

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On the civil war taking place, Chilling. French ambassador at the Spanish court. worth joined the king's party, and em- Her family, however, favored the suit of ployed his pen in a treatise of the Unlaw- M. de Fontenay. Theresa married him, fulness of resisting the lawful Prince, al- and followed her husband to Paris, where though most impious, tyrannical and idol- they arrived a short time before the break

This tract was not, however, ing out of the revolution. She embraced committed to the pre He did not con- its principles with the greatest zeal, cultifine himself to literary efforts in support vated the friendship of the most distinof the royal cause, having, at the siege of guished members of the constituent asGloucester, in 1643, acted as engineer. sembly, and made her house the centre His classical reading suggested to him an of the most splendid society. Her union imitation of some Roman machine for the with M. de Fontenay not being a happy attack of fortified places; but the ap- one, she had recourse to the new law of proach of the parliamentary army pre- divorce, and, in 1793, her marriage was vented the trial of it against the walls of dissolved, and M. de Fontenay became Gloucester. Not long after, he retired to an emigrant. She now became the paArundel castle, in an ill state of health, troness of all societies devoted to literaand was made a prisoner on the surrender ture or art, and took a particular interest of that fortress to sir William Waller. in the lectures (cours de littérature) of Being removed, at his own request, to La Harpe, which were delivered in the Chichester, he died in the episcopal pal- Lyceum, and were frequented by the ace, in January, 1644. Chillingworth most elegant society of Paris. After the published sermons and other theological 31st of May, when the reign of terror beworks, of which the best edition is that of came so appalling in the capital, Theresa doctor Birch, 1742, folio.

retired to Bordeaux, where she met TalCHILOE; a considerable island in the lien, a member of the convention, whom south Pacific ocean, on the coast of Chile; she had formerly slightly known as a lon. 72° 45' W.; lat. 43° S.; 140 miles clerk in the office of Alexander Lameth, long, and 60, where widest, broad. It chairman (rapporteur) of the military comproduces most of the necessaries of life; mittee in the constituent assembly. Taland much ambergris is found here. The lien was on a mission at Bordeaux, execedar-trees grow to

an amazing size. cuting the bloody decrees of the national There are many small islands east of Chi- convention. He conceived an affection loe, in a narrow sea, called the archipela- for madame de Fontenay, who was not go of Chiloe, which separates the island less amiable than beautiful, and they soon from the continent. Population of the formed the tenderest connexion. She whole, 26,000. Chief town, San Carlos. seems to have yielded to Tallien's wishes

There are 47 islands in the archipelago only on condition that he would use his of Chiloe, 32 of them inhabited.

influence to avert from the city of BorCHILTERN Hills; a range of chalky deaux the cruel fate of Lyons and Nantes, hills, in England, in the county of Oxford, where fusillades and noyades were the oronce covered with woods, supposed to der of the day. It was soon perceived have been, at one time, a royal forest. by the committee of public safety, that There still remains a nominal office, called Tallien was no longer sufficiently zealous the stewardship of the Chiltern hundreds, in in his revolutionary principles; he was the gift of the crown. By the acceptance therefore recalled to Paris to defend himof this, a member of the house of com- self against the charges which had been mons vacates his seat in parliament. It brought against him. Theresa was aris, therefore, generally conferred on such rested, and likewise carried to Paris, to members as wish to resign their seats. appear before the revolutionary tribunal. CHIMÆRA. (See Chimera.)

The 9th Thermidor (27th of July, 1794) CHIMAY, Theresa, princess of; the di- was near at hand: Danton's blood was vorced wife of Tallien. This lady, cele- yet steaming. Robespierre intended a brated for her adventures, is the daughter new act of violence. The adherents of of count Cabarrus (q. v.) and a lady of his enemy, that tribune, formerly so terriSaragossa named Galabert. Endowed ble, but now crushed, were to be destroyby nature with rare beauty and an ardented with one blow. At their head stood temperament, she early gave herself up Tallien. Theresa was destined to follow to her inclinations, and had an intrigue him to the guillotine. But the secret of with prince Listenay, who was on his the tyrant was betrayed. Love inspired way from Paris to Madrid, to marry the Tallien with energy, and the 9th of Therdaughter of the duke of Lavauguyon, midor delivered France from Robespierre.

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A few days afterwards, Tallien and The- before attained by man. Their further resa confirmed their union before the ascent was prevented by a chasm 500 altar. She had the most beneficent influ- feet wide. The air was intensely cold ence upon her husband's public life, and and piercing, and, owing to its extreme all her efforts were exerted to assist the rarity, blood oozed from their lips, eyes unfortunate and the sufferers by the revo- and gums, and respiration was difficult. lution. By her political influence, and One of the party fainted, and all of them by her beauty, which was then in the felt extreme weakness. Condamine ashighest bloom, she again attracted the cended, in 1745, to the height of 15,815 feet. eyes of all Paris, and, wherever she ap- CHIMERA; a fabulous monster, breathpeared in public, was received with accla- ing flames, with the head of a lion, the mations. Theresa and Josephine de Beau- body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, harnais, afterwards empress of France, which laid waste the fields of Lycia, and were the principal ornaments of the splen- was at last destroyed by Bellerophon. did circle which Barras had assembled (See Hipponous.) Her form is described around him. Gratitude to her husband by the poets as an unnatural mixture of did not, however, prevent her from enter- the most incongruous parts. Therefore ing into other passing connexions, as taste the name of chimera is used for a nondeor caprice prompted. Tallien followed script, an unnatural production of fancy. Bonaparte to Egypt, and was soon for- According to some, Chimera was a volcagotten. On her application, she was for- no in Lycia, around the top of which mally divorced, but a friendly intercourse dwelt lions, around the middle goats, and always subsisted between her and Tallien. at the foot poisonous serpents. BelleroNapoleon, who, before his connexion with phon is said to have been the first who Josephine, had shown much attention to rendered this mountain habitable. madame Tallien, broke off all intercourse CHIMEs, in horology, is a species of with her when first-consul and emperor, music, mechanically produced by the and could never be induced to grant her strokes of hammers against a series of admission to court. She was thus thrown bells, tuned agreeably to a given scale in into the opposition, and led to her con- music. The hammers are lifted by leynexion with madame de Staël and her ers, acted upon by metallic pins, or woodthird husband, count François Caraman, en pegs, stuck into a large barrel, which whom she married in 1805, and who af- is made to revolve by clock-work, and is terwards, in consequence of inheriting an so connected with the striking part of the estate, assumed the title of prince of Chi- clock-mechanism, that it is set in motion may. Four children are the offspring of by it at certain intervals of time, usually this marriage. She lives, at present, in every hour, or every quarter of an hour. Paris, or on the estate of her husband. The music thus produced may consist of

CHIMBORAZO; a mountain of Colombia, a direct succession of the notes constitutin the province of Quito, about 100 miles ing an octave, frequently repeated, or othS. by W. Quito; lat. about 20 s. It is erwise may be a psalm-tune, or short the most elevated summit of the Andes, popular air in the key to which the bells rising to the height of 21,440 feet above are tuned. This species of mechanical the level of the sea, and covered with per- music most probably had its origin, like petual snow 2600 feet from the summit clock-work itself, in some of the monastic and upwards. It presents a magnificent institutions of Germany, in the middle spectacle when seen from the shores of ages. The first apparatus for producing the Pacific ocean after the long rains of it, is said to have been made at Alost, in winter, when the transparency of the the Netherlands, in 1487. The chime air is suddenly increased, and its enor- mechanism may be adapted to act with mous circular summit is seen projected the large bells of a church steeple, by upon the deep azure-blue of the equato- means of wheel-work strong enough to rial sky. The great rarity of the air, raise heavy hammers; or a set of bells, of through which the tops of the Andes are different diameters, may be arranged conseen, adds very much to the splendor of centrically within one another on one the snow, and aids the magical effect of common axis, sufficiently small to be inits reflection. This mountain was ascend- troduced into the frame of a clock, or ed, in 1802, by Humboldt and Bonpland, even of a watch. The chime mechanwho reached to within 2140 feet of the ism is sometimes so constructed, that it summit, being, by barometrical measure- may be played like a piano, but with the ment, 19,300 feet above the level of the fist instead of the fingers. This is coversea-a greater elevation than ever was ed with leather, that the blow on the key

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