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the solution; and these operations are · Chlorine forms, along with nitrogen, one performed alternately several times. The of the most explosive compounds yet cloth is lastly immersed in very dilute sul- known, and was the cause of serious acphuric acid, which gives it a pure white cidents to M. Dulong, its discoverer, and color; after which it is washed and dried. afterwards to sir H. Davy. The chloride Chloride of magnesia has been substitut- of nitrogen is formed from the action of ed, with great advantage, for that of lime, chlorine on some salt of ammonia, chloin whitening cloth for calico printing; rine and nitrogen being incapable of unitthe cloth, when lime is used, retaining a ing, when presented to each other in their little of it, which, in the subsequent opera- gaseous form. Its formation is owing to tion of clearing by immersion in weak the decomposition of ammonia (a comsulphuric acid, forms sulphate of lime, pound of hydrogen and nitrogen) þy chlowhich remains, and affects the colors when rine. The hydrogen of the ammonia it is dyed ; while the sulphate of magnesia unites with chlorine, and forms muriatic is so soluble, that it is entirely removed. acid; while the nitrogen of the ammonia, Chloride of alumine has been employed being presented in its nascent state to to discharge the color of the Turkey-red chlorine, dissolved in the solution, enters dye, which resists the action of other chlo- into combination with it. The chloride rides, and is only discharged by chlorine of nitrogen has a specific gravity of 1.653; gas, by an operation very injurious to the it does not congeal by the intense cold workmen. Another important application produced by a mixture of snow and salt. of chlorine gas is that of destroying or At a temperature between 2009 and 212°, neutralizing contagion. Acid vapors, sul- it explodes; and mere contact with most phurous acid in particular, under the form substances of a combustible nature causes of the fumes of burning sulphur, had often detonation at common temperatures. The been employed for that purpose ; but chlo- products of the explosion are chlorine and rine, from the facility with which it de- nitrogen. Three distinct compounds of composes the different compound gases chlorine and carbon have of late been that contain the elements of vegetable and made known by Faraday; but for an acanimal matter, and which may be sup- count of these, as well as of the chlorides posed to constitute noxious effluvia, is su- of sulphur and of phosphorus, and the chloperior to any other agent, and is now uni- ro-carbonic acid gas, the reader is referred versally employed for the purposes of fu- to the larger treatises on chemistry, it bemigation. It is the only agent which can ing incompatible with the plan of the presadminister relief in cases of asphyxia from ent work to enter into those details which sulphureted hydrogen; and it has been are not connected with the useful arts, or round useful, among such persons as are which are not absolutely necessary in orobliged to frequent places where conta- der to afford a correct idea of the mode gious effluvia are constantly developed, to of reasoning and general theory of the bathe the hands and arms with its solution. science.* Chlorine, united with hydrogen, forms an CALORITE. (See Talc.) important compound, called muriatic, or Choc (from the French choc, the violent hydrochloric acid gas. (See Muriatic Acid.) meeting of two bodies), in military lanWith oxygen, it gives rise to four distinct guage, signifies a violent attack. It is compounds, which are remarkable for the generally applied to a charge of cavalry. feeble attraction of their constituent ele- To give such an attack its full effect, it is ments, notwithstanding the strong affinity necessary, 1. that the line be preserved of oxygen and chlorine for most elemen- unbroken, so that the attack shall take eftary substances. These compounds are fect at all points at the same time; 2. that never met with in nature. Indeed, they can- the horses be strong and heavy, that their not be formed by the direct combination momentum may be great; 3. that the of their constituents; and their decompo
* A letter of M. Dauvergne to M. Gay-Lussac, sition is effected by the slightest causes. in the Ann. de Chemie, recently published, states Notwithstanding this, their union is always the effect of chlorine as an antidote of hydrocyanic regulated by the law of definite propor- acid. A cat, to which two drops of hydrocyanic tions, as appears from the following
tabular acid were given
through the lachrymal gland, was
affected most violently by the poison. While the view, illustrative of their composition. animal was in this condition, some chlorine was
Chlorine. Oxygen. put into her mouth, and, one hour after, she was Protoxide of chlorine 36 8 able to make a few tottering steps: the next mornPeroxide of chlorine 36 32
ing the animal was quite well. It has also been Chloric acid
lately stated, in the public journals, that the French
physicians have found chlorine very effectual in Perchloric acid
36 56 preserving from the plague, if put on the linen, &c. VOL. III.
charge be made as swiftly as possible, noting the seven years' war, he engraved vamerely for the sake of the physical effect, rious subjects connected with it; among but also of the moral effect which it has others, the Russian Prisoners at Berlin, on the enemy. This swiftness, however, which is now rare. The history of the must be attained gradually, increasing as unhappy Calas gave him an affecting the distance diminishes. The charge subject for a picture, which, at the desire commences with a short trot; a long trot of all who saw it, he engraved on copper. follows; at the distance of 150 paces, this The impressions of the year 1767 are is increased to a gallop; and 50 paces particularly esteemed. Almost all the from the enemy, the horse must be put to plates to Lavater's Physiognomical Fraghis speed. A choc, whether successful ments are from his designs. He engravor not, is of short duration.
ed several of them himself. At last, CHOCOLATE. (See Cacao.)
scarcely a book appeared in Prussia, for CHOCTAws, or FLAT-HEADS ; a tribe which he did not engrave at least a vig. of Indians, residing between the Missis- nette. The number of his engravings is sippi and the Tombigbee, partly in Ala- more than 3000; but we must observe, bama, but mostly in Mississippi. Their that he was in the habit of making territory is bounded N. and N. E. by that changes in his plates, after a number of of the Chickasaws. The country has a copies had been struck off, so that all the fertile soil, and is traversed by the upper copies of the same plate are not entirely waters of the_Yazoo, Big Black, and alike. He must be considered the foundPearl rivers. Their number is estimated er of a new art in Germany—that of repat about 20,000 or 25,000. They are a resenting modern figures. He died, Feb. hardy, intrepid and ingenious race, and 1, 1801, at Berlin, where he was director have made, within the last 20 years, great of the academy of arts. He was univeradvances in agriculture and other arts of sally esteemed for his integrity. civilized life. They raise cotton, and CHOIR ; that part of the church manufacture it into cloth for their ordina- where the choristers sing. In some old ry use, and often appear well clad in gar- churches, the seats of the choristers, and ments of their own making. In 1818, other parts of the choir, are ornamented the American board of foreign missions with admirable carved work. (See Arestablished a mission among the Indians chitecture, vol. I, page 343, sect. vii., Gothic at Elliot, on the Yalo Busha, a branch of style.) the Yazoo; and, since that period, eight CHOISEUL, Etienne François de; duke other similar establishments have been de Choiseul et d'Amboise; minister of formed. (See Indians.)
state of Louis XV; born in 1719. When CHOCzim (Chotschim); an important count of Stainville, he displayed a brilfrontier fortress of Russia, on the right liant courage, and was rapidly promoted. bank of the Dniester, opposite to Kaminiec, His marriage with a rich heiress, sister to in Bessarabia, with 25,000 inhabitants and the duchess of Gontaut, and his intimate a considerable trade. The people are en- connexion with the marchioness de Pomtirely employed in furnishing supplies for padour, permitted him to indulge his amthe army. The Turks caused Choczim bitious hopes, which he never concealed. to be regularly fortified, in 1718, by He went as ambassador to Rome, and, in French engineers; but it was taken by 1756, in the same capacity, to Vienna. the Russians in 1730, 1769 and 1788. As In 1757, he succeeded the cardinal Berthe Pruth, in Europe, is, at present, the nis, then minister of foreign affairs, who, boundary of the two empires, the situa- from chagrin at the opposition which he tion of Choczim renders it of great im- experienced, after the conclusion of the portance as an arsenal and place of ren- much-contested alliance with Austria, redezvous.
signed his office. The new minister CHODOWIECKI, Daniel Nicholas, a paint- quickly gained the greatest influence. er and engraver, born at Dantzick, 1726, He was made duke and peer, and adminreceived from his father, in his leisure istered, at the same time, the department hours, his first instruction in miniature- of war. He afterwards resigned the depainting, which he practised with great partment of foreign affairs to the count assiduity, in order to support his mother, Choiseul, who subsequently became duke after the death of his father. His first of Praslin. Without having the name, trials excited the astonishment of con- he was, in fact, prime minister, and connoisseurs. A little engraving, the Play ducted alone all the public affairs. From at Dice, in 1756, particularly attracted the the beginning, he was unfriendly to the attention of the academy of Berlin. Dur- Jesuits, and united with the parliaments to
effect their ruin. Meanwhile, the seven public misfortune. He lived three years years' war continued, and France, after in exile, surrounded by a splendid and experiencing continual reverses, was com- select society. On the death of Louis pelled, by the exhausted state of her fi- XV, he recovered his liberty, having been nances, to conclude a peace, in 1763, on in exile just long enough to increase his unfavorable terms. This misfortune could reputation, and to confirm the general not be ascribed to the two ministers who esteem in which he was held. While divided between themselves the adminis- minister of war, after seven years of retration of the state. Less able ministers verses, he had changed the organization would probably have been obliged to of the army, in consequence of the new make greater sacrifices. But the honors tactics introduced by Frederic the Great. and demonstrations of favor with which Although the displeasure of the old offiChoiseul and Praslin were loaded were cers was excited, and many gave in their sufficient to draw upon them the bitterest resignations, yet the necessity of the accusations. Their enemies asserted that change was soon evident. The corps of they only prolonged the war to render artillery received a new form, and excelthemselves necessary, and reproached lent schools were established, in which them for not having sooner concluded officers were educated, who rendered the peace. Madame de Pompadour died in French artillery the finest in Europe. 1764, the dauphin in 1765, and the dau- The same improvements were made in phiness in 1767. After spreading the the corps of engineers. Choiseul devoted most absurd and infamous reports con- particular attention to the West Indies. cerning the death of the dauphin, to throw Martinique was fortified anew, and St. suspicions on Choiseul, his enemies, the Domingo raised to the highest degree of duke d’Aiguillon, the abbé Terray, and prosperity. When Choiseul and Praslin the chancellor Maupeou, had recourse to left the ministry, in 1770, the loss of the the vilest instruments to effect his ruin. fleet had been repaired in less than seven They succeeded so far, that Louis XV, years. It consisted of 64 ships of the in spite of the representations of the min- line and 50 frigates and corvettes. The ister, and his own promises, degraded the magazines were filled. Choiseul also royal dignity by introducing the countess concluded the family compact, which du Barry (q. v.) at court. At first, the united all the sovereigns of the house of countess used all her arts to insinuate her- Bourbon, and placed the Spanish fleet at self into the favor of the minister. Her the disposal of France. Thus he recovambition was, to succeed to all the influ- ered the respect which France had lost ence of madame de Pompadour. Choi- by her military reverses. His firmness seul haughtily refused her proposals; but, supplied what was wanting to his country laudable as was his conduct towards the in real strength. He conquered Corsica mistress, he ought not to have allowed without any open opposition from Enghimself to forget the respect due to his land. Convinced of the importance of the king and benefactor. He might, perhaps, independence of Poland for the balance have persuaded him by compliance: his of Europe, he continually thwarted the boldness only irritated him, and supplied ambitious designs of Russia, and involved his enemies
with new pretexts for assail- it in a war with Turkey, which he would ing him. The duchess of Grammont, have supported more vigorously, had not the minister's sister, always possessed the king himself opposed it. French offigreat influence over him. She exercised cers were sent to the Polish confederates, it, on this occasion, without the least mod- to the Turks, and the East Indian princes, eration, encouraged by the discontent of whom he hoped to arm, as well as the the nation, which favored the parliaments, American colonies, against the English. then attacked by the chancellor Maupeou. Prodigal of his own fortune, he was fruThe cause of the parliaments and the gal in the public expenditures. Louis minister soon became one. The king XV soon felt the loss of Choiseul, and exwas persuaded that Choiseul excited them claimed, on hearing of the division of to opposition. The attachment of Louis Poland, “ This would not have happened to his minister struggled, for some time, had Ch
here." After Louis against the intrigues of his enemies; but, XVI ascended the throne, Choiseul was ' in December, 1770, he announced to him, recalled, and received in the most honin severe terms, his disgrace, and his ban- orable manner, but was not again adishment to Chanteloup. The departure mitted into the ministry. Notwithstandof Choiseul resembled a triumph. Hising his immense debts, he continued to removal was considered, by the nation, a support an expensive style of living, and
died in 1785, without children. His Dissertation sur Homère, directed against nephew and heir was
the German philosophers. CHOISEUL-STAINVILLE, Claude Antoine CHOLERA (Celsus derives it from zodat Gabriel, duke of, born 1762, peer of and séw, literally, a flow of bile, and TralFrance before the revolution.' He emi- lian from xolds and péw, intestinal flux); grated in 1792, after he had assisted the diarrhæa cholerica ; felliflua passio; a geHight of the king, in 1791, and been ar- nus of disease arranged by Cullen in the rested and released. He raised a regi- class neuroses and order spasmi. It is a ment of hussars, and served against purging and vomiting of bile, attended with France. In the sequel, he was ship- anxiety, painful gripings, spasms of the abwrecked on the French coast
, taken, and dominal muscles, and those of the calves remained four years in prison, while it of the legs. There are two species of this was debated whether the laws against genus:-1. Cholera spontanea, which hapemigrants returning to France were ap- pens, in hot seasons, without any manifest plicable to him. The first consul releas- cause. 2. Cholera accidentalis, which oced him, and caused him to be transported - curs after the use of food that digests into a neutral territory, January 1, 1800. slowly and irritates. In warm climates, it In 1801, he gave him permission to return is met with at all seasons of the year, and to France. After the restoration, Choi- its occurrence is very frequent; but in seul was made lieutenant-general. In the England, and other cold climates, it is house of peers, he joined the constitution- most prevalent in the middle of summer, al party. He has written Relation du Dé- particularly in the month of August; and part de Louis XVI, le 20 Juin, 1791, and the violence of the disease has usually the Hist. et Procès des Naufragés de Calais been greater in proportion to the intense(both in the Mémoires des Contemporains). ness of the heat. It usually comes on
CHOISEUL-GOUFFIER, Marie Gabriel with soreness, pain, distension, and flatuAuguste, count de, peer of France, born lency in the stomach and intestines, sucin 1752, adopted the name of Gouffier af- ceeded quickly by a severe and frequent ter his marriage with Mlle. de Gouffier. vomiting, and purging of bilious matter, In 1776, he travelled in Greece and Asia. heat, thirst
, a hurried respiration, and freHis instructive journal of his travels ob- quent but weak and fluttering pulse. tained him a seat in the academy. In When the disease is not violent, these 1784, he was ambassador at Constantino- symptoms, after continuing for a day or ple, and took with him several literary two, cease gradually, leaving the patient men and artists, in whose society he occu- in a debilitated and exhausted state ; but pied himself, during his leisure hours, in where the disease proceeds with much learned researches. In 1791, he was ap- violence, great depression of strength enpointed ambassador to the court of Lon- sues, with cold, clammy sweats, considerdon, but remained in Constantinople, and able anxiety, a hurried and short respiraaddressed all his notes to the brothers of tion, and hiccoughs, with a sinking and Louis XVI, then in Germany. But, on irregularity of the pulse, which quickly the retreat from Champagne, this corre- terminate in death-an event that not unspondence fell into the hands of the re- frequently happens within the space of publicans, and, October 22, 1792, the 24 hours. The appearances generally convention ordered his arrest. He there- observed on dissection are, a quantity of fore left Constantinople, and repaired to bilious matter in the prima viæ ; the ducts Russia, where the empress granted him a of the liver relaxed and distended. Sevpension, as an academician. In February, eral of the viscera have been found, in 1797, he was appointed privy-counsellor some cases, displaced, probably by the by the emperor Paul I. In 1802, he re- violent vomiting. In the early period of turned to France, and, in the following the disease, when the strength is not much year, as a member of the former academy, exhausted, the object is, to lessen the irriwas admitted into the national institute, tation, and facilitate the discharge of the and, more lately, into the academy itself, bile, by tepid demulcent liquids, frequentafter its restoration. He died in the sum- ly administered. It will likewise be usemer of 1817. The 1st part of the 2d vol- ful to procure a determination to the surume of his Voyage pittoresque en Grèce face, by fomentations of the abdomen, by appeared in 1809, the 2d part in 1820, the the foot-bath, or even the warm-bath. But 3d in 1824, gr. folio, with copperplates where the symptoms are urgent, and the and an atlas. The 1st volume of this patient appears rapidly sinking from the work was published in 1782. In 1816, continued vomiting, violent pain, &c., it is he read, in the academy of inscriptions, a necessary to give opium freely, but in a
small bulk, from one to three grains, or 98° 8 W.; population, 16,000. It was even more, in a table-spoonful of linseed formerly a city of Anahuac, containing, in infusion, or with an effervescing saline the time of Cortes, according to his acdraught, which must be repeated at short count, 40,000 houses, independent of the intervals, perhaps every hour, till relief be adjoining villages or suburbs, which he obtained. Sometimes, where the stomach computed at as many more. Its commerce could not be got to retain the opium, it consisted in manufactures of cotton, gems, has answered in the form of clyster; or a and plates of clay; and it was much famed liniment containing it may be rubbed into for its jewellers and potters. With respect the abdomen; or a blister, applied over to religion, it may be said that Cholula the stomach, may lessen the irritability of was the Rome of Anahuac. The surpristhat organ. Afterwards, the bile may be ing multitude of temples, of which Cortes allowed to evacuate itself downwards; or mentions that he counted more than 400, mild aperients, or clysters, given, if neces- and, in particular, the great temple erected sary, to promote its discharge. When the upon an artificial mountain, which is still urgent symptoms are relieved, the strength existing, drew together innumerable pilmust be restored by gentle tonics, as the grims. This temple, which is the most aromatic bitters, calumba, and the like, ancient and celebrated of all the Mexican with a light, nutritious diet: strong toast religious monuments, is 164 feet in perand water is the best drink, or a little pendicular height, and, at the base, it burnt brandy may be added, if there is measures, on each side, 1450 feet. It has much languor. Exposure to cold must be four stories of equal height, and appears carefully avoided. The abdomen and the to have been constructed exactly in the feet, particularly, must be kept warm, and direction of the four cardinal points. It great attention is necessary to regulate the is built in alternate layers of clay and bowels, and procure a regular discharge bricks, and is supposed to have been used of bile, lest a relapse should happen. It both as a temple and a tomb. will also be proper to examine the state CHORAL (derived from chorus); a term of the abdomen, whether pressure give applied to vocal music, consisting of a pain at any part, because inflammation in combination of different melodies, and the prime viæ is very liable to supervene, intended to be performed by a plurality of often in an insidious manner. Should singers to each part; as choral anthem, chothat be the case, leeches, blistering the ral service. In Germany, this term is appart, and other suitable means, must be plied to the music of hymns, in the compromptly resorted to.
position of which the Germans are so CHOLESTERIC ACID; a French name much distinguished. for the acid formed by the union of nitric CHORD (from the Greek xopdr, an intesacid and the fat matter of the human bil- tine), in modern music; a combination of iary calculi.
two or more sounds according to the laws CHOLESTERINE. (See Calculus.) of harmony. The word chord is often
CHOLIAMB (Greek, xwliaußos, the lame used in counterpoint; as fundamental chord, iambus ; also called skazon, from okášw, to accidental, anomalous, or equi-vocal, tranhalt; or versus Hipponacticus, because the sient chord. satirist Hipponax of Ephesus made use CHOREGRAPHY; an invention of modern of it, or perhaps invented it). The choli- times; the art of representing dancing by ambus is an iambic trimeter, the last foot signs, as singing is represented by notes. of which, instead of being an iambus, is a It points out the part to be performed by trochee or spondee, which gives it a lame every dancer--the various motions which motion, as, for instance, Martial 1, i. ep- belong to the various parts of the music,
the position of the feet, the arms, and the Cur in theatrum, Cato severe, venisti ? body, &c. The degree of swiftness with
An ideo tantum veneras, ut exires ? which every motion is to be performed We perceive, from the construction of the may be thus indicated, by which all becholiambus, that it may be applied with comes as intelligible to the dancer as a advantage to produce a comic effect. The piece of music to the musician. DrawGermans have happily imitated this verse, ings to assist the tactician, by designating as well as all other ancient metres. An the position, motion and evolutions of instance of a German choliambus is troops, have also been called choregraphi
ī cal drawings. Der Choliambe scheint ein Vers für Kunstrichter. CHORIAMBUS, in metre; a foot com
CHOLULA ; a town of Mexico, in Puebla; pounded of a trochee and an iambus. 60 miles E. of Mexico; lat. 196 2' N.; lon. (See Rhythm.)