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tively little opportunity for that display of of chivalry, but we cannot admit that the courage and accomplishment in the eyes virtues of the chivalric age have vanished, of admiring multitudes, or in the adven- because they now appear with less show turous quests of the single knight, which and gorgeousness. formed so striking a feature of the chival- To explain the nature and origin of ric age. Poets and orators are fond of chivalry, we must consider the character declaring that the chivalric spirit is gone. of the ancient German tribes. The warThe famous passage in Burke's Reflec- like spirit was common to them with tions is familiar to every one; but the man other barbarous nations, but there were who coolly investigates the character of certain traits in their character peculiarly past times, and compares them with the their own. Among these was their esteem present, will hardly come to the conclu- for women. This is dwelt upon by Tacision that our age is deficient in any of the tus, and is sufficiently apparent from the qualities which constituted the glory of early native German historians. This rethe age of chivalry. Their strength is the gard for the female sex was diffused by same; their direction only is changed. them through every country into which Is it courage which has departed ? The they spread, though with considerable soldier, who steadily marches up to the difference in the forms in which it develjaws of a battery, can hardly be considered oped itself. In France, it became that less brave than the knights of former days, refined gallantry, for which the nation has who cased their bodies in steel to meet been so long conspicuous ; in Spain, it far less formidable means of destruction. assumed a more romantic and glowing The late wars in Europe abound with character, displaying much of the fire of displays of valor, which may compete with Oriental feeling; in Germany itself, it beany recorded in history or romance. In came faithful and tender attachment to the battle of Dresden, the emperor Napo- the wedded wife. Undoubtedly the ChrisJeon (as Oldeleben relates in his account tian religion assisted in developing this of Napoleon's campaign in Saxony), being feeling of esteem for the female sex in seated before the Pirna gate, and seeing those times, particularly by the adoration the artillerists in a redoubt shrink from of the Virgin, which was taught as a part serving the cannon, because the Prussian of it. The constant reverence of this deiriflemen shot every man who presented fied image of chastity and female purity himself, turned to his old guard, and said, must have had a great effect. We do not “Show them how Frenchmen behave in conceive, however, that the elevated conbattle;" when some of the soldiers address- dition of women can be referred entirely ed immediately sprung upon the redoubt, to the Christian religion, as we see that it and marched up and down, in full view of has not produced this effect in the instance the

enemy, till they were shot. Of chiv- of nations who have had no opportunity alric self-sacrifice, we can hardly find a of imbibing the Teutonic spirit ; and many more striking instance than that of a Prus- Asiatic nations recognise that feature of sian officer of the corps of colonel Schill this religion, to which we have attributed (q. v.), who, when his comrades were con- so much efficacy, (namely the birth of the demned to death at Wesel, by a French being whom they worship from a virgin,) court-martial, for a military expedition in and yet keep their women in a very decontravention of the existing peace, refused graded condition. We may be told, in the pardon which was proffered to him answer to our claim of the peculiar regard alone by Napoleon, and preferred to die for the female as a characteristic of the with his fellow soldiers. Are we referred Teutonic tribes, that women were held in to the enthusiastic self-devotion which high esteem by the Romans. It is true crowded the plains of Palestine with the that wives and mothers were treated with thousands of European chivalry, eager to great regard by the Romans, and the hisshed their blood for the tomb of their Sa- tory of no nation affords more numerous vior? We say the same spirit in our days instances of female nobleness ; but this has chosen a nobler direction: the adven- esteem was rendered to them, not as feturers who expose themselves to every males, but as the faithful companions and peril in the cause of science and human patriotic mothers of citizens. It had someimprovement, the Humboldts, Clapper- what of a political cast. But this was not tons, Burckhardts, display equal heroism the case with the Germans. There is in a worthier cause. We would not gov- another trait of the German character, ern ourselves by so narrow a theory of which deserves to be considered in this utility as to refuse to acknowledge what connexion, which is very apparent in their was really great and sublime in the spirit literature, and the lives of many individu



als; we mean that indefinite thirst fored the errant knight who sought far and something superior to the realities of life, wide for adventures to be achieved by his that sehnen, to use their own word, which single arm, was the growth of a later pehardly admits of translation, which has riod. The use of the war-horse, which produced among them at the same time formed so essential an instrument of the so much excellence and so much extrava- son of chivalry, was not common among gance. These three traits of the Teutonic the Germans until the time of their wars race, their warlike spirit, their esteem for with the Huns. They were indeed acwomen, and their indefinable thirst for quainted with it before, and Tacitus mensuperhuman greatness, together with the tions it in his account of Germany; but it influence of the feudal system and of the was not in common use among them till Roman Catholic religion, afford an ex- the period we have mentioned. After it planation of the spirit of chivalry—an insti- was introduced, cavalry was considered tution which, to many observers, appears among them, as among all nations in the like an isolated point in history, and leaves early stages of their progress, much suthem in doubt whether to despise it as perior to infantry, which was, in fact, foolish, or admire it as sublime. The despised, until the successes of the Swiss feudal system divided the Christian Teu- demonstrated its superiority. In the 11th tonic tribes into masses, the members of century, knighthood had become an eswhich were united, indeed, by some polit- tablished and well-defined institution ; but ical ties, but had little of that intimate it was not till the 14th that its honors were connexion which bound men together in confined exclusively to the nobility (q. v.). the communities of antiquity, and has The crusades gave a more religious turn produced like effects in our own and a to the spirit of chivalry, and made the few preceding ages. They still preserved, knights of all Christian nations known to in a great measure, the independence of each other, so that a great uniformity is barbarians. There was, however, one thenceforward to be perceived among strong bond of union, which gave con- them throughout Europe. Then arose sistency to the whole aggregate; we mean the religious orders of knights, the

knights the Roman Catholic religion, which has of St. John, the templars, the Teutonic lost much of its connecting power, in pro- knights, &c. The whole establishment portion as other ties, chiefly those of a of knighthood assumed continually a common civilization, have gained strength. more formal character, and, degeneratThe influence of this religion was of great ing, like every human institution, sunk at service to mankind during the ages of ig- last into Quixotic extravagances, or fritternorance and violence, by giving coherency ed away its spirit amid the forms and to the links of the social chain, which punctilios springing from the pride and were continually in danger of parting the distinctions of the privileged orders of To this cause is to be ascribed the great society. It merged, in fact, among the uniformity of character which prevailed abuses which it has been one of the great during the ages of chivalry. The feudal labors of our age to overthrow. The desystem, besides, enabled the gentry to live cline of chivalry might be traced through on the labors of the oppressed peasants, the different forms which it assumed in difwithout the necessity of providing for ferent nations as distinctly as its developetheir own support, and to indulge the love ment-a task too extensive for this work. of adventures incident to their warlike and The education of a knight was briefly ambitious character. If we now combine as follows:- The young and noble stripthe characteristics which we have been ling, generally about his 12th year, was considering—a warlike spirit, a lofty devo- sent to the court of some baron or noble tion to the female sex, an undefinable knight, where he spent his time chiefly in thirst for glory, connected with feudal in- attending on the ladies, and acquiring dependence, elevation above the drudgery skill in the use of arms, in riding, &c. of daily toil, and a uniformity of character This duty of waiting about the persons of and purpose, inspired by the influence of the ladies became, in the sequel, as injuria common religion—we obtain a tolerable ous to the morals of the page as it may view of the chivalric character. This have been salutary in the beginning. character had not yet quite developed When advancing age and experience in itself in the age of Charlemagne. The the use of arms had qualified the page

for courage exhibited by the warriors of his war, he became an escuyer (esquire or age was rather the courage of individuals squire). This word is generally supposed in bodies. The independence, the indi- to be derived from escu or scudo (shield), viduality of character, which distinguish- because, among other offices, it was the

squire's business to carry the shield of the something of the same kind before the inknight whom he served. The third and fluence of the East was felt; for instance, highest rank of chivalry was that of the stories of the enchanter Merlin. Chivknighthood, which was not conferred be- alric poetry, in our opinion, begins, as fore the 21st year, except in the case of Schlegel has shown, with the mythologidistinguished birth or great achievements. cal cyclus of king Arthur's round table. The individual prepared himself by con- The second cyclus is that of Charlemagne fessing, fasting, &c.; religious rites were and his paladins, his 12 peers, which reperformed; and then, after promising to mained the poetical foundation of chivalbe faithful, to protect ladies and orphans, ric poetry for many centuries. The cyclus never to lie, nor utter slander, to live in of Amadis (q. V.), which belongs, perhaps, harmony with his equals, &c. (in France, exclusively to Spain, does not rest on any there were 20 vows of knighthood) he re- historical ground. (For further informaceived the accolade (q. v.), a slight blow tion, see the article Chivalry, in the supon the neck with the flat of the sword, plement to the Encyclopædia Britannica, from the person who dubbed him a knight, written by sir Walter Scott, which conwho, at the same time, pronounced a for- tains many interesting facts, though the mula to this effect: “I dub thee knight, writer does not investigate very deeply in the name of God and St. Michael (or the spirit of the institution. The article in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Chevalerie, in the Encyclopédie Moderne, Ghost). Be faithful, bold and fortunate.” is full of valuable information. The prefThis was often done on the eve of battle, ace to lord Byron's Childe Harold should to stimulate the new knight to deeds of not be forgotten. See also Heeren's Esvalor, or, after the combat, to reward sig- say on the Influence of the Crusades, transnal bravery.

lated into French from the German ; Though no man of any reflection Büsching's Vorlesungen über Ritterzeit would wish for the return of the age of und Ritterwesen, Leipsic, 1823, 2 vols.; chivalry, yet we must remember that Mémoires sur l'ancienne Chevalerie, par chivalry exercised, in some respects, a Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, Paris, 1826, salutary influence at a time when govern- 2 vols., with engravings; and last, but not ments were unsettled and laws little re- least, Don Quixote. See also the article garded. Though chivalry often carried Tournament, and the other articles in this the feelings of love and honor to a fanat- work connected with this subject.) We ical excess, yet it did much good by ele- have dwelt so long on chivalry, as we vating them to the rank of deities; for the think a correct view of it important to the reverence paid to them principally pre- understanding of many other subjects, vented mankind, at this period of barba- and as some of our views may be new to rous violence, from relapsing into barba- our readers. rism; and, as the feudal system was una- CHLADNI, Ernest Florence Frederic, voidable, it is well that its evils were one of the most distinguished proficients somewhat alleviated by the spirit of chiv- in the science of acoustics, born at Witalry. The influence which chivalry had on tenberg, 1756, son of E. M. Chladenius, poetry was very great. The troubadours professor in the faculty of law at that in the south of France, the trouveres in place, received his first education in the the north of the same country, the min- royal school at Grimma, devoted himself strels in England, the Minnesänger in afterwards at Wittenberg and Leipsic to Germany, sung the achievements of the law, and in the latter university was made knights who received them hospitably. doctor of philosophy in 1781, and, in 1782, (See Ballad.) In Provence arose the doctor of law. After the death of his facours d'amour (q. v.), which decided the ther, he abandoned the law, and devoted poetical contests of the knights. Amorous himself entirely to the study of nature, in songs (chansons), duets (tensons), pastoral which he had hitherto employed all his songs (pastourelles) and poetical colloquies leisure hours. As an amateur of music, (sirventes) were performed. In Germany, in which he received his first instruction the chivalric spirit produced one of the at the age of 19 years, he observed that most splendid and sublime epics, the the theory of sound was much more negNibelungenlied. (q. v.) By the inter- lected than the other branches of physics, course with the East, which grew up and determined to supply this deficiency. during the crusades, fairies, and all the The study of mathematics and physics, wonders of enchantment, were introduced with reference to music, enabled him to into the romantic or chivalric poetry. It present new views relative to the theory is probable, however, that there existed and practice of the art. Since 1787, he


has proved himself a profound naturalist, moderate heat, the gas is evolved, and by several works, relating, principally, to should be collected in inverted glass botsound and tone; e. g., his Discoveries in tles, filled with warm water. In order to Regard to the Theory of Sound (Leipsir, comprehend the theory of this process, it 1787); Suggestions for promoting a bet- must be premised that muriatic acid conter Explanation of the Theory of Sound, sists of chlorine and hydrogen. The a work dedicated to the society of natural- peroxide of manganese is composed of ists at Berlin. His principal composition, manganese and oxygen. When these which is a classical work in its kind, is compounds react on one another, the perhis Acoustics (Leipsic, 1802, 4to., with oxide of manganese gives up a portion copperplates), preceded by the history of of its oxygen to the hydrogen of the muhis discoveries in acoustics. (A French riatic acid, in consequence of which water translation, revised by himself, appeared is generated, and chlorine (the other inin Paris, 1809—Traité d'Acoustique.) He gredient in muriatic acid) is liberated. has also written Further Contributions to The method which is employed in the Acoustics (Leipsic, 1817), and Contribu- arts, and which is the most economical, is tions to Practical Acoustics and the The- the following :- Three parts of common ory of Constructing Instruments (Leipsic, salt (muriate of soda) are intimately min1822). Chladni is the inventor of the gled with one of the peroxide of mangaeuphon and the clavicylinder. To make nese, and to this mixture two parts of sulthese instruments known, he spent 10 phuric acid, diluted with an equal weight years in visiting the capital cities of Ger- of water, are then added. By the action many, Holland, France, Italy, Russia, of sulphuric acid on the muriate of soda, Denmark, and everywhere gained the muriatic acid is disengaged, which reacts esteem of connoisseurs. He returned, in as before explained upon the peroxide of 1812, to his native place, where he is con- manganese ; so that, instead of adding tinually employed in new researches. He muriatic acid directly to the manganese, also commenced examinations of the bo- the materials for forming it are employed. lides, or fiery meteors, the phenomena of Chlorine is gaseous under a common atwhich, as the flame, smoke, noise, &c., mospheric pressure. It is twice and a have little in common with the electrical half heavier than atmospheric air, or its phenomena with which they have been specific gravity is 2.5. The gas has a yelconfounded. He endeavored to prove, in lowish-green color. Of all the gases, it is two treatises, On the Origin of the Iron the most insupportable in its action on the Masses found by Pallas, and other similar lungs. When pure, it occasions immediMasses (Riga, 1794), and On Fiery Mete- ate death if an animal is immersed in it; ors (Vienna, 1819), 1. that the stories which and even when largely diluted with comrepresent masses of stone as having fallen mon air, it cannot be respired with safety. on our earth are worthy of credit ; and, It occasions a severe sense of stricture at 2. that these masses and meteors are not the breast, which renders it impossible to the productions of our earth, and come make a full inspiration. This continues from beyond the region of our atmos- for a considerable time after it has been phere. (See Meteoric Stones.)

inspired, and has often produced a perCHLORIC Acid. (See Chlorine.) manently injurious effect. When thor

CALORIDE OF NITROGEN. (See Chlo- oughly dried, by exposure to fused chlorine.)

ride of calcium, it suffers no change, CHLORINE. The discovery of this gas though cooled to 40°. When prepared was made in 1770, by Scheele, and named, over water, however, so as to contain a by its discoverer, dephlogisticated mariné quantity of aqueous vapor, it condenses acid. The term dephlogisticated had ex- on the sides of the vessel even at a temactly the same import as that of oxygenat- perature of 40°; and, if surrounded by ed, soon afterwards introduced by Lavoi- snow or ice, it shoots into acicular crystals sier. From its peculiar yellowish-green of a bright-yellow color, and sometimes color, the appellation of chlorine (from two inches in length, which remain atxlwpds, green) has been given to it. Chlo- tached to the sides of the vessel. This rine gas is obtained by the action of muri- solid is a hydrate of chlorine, and, when atic acid on the peroxide of manganese. heated to 50°, it melts into a yellowish The most convenient method of preparing oily fluid. Chlorine is absorbed by water, it is by mixing concentrated muriatic acid, in a quantity which increases as the temcontained in a glass flask, with half its perature diminishes. At 50°, the water weight of finely-powdered peroxide of takes up about twice its volume. The manganese. On the application of a solution has a yellowish-green color, and its odor is that of the gas itself. Its taste gas destroys color, it must, probably, be is rather styptic than sour, and the liquid, enabled so to do by the hygrometric water like the gas, has the property of destroy- it contains. It is accordingly found, that, ing the vegetable colors. Hence it may when freed from this, it does not destroy be employed in bleaching. It is not the color of dry litmus paper. The dechanged by a boiling temperature. Solu- struction of color appears to be owing to tion of chlorine is decomposed, however, the communication of the oxygen of the by exposure to the solar light; the chlo- water present to the coloring matter: the rine attracts hydrogen from the water, chlorine attracts the hydrogen of the waforming muriatic acid, which remains dis- ter to form muriatic acid, and the evolved solved, and pure oxygen is disengaged. oxygen unites with the coloring matter, Chlorine gas supports the combustion of a and, by changing its constitution, alters its number of inflammable substances. A relation to light, so that the tint disappears. lighted taper burns in it, though feebly, Berthollet applied this agency of chlorine with a red flame ; phosphorus takes fire to the process of bleaching, and with such when immersed in it; and a number of success as to have entirely changed the the metals, as antimony, arsenic, copper manipulations of that art. The method and others, if introduced into it in leaves of using it has been successively improvor filings, burn spontaneously. Potassium ed. It consisted, at first, in subjecting and sodium burn vividly in it. In these the thread or cloth to the action of the cases, the inflammable or metallic sub- gas itself; but the effect, in this way, was stances are believed simply to unite with unequally produced, and the strength and the chlorine. Chlorine combines with texture were sometimes injured. It was many of these bases in more than one then applied, condensed by water, and in proportion. When in one proportion, the a certain state of dilution. The thread, or compound is called a chloride; when in cloth, was prepared as in the old method two, a bi-chloride, or a deuto-chloride, &c. of bleaching, by boiling first in water, and Whenever a metallic chloride, which is then in alkaline lye; it was then immersed soluble in water, is thrown into that fluid, in the diluted chlorine : this alternate apit is conceived to be instantly converted plication of alkali and chlorine was coninto a muriate; the water present is de- tinued until the color was discharged. composed, its oxygen goes to the metallic The offensive, suffocating odor of the gas base, and its hydrogen to the chlorine, and rendered this mode of using it, however, a muriate of an alkali, earth, or metallic scarcely practicable; the odor was found oxide, is formed. Thus common salt, to be removed by condensing the chlorine when dry, is a chloride of sodium: it is by a weak solution of potash : lime, difno salt, containing neither acid nor alkali, fused in water, being more economical, but, whenever it is dissolved in water, it is was afterwards substituted. Under all immediately transformed into a salt: the these forms, the chlorine, by decomposing sodium attracts oxygen and becomes soda, water, and causing oxygen to be imparted and the chlorine takes hydrogen and be- to the coloring matter, weakens or discomes muriatic acid, and muriate of, soda charges the color, and the coloring matter exists in the solution. When any of the appears to be rendered more soluble in compounds of chlorine, with inflammable the alkaline solution, alternately applied, substances or metals, are subjected to the and of course more easily extracted by its action of a galvanic apparatus sufficiently action. More lately, a compound of chlopowerful to decompose them, the chlorine rine and lime has been employed, preparis always evolved at the positive pole of ed by exposing slacked lime to chlorine the battery, and the base at the negative gas: the gas is quickly absorbed, and the pole. In this respect, and in its power of chloride of lime, as it is called, being dissupporting combustion, chlorine is analo- solved in water, forms the bleaching liquor gous to oxygen. One of the most im- now commonly employed, and which posportant chemical properties of chlorine is sesses many advantages. In using it, the displayed in its action on the vegetable colored cloth is first steeped in warm wacolors. Many of them it entirely destroys; ter to clean it, and is then repeatedly washand even those which are the most deep ed with a solution of caustic potash, so and permanent, such as the color of indi- diluted that it cannot injure the texture of go, it renders faint, and changes to a light the cloth, and which is thrown upon it by yellow or brown. This agency is exerted a pump; the cloth is then washed and by it, both in its gaseous and its liquid steeped in a very weak solution of chloform. The presence of water is, howev- ride of lime, again washed, acted on by a er, necessary to this. Hence, when the boiling lye as before, and again steeped in

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