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258). Wu-wang is invariably considered 479), Tsin (till 502), Lang (till 537), Tchin the founder of this last dynasty, but the (till"589), Soui (till 619). The northern accounts of its establishment differ. Ac- empire (386 till 587) was founded by the cording to one account, the natives of the Goli Tartars, who conquered the northern interior dethroned Chew-sin, the last of part of China, and was governed by four the preceding dynasty. According to oth- dynasties,-two native and two foreigners, Wu-wang came, with an army of viz. the Goei, of the race of To-pa, and foreigners, from the west, and introduced the Hew-Chew, of the race of Sien-pi. civilization amongst the natives. After a. The dynasty of Goei reigned from the establishment of this family, there is a 386 till 556 in three branches (Yuen-Goei long chasm in the historical records. This till 534, Tong-Goei till 550, and Si-Goei the Chinese writers fill with fables. Under or the western Goei, till 550); b. the this dynasty is the Chew-kew, or period dynasty of Pe-Tsi (the northern Tsi), from of fighting kings, who ruled over many 550 till 577 ; c. the dynasty of Hew-Chew little neighboring states, and were contin- (the last Chew), from 557 till 581; d. the ually at war with each other (from 770 till dynasty of Hew-Lang (the last Lang), 320 B. C.). At length, a Chinese hero, from 554 till 587. Yang-Kien dethroned Chi-hoang-ti
, of the princely house of Hew-Chew (581), conquered the empire Ting, made his appearance, in the age of of Hew-Lang (587), of the Tsin (589), and Hannibal, and with him commenced the founded the dynasty of Soui. The second house of Tsin (from 256 till 207 B. C.). emperor of this dynasty, Yang-ti, was He extirpated all the petty princes of the dethroned by Li-ien (617), who founded branch of Chew, and united the whole of the family of Tang, which maintained itChina (247). He built the great wall as a self 300 years, and resided at Sia-gan-fu, protection against the Tartars. The em- in Shen-si. During the reign of the first pire was again dismembered, after his emperors of this line, particularly under death, under his son Ul-shi, but was re- Li-ien's learned son Tai-tsong I (626), united, ten years later, by Lieu-pang. He China grew very powerful. But his sucadopted the new name of Hang, and cessors gave themselves up to pleasure, founded the dynasty, of Hang, which and were entirely governed by their eureigned till A. Ď. 220, and was divided nuchs. Internal distractions were the into the western and eastern Hang (Si- consequences. The last emperor, Tchaohang, from B. C. 217 to A. D. 4, and siuen-ti
, was dethroned by Shu-wen, who Tong-hang, from A. D. 24 till 220). The founded the dynasty of Hehu-Lang (907). princes of this dynasty extended their This, as well as the succeeding dynasties conquests considerably to the west, and of Hehu-Tang (923), Hehu-Isin (936), took part in the affairs of Central Asia. Hehu-Han (946), Hehu-Tchew (957),
was The religion of Tao-tse prevailed during of short duration. These are called Hehutheir ascendency; and in the same period U-tai, or the five last families. After this, Judaism was introduced into China. In China was torn by internal commotions, the course of time, the princes degener- and almost every province had a separate ated, and, under Hien-ti
, China was di- ruler, when, in 990, the people elected the vided into three kingdoms (220), which able Shao-Quang-Yu emperor. He was were again united by Wu-ti (280). He the founder of the dynasty Sing, or Song, was the founder of the family of Tsin which reigned till 1279. His immediate (265—420). The sovereigns of this fam- successors resembled him, yet the country ily were bad rulers. The last, Kong-ti, suffered considerably by the devastations was dethroned by Wu-ti, founder of the of the Tartars. Under Yin-tsong (1012), Song dynasty (420_479). A short time the Chinese were forced to pay tribute to before this, a separate kingdom was form- the Tartar Leao-tsang. Whey-tsong overed in the southern provinces (386), called threw the empire of Leao-tsang (1101); U-tai, or the five families. The Songs but the Tartars possessed themselves of were likewise sovereigns of little worth. the whole of the north of China (Pe-cheli), Whilst the whole aspect of Europe was 1125. Kao-tsong II was their tributary, changed by the general emigration of and reigned over the southern provinces nations, two empires were formed in Chi- only. Under the emperor Ning-tsong, the na, with the extinction of the dynasty of Chinese formed an alliance with Genghis
Tsin—one in the north (386), and the Khan, and the Niu-cheng submitted to other in the south (420); the latter of this great conqueror (1180). But the which was likewise called U-tai, or the Mongols themselves turned their arms empire of the five families. In the latter against China, and Kublai-Khan subjected reigned successively the family Song (till them, after the death of the last emperor, Ti-ping (1260). Under the Tang dynasty, (1644). Li-tching's opponents called in arts and sciences flourished in China; the Mantchoos to their assistance. They several of the emperors themselves were got possession of Pekin, and of the whole learned men. The Chinese authors call empire, over which they still reign. Unthe Mongolian dynasty of emperors Yuen der Shun-chi, a child of six years old, the (from 1279 till 1368), and Kublai-Khan is conquest of China was completed (1646– by them called Shi-tsu. This was the 47), and the present dynasty of Tatim, or first time that the whole of China was Tsim, or Tsing, was founded. He was subjected by foreign princes. But the succeeded, in 1662, by his son Kang-hi, conquerors conformed themselves entirely who subdued the khan of the Mongols, to the Chinese customs, and left the laws, took Formosa, and made several other manners and religion of the country un- additions to his empire. During the reign changed. Most of the emperors of this of this prince, the Christian religion was line were able princes. But after the tolerated, but his son Yong-ching prohibdeath of Timur-Khan, or Tsing-Tsang ited it in 1724. The son of the latter, (Tamerlane), 1307, and still more after Kien-Lung, continued the persecution that of Yeson-Timur-Khan, or Tai-ting against the Christians (1746—73). He (1318), divisions in the imperial family conquered Cashgar, Yarkand, the greatfrequently occasioned internal wars, which est part of Songaria, the north-eastern weakened the strength of the Mongols. part of Thibet and Lassa, the empires The Chinese Chu took up arms against of Miao-tse and Siao-Kin-tshuen, and the voluptuous Toka-mur-Khan, or Shun- extended his territories to Hindostan and ti, and the Mongolian grandees became Bucharia. He peopled the Calmuck coundivided among themselves. Toka-mur- try, which the expulsion of the SongariKhan fled into Mongolia (1368), where he ans had rendered almost a desert, with died (1379). His son Bisurdar fixed his the fugitive Torgots and Songarians from residence in the ancient Mongolian capital Russia. In 1768, he was totally defeated Karakorum, and was the founder of the by the Birmese of Ava; nevertheless, the empire of the Kalkas, or northern Yuen. Chinese took possession of a town in Ava This state did not remain long united; but, in 1770, and returned to their country after the death of Tokoz-Timur (1460), with the loss of half of their army. They each horde, under its own khan, became in- were more successful against the Miaotse dependent; in consequence of which, they (mountaineers). Towards the end of his were, with few exceptions, constantly kept reign, his minister, favorite and son-inin subjection to China after this period. law, Ho-Tchington, abused his influence Chu, afterwards called Tai-tsoo IV, a pri- over him. Kien-Lung was succeeded, in vate individual, but worthy of the throne, 1799, by his 15th son, Kia-King. His delivered his country from tie foreign reign was frequently disturbed by internal yoke, and founded the dynasty of Ming commotions; for in China there exist se(1368 till 1644), which gave the empire 16 cret combinations of malcontents of all sovereigns, most of whom were men of classes. In their nightly meetings, they merit. On the frontiers of the empire, the curse the emperor, celebrate Priapian remains of the Niudshee Tartars, now call- mysteries, and prepare everything for the ed Mantchoos, still existed. The emperor arrival of a new Fo, who is to restore the Shin-tsong II gave them lands in the golden age. The Catholics, whom he faprovince of Leao-tong; and, when an at- vored, have lost most of their privileges tempt was made, soon after, to expel by their inconsiderate zeal, and at Pekin, them, they resisted successfully, under the preaching of the Christian religion has their prince Taitsu, and obtained posses- been strictly prohibited. Kia-King was sion of Leao-tong ; upon which their succeeded, in 1820, by his second son, chief assumed the title of emperor. He Tara-Kwang, whom the Russians call continued the war during the reigns of Daoguan. The embassy of lord Macartthe Chinese emperors Quan-tsong and ney (q. v.) was not more successful in Hi-tsong, until his death. His son Ta- attempting to change the policy maintsong succeeded him, and Hoa:-tsong, a tained by the court of China for more good but weak prince, was the successor than 1000 years, than the Russian emof Hi-tsong on the throne of China. On bassy of count Golowkin, or the more the death of Ta-tsong, the Tartars did not recent one of lord Amherst, the British appoint any one to succeed him, and dis- ambassador, in 1816. The envoys were continued the war. But in China, Li- unable to form political or commercial tching excited an insurrection, during treaties with this a celestial empire of the which Hong-Puan put an end to his life world,” which treats all monarchs as its
vassals. (See Staunton's Miscellaneous ion. We think that the spoken language Notices relating to China, &c. (London, is fully adequate to the expression of every 1822.). A history of China, translated idea, and that the written characters add from the Chinese of Choo-Foo-Tsze, by nothing to its force. The enthusiasm with P. P. Thoms, many years resident at Ma- which some writers speak of the wondercao, in Chiņa, was lately announced forful effects of the Chinese writings upon publication. It is stated to commence the minds of those who read them, has with the reign of Fuh-he, according to often reminded us of the ocular harpsiChinese chronology, B. C. 3000, and to chord of father Castel. The Chinese reach the reign of Min-te, A. D. 300, in- characters, like all others, represent the cluding a period of 3300 years.
sounds, that is to say, the syllabic sounds Chinese Language, Writing and Litera- or words of the spoken language; and ture. The Chinese language belongs to through those sounds the ideas are comthat class of idioms which are called municated to the mind.—The writing of monosyllabic. (See Languages.) Every the Chinese, indeed, if we consider only word of it consists only of one syllable. the number of their characters, and comThey may, however, be combined to- pare it with that of their words, would gether as in the English words welcome, seem to possess a very great superiority. welfare; but every syllable is significant, There are not less than 80,000 Chinese and therefore is of itself a word. If the characters; but of these only 10,000 are Chinese language were written, like our in common use, and the knowledge of own, with an alphabet, it would be found them is sufficient to enable one to underto possess comparatively but few sounds. stand almost every Chinese book. It was It wants the consonants b, d, r, v, and z. once thought that it required a man's Every syllable ends with a vowel sound. whole life to learn to read and write ChiThe Chinese cannot articulate two conso- nese ; but M. Remusat, the celebrated pronants successively, without interposing a fessor of that language in the royal college sheva, or English u short. Thus they at Paris, has demonstrated by facts, that pronounce the Latin word Christus in the Chinese may be learned in as short a this manner, Kul-iss-ut-00-suh. The num- time as any other idiom. The great numþer of syllables of which the Chinese ber of these characters proceeds, in the language is composed is very small. Ac- first place, from the considerable antity cording to Remusat, it does not exceed of homophonous words which exist in the 252; but Montucci thinks there are 460. Chinese. These are represented by difIt is not, therefore, accurately known. ferent characters, as with us by different But this number is quadrupled by four modes of spelling, of which the French different tones or accents (some say five), words cent, cens, sang, sans, sens, sent, of which an idea cannot be given by each having a different meaning, but all words. By means of these accents, the pronounced alike, are a striking example. Chinese speak in a kind of cantilena, or Neither are homophonous words wanting recitative, which is not, however, much in English, as bow and bough, great and observed when they speak fast, in their grate, and many others. The Chinese ordinary conversation. It requires a nice characters, also, by being combined toear to distinguish those varieties of tone. gether, as it were, into one, express two This language, consisting of monosylla- or more words at the same time, and this, bles, is destitute of grammatical forms. in a great degree, accounts for there being The nouns and verbs cannot be inflected, so many of them. The Chinese characand therefore the differences of tenses, ters are all reducible to 214, which are moods, cases, and the like, are either left called keys or radicals (in Chinese, poo), to be understood by means of the context, each of them representing one word, and or expressed by the manner in which the each word an idea. By the analogy of words are placed in relation to each other, those ideas the complex characters are as in French, sage-femme and femme-sage. formed—an ingenious contrivance, which With all these deficiencies, if they can so facilitates very much the acquisition of be called, the Chinese understand each the knowledge of them. Thus all the other perfectly well, and are never at a words which express some manual labor loss to express their ideas. Their exten- or occupation are combined of the charsive and varied literature is a proof of it; acter which represents the word hand, but this is generally ascribed to their with some other, expressive of the particwriting, which, it is said, expresses more ular occupation intended to be designated, than their spoken language. But we door of the material employed. This has not concur with those who hold this opin- induced many of the learned, and even
the Chinese literati themselves, to main- pils. The study of the Chinese language tain that the Chinese writing is ideo- appears to be now pursued with great argraphic, and represents ideas in a manner dor in Europe, and with remarkable sucunconnected with the spoken language; cess.
The reverend Mr. Morrison has but this supposition is disproved by the published a Chinese grammar, and a dicfact that no two Chinese can read aloud tionary of the same language, in 4 vols., from the same book without using the 4to.; the former printed at Serampore, the same words, which are precisely those latter at Macao, and both difficult to be which the characters represent. If it procured. M. Remusat has published at were otherwise, every person in reading Paris an excellent grammar of that lanwould use different words, and the written guage. The manuscript dictionary of language, as it is called, would be trans- father Basil de Glemona was translated lated, not read. It must be added, also, into French, and published at Paris, by that the Chinese poetry is in rhyme, and M. de Guignes, under the patronage of therefore addressed to the ear, and not to the emperor Napoleon, in the year 1813, the eye. This shows that it is impossible in one thick folio volume, to which a valfor those who are ignorant of the Chinese uable supplement has been since added language to read the Chinese writing, un- by M. Klaproth. Auxiliary means are less their own idiom should be construct- not now wanting for those who are desied exactly on the same model with the rous of learning this curious idiom. Chinese, have the same number of words, China WARE. (See Porcelain.) with the same meaning affixed to each, Chinchilla. (See Lanigera.) and the same grammatical forms. It has CHINESE STYLE. (See Architecture.) been repeatedly asserted that the Coreans, Chìo; called by the ancients Chios. and other nations in the neighborhood of (See Scio.) China, can all read the Chinese writing, CHIPPEWAY; a town in Upper Canada, and understand it, without knowing a on the Chippeway or Welland, 2 miles word of the spoken language ; but this N. W. Niagara falls, 10 S. Queenstown, appears impossible. It is more reason- This place is famous for a victory gained able to suppose, either that they have near it by the American troops over the adapted the Chinese characters to their British, July 5, 1814. own idioms, or that the Chinese is among CHIPPEWAY; a river of the U. States in them, as Latin is with us, a learned lan- the North-West Territory, which runs S. guage, which is generally acquired as a W. into the Mississippi; lon. 92° W.; lat. part of a liberal system of education. The 43° 45 N.; length, about 300 miles. Chinese characters are written from top to CHIPPEWAYS ; Indians, in the Northbottom and from right to left. The lines West Territory, on the Chippeway, in are not horizontal, but perpendicular, and Michigan Territory, and in Canada on parallel to each other. The Chinese lit- the Utawas. Number, according to Pike, erature is rich in works of every descrip- 11,177 ; 2049 warriors. (See Indians.) tion, both in verse and in prose. They Chiquitos; a province of S. America, are fond of works of moral philosophy, in Buenos Ayres, inhabited, in 1732, by 7 but they have a great many books of Indian nations, each composed of about history, geography, voyages, dramas, ro- 600 families. The country is mountainmances, tales and fictions of all kinds ous and marshy; but the more fertile Several of the latter works have been soils produce a variety of fruits without lately translated in England and France. culture. The varilla is common, and a kind The books called the Kings, ascribed to of cocoa is found, whose fruit is more like their great sage Confucius, are now in a a melon than a cocoa-nut. It lies to the course of translation. The works of his south of Moxes. successor, Meng-Tseu, have been lately CHIRAGRA (Greek; from xeip, the hand, published at Paris in the original, with an and äypa, a seizure); that species of arthrielegant Latin translation, in two octavo tis, or gout, which attacks the joints of the volumes, by M. Stanislas Julien. Other hand (the wrist and knuckles) and hinders translations from the Chinese are in prog their motions. It gradually deprives the ress, both at London and Paris, under the hands of their flexibility, and bends the patronage of the Asiatic societies of those fingers, distorts them, and impedes their capitals. The king of France has estab- action, by the accumulation of a calcarelished a professorship of Chinese in the ous matter around the sinews, which finalroyal college at Paris. This chair is now ly benumbs and stiffens the joints. filled by the learned Remusat, who has CHIROGRAPH. (See Charter.) already formed several distinguished pu- CHIROLOGY; the language of the fin
gers, or the art of making one's self un- useless; and Chiron suffered the severest derstood by means of the hands and fin- torments. The gods, at his prayer, put gers. It is an important means of com- an end to his life, though his nature was munication for the deaf and dumb. immortal by reason of his descent from
CHIROMANCY (from the Greek), or Pal- Saturn. After his death, he was placed MISTRY; the pretended art of prognosti- among the stars, and became the constelcating by the lines of the hand. Its adhe- lation Sagittarius. rents maintain, that human inclinations, CHIRONOMY (Xelpovopía, Greek; from xkip, faults and virtues are designated in an in- the hand, and vóos, a rule); the science fallible manner by the lines which divine which treats of the rules of gesticulaProvidence has originally drawn in the tion, which is a part of pantomime. The hands of all men. Traces of chiromancy ancient orators recognised the importance are found in the writings of Aristotle, who of gesticulation as a means of giving exasserts, for instance, that it is a sign of a pressiveness to a discourse. (See Gilbert long life if one or two lines run across the Austin's Chironomia, or a Treatise on Rhewhole hand. The chiromancers quote torical Delivery, London, 1806.) some passages of the Bible to prove that CHIVALRY (from the French chevalier, a their art is founded on the divine decrees, horseman; in German, Ritter, which sigas the following :-“ And it shall be for a nifies likewise a rider on horseback). Posign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a ets still sometimes use chivalry for cavalry; memorial between thine eyes” (Exodus but this word is generally employed to xü. 9); and, “He sealeth up the hand of signify a certain institution of the middle every man, that all men may know his ages. The age of chivalry is the heroic work” (Job xxxvi. 7). In the middle age of the Teutonic-Christian tribes, corages, chiromancy was cultivated; and, in responding to the age of the Grecian hethe present age, the French chiromancer roes. This heroic period of a nation may madame Lenormand found, as she states, be compared to the youth of an individusome eminent adepts in Paris, and in her al; and we find, therefore, nations, in this travels to the different European congress- stage of their progress, distinguished by es. The books in which chiromancy is the virtues, follies, and even vices, to explained and taught are numerous; and, which the youth of individuals is most in order to give dignity to the art, it has prone-thirst for glory, enthusiasm, pride, been connected with astrology. The Gip- indescribable and indefinite aspirations afsies are at present the principal professors ter something beyond the realities of life, of chiromancy, and people who have no strong faith in virtue and intellectual faith in the art not unfrequently amuse greatness, together with much vanity and themselves with their predictions. credulity. Chivalry, in the perfection of
CHIRON; son of Saturn and Philyra. its glory and its extravagance, existed Saturn assumed the shape of a horse, in only among the German tribes, or those this amour, to deceive his wife Rhea. which were conquered by and mingled The shape of Chiron, therefore, was half with them, and whose institutions and that of a man, half of a horse. In point civilization were impregnated with the of fact, Chiron was one of the people Teutonic spirit. Therefore we find chivcalled Centaurs. He was celebrated alry never fully developed in Italy, bethrough all Greece for his wisdom and cause the Teutonic spirit never penetrated acquirements; and the greatest princes all the institutions of that country, as it and heroes of the time-Bacchus, Jason, found a civilization already established, of Hercules, Achilles, Æsculapius, Nestor, too settled a character to be materially afTheseus, Palamedes, Ulysses, Castor and fected by its influence. We do not find Pollux, &c.—were intrusted to him for much of the chivalric spirit in Greece, nor education. Besides the other branches in among the Sclavonic tribes, except some which young men of rank were instructed traces among the Bohemians and the at that time, they learned from him music Poles, who had caught a portion of it and medicine. He was particularly skill- from the Germans. Among the Swedes, ed in surgery. When Hercules drove the though a genuine Teutonic tribe, chivalry Centaurs from mount Pelion, they took never struck deep root; but this is to be refuge with Chiron, in Malea; but their ascribed to their remote situation, and to enemy pursued them even-into this retreat, the circumstance that they early directed and unfortunately wounded his old teach their attention to navigation and naval er with a misdirected arrow. The speedy warfare, which, in many ways, were unoperation of the poison, in which the ar- favorable to the growth of the chivalric now had been dipped, rendered remedies spirit; affording, for instance, compara