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tively little opportunity for that display of courage and accomplishment in the eyes of admiring multitudes, or in the adventurous quests of the single knight, which formed so striking a feature of the chivalric age. Poets and orators are fond of declaring that the chivalric spirit is gone. The famous passage in Burke's Reflections is familiar to every one; but the man who coolly investigates the character of past times, and compares them with the present, will hardly come to the conclusion that our age is deficient in any of the qualities which constituted the glory of the age of chivalry. Their strength is the same; their direction only is changed. Is it courage which has departed? The soldier, who steadily marches up to the jaws of a battery, can hardly be considered less brave than the knights of former days, who cased their bodies in steel to meet far less formidable means of destruction. The late wars in Europe abound with displays of valor, which may compete with any recorded in history or romance. In the battle of Dresden, the emperor Napoleon (as Oldeleben relates in his account of Napoleon's campaign in Saxony), being seated before the Pirna gate, and seeing the artillerists in a redoubt shrink from serving the cannon, because the Prussian riflemen shot every man who presented himself, turned to his old guard, and said, "Show them how Frenchmen behave in battle;" when some of the soldiers addressed immediately sprung upon the redoubt, and marched up and down, in full view of the enemy, till they were shot. Of chivalric self-sacrifice, we can hardly find a more striking instance than that of a Prussian officer of the corps of colonel Schill (q. v.), who, when his comrades were condemned to death at Wesel, by a French court-martial, for a military expedition in contravention of the existing peace, refused the pardon which was proffered to him alone by Napoleon, and preferred to die with his fellow soldiers. Are we referred to the enthusiastic self-devotion which crowded the plains of Palestine with the thousands of European chivalry, eager to shed their blood for the tomb of their Savior? We say the same spirit in our days has chosen a nobler direction: the adventurers who expose themselves to every peril in the cause of science and human improvement, the Humboldts, Clappertons, Burckhardts, display equal heroism in a worthier cause. We would not govern ourselves by so narrow a theory of utility as to refuse to acknowledge what was really great and sublime in the spirit

of chivalry, but we cannot admit that the virtues of the chivalric age have vanished, because they now appear with less show and gorgeousness.

To explain the nature and origin of chivalry, we must consider the character of the ancient German tribes. The warlike spirit was common to them with other barbarous nations; but there were certain traits in their character peculiarly their own. Among these was their esteem for women.

This is dwelt upon by Taci

tus, and is sufficiently apparent from the early native German historians. This regard for the female sex was diffused by them through every country into which they spread, though with considerable difference in the forms in which it developed itself. In France, it became that refined gallantry, for which the nation has been so long conspicuous; in Spain, it assumed a more romantic and glowing character, displaying much of the fire of Oriental feeling; in Germany itself, it became faithful and tender attachment to the wedded wife. Undoubtedly the Christian religion assisted in developing this feeling of esteem for the female sex in those times, particularly by the adoration of the Virgin, which was taught as a part of it. The constant reverence of this deified image of chastity and female purity must have had a great effect. We do not conceive, however, that the elevated condition of women can be referred entirely to the Christian religion, as we see that it has not produced this effect in the instance of nations who have had no opportunity of imbibing the Teutonic spirit; and many Asiatic nations recognise that feature of this religion, to which we have attributed. so much efficacy, (namely the birth of the being whom they worship from a virgin,) and yet keep their women in a very degraded condition. We may be told, in answer to our claim of the peculiar regard for the female as a characteristic of the Teutonic tribes, that women were held in high esteem by the Romans. It is true that wives and mothers were treated with great regard by the Romans, and the history of no nation affords more numerous instances of female nobleness; but this esteem was rendered to them, not as females, but as the faithful companions and patriotic mothers of citizens. It had somewhat of a political cast. But this was not the case with the Germans. There is another trait of the German character, which deserves to be considered in this connexion, which is very apparent in their literature, and the lives of many individu

als; we mean that indefinite thirst for something superior to the realities of life, that sehnen, to use their own word, which hardly admits of translation, which has produced among them at the same time so much excellence and so much extravagance. These three traits of the Teutonic race, their warlike spirit, their esteem for women, and their indefinable thirst for superhuman greatness, together with the influence of the feudal system and of the Roman Catholic religion, afford an explanation of the spirit of chivalry—an institution which, to many observers, appears like an isolated point in history, and leaves them in doubt whether to despise it as foolish, or admire it as sublime. The feudal system divided the Christian Teutonic tribes into masses, the members of which were united, indeed, by some political ties, but had little of that intimate connexion which bound men together in the communities of antiquity, and has produced like effects in our own and a few preceding ages. They still preserved, in a great measure, the independence of barbarians. There was, however, one strong bond of union, which gave consistency to the whole aggregate; we mean the Roman Catholic religion, which has lost much of its connecting power, in proportion as other ties, chiefly those of a common civilization, have gained strength. The influence of this religion was of great service to mankind during the ages of ignorance and violence, by giving coherency to the links of the social chain, which were continually in danger of parting. To this cause is to be ascribed the great uniformity of character which prevailed during the ages of chivalry. The feudal system, besides, enabled the gentry to live on the labors of the oppressed peasants, without the necessity of providing for their own support, and to indulge the love of adventures incident to their warlike and ambitious character. If we now combine the characteristics which we have been considering a warlike spirit, a lofty devotion to the female sex, an undefinable thirst for glory, connected with feudal independence, elevation above the drudgery of daily toil, and a uniformity of character and purpose, inspired by the influence of a common religion-we obtain a tolerable view of the chivalric character. This character had not yet quite developed itself in the age of Charlemagne. The courage exhibited by the warriors of his age was rather the courage of individuals in bodies. The independence, the individuality of character, which distinguish

ed the errant knight who sought far and wide for adventures to be achieved by his single arm, was the growth of a later period. The use of the war-horse, which formed so essential an instrument of the son of chivalry, was not common among the Germans until the time of their wars with the Huns. They were indeed acquainted with it before, and Tacitus mentions it in his account of Germany; but it was not in common use among them till the period we have mentioned. After it was introduced, cavalry was considered among them, as among all nations in the early stages of their progress, much superior to infantry, which was, in fact, despised, until the successes of the Swiss demonstrated its superiority. In the 11th century, knighthood had become an established and well-defined institution; but it was not till the 14th that its honors were confined exclusively to the nobility (q. v.). The crusades gave a more religious turn to the spirit of chivalry, and made the knights of all Christian nations known to each other, so that a great uniformity is thenceforward to be perceived among them throughout Europe. Then arose the religious orders of knights, the knights of St. John, the templars, the Teutonic knights, &c. The whole establishment of knighthood assumed continually a more formal character, and, degenerating, like every human institution, sunk at last into Quixotic extravagances, or frittered away its spirit amid the forms and punctilios springing from the pride and the distinctions of the privileged orders of society. It merged, in fact, among the abuses which it has been one of the great labors of our age to overthrow. The decline of chivalry might be traced through the different forms which it assumed in different nations as distinctly as its developement-a task too extensive for this work.

The education of a knight was briefly as follows:-The young and noble stripling, generally about his 12th year, was sent to the court of some baron or noble knight, where he spent his time chiefly in attending on the ladies, and acquiring skill in the use of arms, in riding, &c. This duty of waiting about the persons of the ladies became, in the sequel, as injurious to the morals of the page as it may have been salutary in the beginning. When advancing age and experience in the use of arms had qualified the page war, he became an escuyer (esquire or squire). This word is generally supposed to be derived from escu or scudo (shield), because, among other offices, it was the

for

squire's business to carry the shield of the knight whom he served. The third and highest rank of chivalry was that of knighthood, which was not conferred before the 21st year, except in the case of distinguished birth or great achievements. The individual prepared himself by confessing, fasting, &c.; religious rites were performed; and then, after promising to be faithful, to protect ladies and orphans, never to lie, nor utter slander, to live in harmony with his equals, &c. (in France, there were 20 vows of knighthood) he received the accolade (q. v.), a slight blow on the neck with the flat of the sword, from the person who dubbed him a knight, who, at the same time, pronounced a formula to this effect: "I dub thee knight, in the name of God and St. Michael (or in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost). Be faithful, bold and fortunate." This was often done on the eve of battle, to stimulate the new knight to deeds of valor, or, after the combat, to reward signal bravery.

Though no man of any reflection would wish for the return of the age of chivalry, yet we must remember that chivalry exercised, in some respects, a salutary influence at a time when governments were unsettled and laws little regarded. Though chivalry often carried the feelings of love and honor to a fanatical excess, yet it did much good by elevating them to the rank of deities; for the reverence paid to them principally prevented mankind, at this period of barbarous violence, from relapsing into barbarism; and, as the feudal system was unavoidable, it is well that its evils were somewhat alleviated by the spirit of chivalry. The influence which chivalry had on poetry was very great. The troubadours in the south of France, the trouveres in the north of the same country, the minstrels in England, the Minnesänger in Germany, sung the achievements of the knights who received them hospitably. (See Ballad.) In Provence arose the cours d'amour (q. v.), which decided the poetical contests of the knights. Amorous songs (chansons), duets (tensons), pastoral songs (pastourelles) and poetical colloquies (sirventes) were performed. In Germany, the chivalric spirit produced one of the most splendid and sublime epics, the Nibelungenlied. (q. v.) By the intercourse with the East, which grew up during the crusades, fairies, and all the wonders of enchantment, were introduced into the romantic or chivalric poetry. It is probable, however, that there existed

something of the same kind before the influence of the East was felt; for instance, the stories of the enchanter Merlin. Chivalric poetry, in our opinion, begins, as Schlegel has shown, with the mythological cyclus of king Arthur's round table. The second cyclus is that of Charlemagne and his paladins, his 12 peers, which remained the poetical foundation of chivalric poetry for many centuries. The cyclus of Amadis (q. v.), which belongs, perhaps, exclusively to Spain, does not rest on any historical ground. (For further information, see the article Chivalry, in the supplement to the Encyclopædia Britannica, written by sir Walter Scott, which contains many interesting facts, though the writer does not investigate very deeply the spirit of the institution. The article Chevalerie, in the Encyclopédie Moderne, is full of valuable information. The preface to lord Byron's Childe Harold should not be forgotten. See also Heeren's Essay on the Influence of the Crusades, translated into French from the German; Büsching's Vorlesungen über Ritterzeit und Ritterwesen, Leipsic, 1823, 2 vols.; Mémoires sur l'ancienne Chevalerie, par Lacurne de Sainte-Palaye, Paris, 1826, 2 vols., with engravings; and last, but not least, Don Quixote. See also the article Tournament, and the other articles in this work connected with this subject.) We have dwelt so long on chivalry, as we think a correct view of it important to the understanding of many other subjects, and as some of our views may be new to our readers.

CHLADNI, Ernest Florence Frederic, one of the most distinguished proficients in the science of acoustics, born at Wittenberg, 1756, son of E. M. Chladenius, professor in the faculty of law at that place, received his first education in the royal school at Grimma, devoted himself afterwards at Wittenberg and Leipsic to law, and in the latter university was made doctor of philosophy in 1781, and, in 1782, doctor of law. After the death of his father, he abandoned the law, and devoted himself entirely to the study of nature, in which he had hitherto employed all his leisure hours. As an amateur of music, in which he received his first instruction at the age of 19 years, he observed that the theory of sound was much more neglected than the other branches of physics, and determined to supply this deficiency. The study of mathematics and physics, with reference to music, enabled him to present new views relative to the theory and practice of the art. Since 1787, he

has proved himself a profound naturalist, by several works, relating, principally, to sound and tone; e. g., his Discoveries, in Regard to the Theory of Sound (Leipsic, 1787); Suggestions for promoting a better Explanation of the Theory of Sound, a work dedicated to the society of naturalists at Berlin. His principal composition, which is a classical work in its kind, is his Acoustics (Leipsic, 1802, 4to., with copperplates), preceded by the history of his discoveries in acoustics. (A French translation, revised by himself, appeared in Paris, 1809-Traité d'Acoustique.) He has also written Further Contributions to Acoustics (Leipsic, 1817), and Contributions to Practical Acoustics and the Theory of Constructing Instruments (Leipsic, 1822). Chladni is the inventor of the euphon and the clavicylinder. To make these instruments known, he spent 10 years in visiting the capital cities of Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Russia, Denmark, and everywhere gained the esteem of connoisseurs. He returned, in 1812, to his native place, where he is continually employed in new researches. He also commenced examinations of the bolides, or fiery meteors, the phenomena of which, as the flame, smoke, noise, &c., have little in common with the electrical phenomena with which they have been confounded. He endeavored to prove, in two treatises, On the Origin of the Iron Masses found by Pallas, and other similar Masses (Riga, 1794), and On Fiery Meteors (Vienna, 1819), 1. that the stories which represent masses of stone as having fallen on our earth are worthy of credit; and, 2. that these masses and meteors are not the productions of our earth, and come from beyond the region of our atmosphere. (See Meteoric Stones.)

CHLORIC ACID. (See Chlorine.) CHLORIDE OF NITROGEN. (See Chlorine.)

CHLORINE. The discovery of this gas was made in 1770, by Scheele, and named, by its discoverer, dephlogisticated marine acid. The term dephlogisticated had exactly the same import as that of oxygenated, soon afterwards introduced by Lavoisier. From its peculiar yellowish-green color, the appellation of chlorine (from XAwpòs, green) has been given to it. Chlorine gas is obtained by the action of muriatic acid on the peroxide of manganese. The most convenient method of preparing it is by mixing concentrated muriatic acid, contained in a glass flask, with half its weight of finely-powdered peroxide of manganese. On the application of a

moderate heat, the gas is evolved, and should be collected in inverted glass bottles, filled with warm water. In order to comprehend the theory of this process, it must be premised that muriatic acid consists of chlorine and hydrogen. The peroxide of manganese is composed of manganese and oxygen. When these compounds react on one another, the peroxide of manganese gives up a portion of its oxygen to the hydrogen of the muriatic acid, in consequence of which water is generated, and chlorine (the other ingredient in muriatic acid) is liberated. The method which is employed in the arts, and which is the most economical, is the following:-Three parts of common salt (muriate of soda) are intimately mingled with one of the peroxide of manganese, and to this mixture two parts of sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal weight of water, are then added. By the action of sulphuric acid on the muriate of soda, muriatic acid is disengaged, which reacts as before explained upon the peroxide of manganese; so that, instead of adding muriatic acid directly to the manganese, the materials for forming it are employed. Chlorine is gaseous under a common atmospheric pressure. It is twice and a half heavier than atmospheric air, or its specific gravity is 2.5. The gas has a yellowish-green color. Of all the gases, it is the most insupportable in its action on the lungs. When pure, it occasions immediate death if an animal is immersed in it; and even when largely diluted with common air, it cannot be respired with safety. It occasions a severe sense of stricture at the breast, which renders it impossible to make a full inspiration. This continues for a considerable time after it has been inspired, and has often produced a permanently injurious effect. When thoroughly dried, by exposure to fused chloride of calcium, it suffers no change, though cooled to 40°. When prepared over water, however, so as to contain a quantity of aqueous vapor, it condenses on the sides of the vessel even at a temperature of 40°; and, if surrounded by snow or ice, it shoots into acicular crystals of a bright-yellow color, and sometimes two inches in length, which remain attached to the sides of the vessel. This solid is a hydrate of chlorine, and, when heated to 50°, it melts into a yellowish oily fluid. Chlorine is absorbed by water, in a quantity which increases as the temperature diminishes. At 50°, the water takes up about twice its volume. The solution has a yellowish-green color, and

its odor is that of the gas itself. Its taste is rather styptic than sour, and the liquid, like the gas, has the property of destroying the vegetable colors. Hence it may be employed in bleaching. It is not changed by a boiling temperature. Solution of chlorine is decomposed, however, by exposure to the solar light; the chlorine attracts hydrogen from the water, forming muriatic acid, which remains dissolved, and pure oxygen is disengaged. Chlorine gas supports the combustion of a number of inflammable substances. A lighted taper burns in it, though feebly, with a red flame; phosphorus takes fire when immersed in it; and a number of the metals, as antimony, arsenic, copper and others, if introduced into it in leaves or filings, burn spontaneously. Potassium and sodium burn vividly in it. In these cases, the inflammable or metallic substances are believed simply to unite with the chlorine. Chlorine combines with many of these bases in more than one proportion. When in one proportion, the compound is called a chloride; when in two, a bi-chloride, or a deuto-chloride, &c. Whenever a metallic chloride, which is soluble in water, is thrown into that fluid, it is conceived to be instantly converted into a muriate; the water present is decomposed, its oxygen goes to the metallic base, and its hydrogen to the chlorine, and a muriate of an alkali, earth, or metallic oxide, is formed. Thus common salt, when dry, is a chloride of sodium: it is no salt, containing neither acid nor alkali, but, whenever it is dissolved in water, it is immediately transformed into a salt: the sodium attracts oxygen and becomes soda, and the chlorine takes hydrogen and becomes muriatic acid, and muriate of soda exists in the solution. When any of the compounds of chlorine, with inflammable substances or metals, are subjected to the action of a galvanic apparatus sufficiently powerful to decompose them, the chlorine is always evolved at the positive pole of the battery, and the base at the negative pole. In this respect, and in its power of supporting combustion, chlorine is analogous to oxygen. One of the most important chemical properties of chlorine is displayed in its action on the vegetable colors. Many of them it entirely destroys; and even those which are the most deep and permanent, such as the color of indigo, it renders faint, and changes to a light yellow or brown. This agency is exerted by it, both in its gaseous and its liquid form. The presence of water is, however, necessary to this. Hence, when the

gas destroys color, it must, probably, be enabled so to do by the hygrometric water it contains. It is accordingly found, that, when freed from this, it does not destroy the color of dry litmus paper. The destruction of color appears to be owing to the communication of the oxygen of the water present to the coloring matter: the chlorine attracts the hydrogen of the water to form muriatic acid, and the evolved oxygen unites with the coloring matter, and, by changing its constitution, alters its relation to light, so that the tint disappears. Berthollet applied this agency of chlorine to the process of bleaching, and with such success as to have entirely changed the manipulations of that art. The method of using it has been successively improved. It consisted, at first, in subjecting the thread or cloth to the action of the gas itself; but the effect, in this way, was unequally produced, and the strength and texture were sometimes injured. It was then applied, condensed by water, and in a certain state of dilution. The thread, or cloth, was prepared as in the old method of bleaching, by boiling first in water, and then in alkaline lye; it was then immersed in the diluted chlorine: this alternate application of alkali and chlorine was continued until the color was discharged. The offensive, suffocating odor of the gas rendered this mode of using it, however, scarcely practicable; the odor was found to be removed by condensing the chlorine by a weak solution of potash: lime, diffused in water, being more economical, was afterwards substituted. Under all these forms, the chlorine, by decomposing water, and causing oxygen to be imparted to the coloring matter, weakens or discharges the color, and the coloring matter appears to be rendered more soluble in the alkaline solution, alternately applied, and of course more easily extracted by its action. More lately, a compound of chlorine and lime has been employed, prepared by exposing slacked lime to chlorine gas: the gas is quickly absorbed, and the chloride of lime, as it is called, being dissolved in water, forms the bleaching liquor now commonly employed, and which possesses many advantages. In using it, the colored cloth is first steeped in warm water to clean it, and is then repeatedly washed with a solution of caustic potash, so diluted that it cannot injure the texture of the cloth, and which is thrown upon it by a pump; the cloth is then washed and steeped in a very weak solution of chloride of lime, again washed, acted on by a boiling lye as before, and again steeped in

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