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CHOROGRAPHY ; the description of a sin- Chorus, in music, in its general sense, gle district, in contradistinction to geog- denotes a composition of two, three, four raphy (the description of the earth). The or more parts, each of which is intended art of drawing maps of particular districts to be sung by a plurality of voices. It is is also called chorography.
applied, also, to the performers who sing Chorus, in the drama. This was, origi- those parts. These choruses are adapted nally, a troop of singers and dancers, in- to express the joy, admiration, grief, adotended to heighten the pomp and solem- ration, &c., of a multitude, and sometimes nity of festivals. This, without doubt, produce much effect, but are very difficult was at first the purpose of tragedy and for the composer. comedy, of which the chorus was origi- CHOSROES I, king of Persia, succeeded nally the chief part, in fact, the basis. In to the throne in 531. His memory is still the sequel, it is true, the chorus became venerated in the East, and his virtues obonly an accessory part. During the most tained him the titles of the Magnanimous flourishing period of Attic tragedy, the and the Just. At his accession to the chorus was a troop of male and female crown, Persia was involved in a war with personages, who, during the whole rep- Justinian, to whom Chosroes granted a resentation, were bystanders or spectators perpetual peace, on the payment of a large of the action, never quitting the stage. In sum of money. But, in 540, Chosroes the intervals of the action, the chorus invaded Syria, laid Antioch in ashes, and chanted songs, which related to the sub- returned home laden with spoils. After ject of the performance, and were intended several other victorious expeditions, he ineither to augment the impression, or to vaded India and Arabia, renewed the war express the feeling of the audience on the with Justin, the successor of Justinian, course of the action. Sometimes it even whom he compelled to solicit a truce, but took part in the performance, by observa- was, soon after, driven back across the Eutions on the conduct of the personages, by phrates by Tiberius, the new emperor, and advice, consolation, exhortation or dissua- the Romans took up their winter quarters sion. It usually represented a part, gener- in the Persian provinces. Chosroes died in ally the oldest portion of the people, where 579. His love of justice sometimes led him the action happened, sometimes the coun- to acts of cruelty; but he encouraged the sellors of the king, &c. The chorus was arts, founded academies, and made a conan indispensable part of the representation. siderable proficiency in philosophy himself. In the beginning, it consisted of a great His reputation obtained him a visit from number of persons, sometimes as many as seven sages of Greece, who still adhered 50; but the number was afterwards limit- to the pagan religion; and, in a treaty with ed to 15. The exhibition of a chorus was Justinian, he required that they should be in Athens an honorable civil charge, and exempt from the penalties enacted against was called choragy. The leader or chief those who continued to favor paganism. of a chorus was called coryphæus, who Persian historians ascribe to him the comspoke in the name of the rest, when the pletion of the great wall of Jabouge and chorus participated in the action. Some- Magogue, extending from Derbent along times the chorus was divided into two the Persian frontiers. parts, who sung alternately. The divis- CHOSROES II, grandson to the precedions of the chorus were not stationary, but ing, ascended the throne in 590, and carried moved from one side of the stage to the his arms into Judea, Libya and Egypt, and other; from which circumstance the names made himself master of Carthage. In of the portions of verse which they recited, 617, he reduced Heraclius, the Roman strophe, antistrophe and epode, are derived. emperor, to solicit a peace, which he reBut it cannot be determined in what man- fused to grant, except on condition of his ner the chorus sung. It is probable that renouncing the crucified God, and worit was in a sort of solemn recitative, and shipping the sun. Heraclius, deriving that their melodies, if we may call them courage from despair, penetrated into the so, consisted in unisons and octaves, and Persian empire, and pillaged and burned were very simple. They were also ac- the palace of Chosroes, who was dethroncompanied by instruments, perhaps flutes. ed by his own son, and cast into prison, With the decline of ancient tragedy, the after witnessing the massacre of 18 of his chorus was omitted. Some tragedians of sons, and suffering every indignity. His the present age, of whom Schiller was the sufferings were terminated by his death, first (see his prologue to the Bride of Mes- in 628. sina) have attempted to revive the ancient CHOUANS, in the French revolution; the chorus.
insurgents on the right and left banks of
the Loire. The name was properly ap- bushes. The nature of the ground makes plied to the royalists on the right bank of it a very advantageous position for the the Loire, in Bretagne, Anjou and Maine. Turkish soldier, who, when sheltered by
The principal theatre of the war formed the inequalities of the ground and a few nearly a square, the angles of which are entrenchments, displays great resolution the cities of Nantes, Angers, Mayenne and and address. The town is about a league Rennes ; but the excursions sometimes in length and half a league in breadth, and extended to the coast, to the city of L'Ori- may contain from 30,000 to 35,000 souls. ent. The origin of the word Chouans is The fortifications are rudely constructed, not known. Some derive it from the but its situation in the midst of a vast name of the sons of a blacksmith, who natural fortress, capable of containing an first excited the insurrection in that quar- immense army, with its magazines, &c., ter; others from a corruption of the secures it from the enemy's artillery. The word chat-huant (screech-owl). Accord- air is very healthy in the elevated parts ing to the latter, there was a horde of of the Balkan, and in the narrow valleys smugglers, who, before the revolution, se- which lie between its ridges. On the cretly exported salt from Bretagne into other hand, there cannot be a more unthe neighboring provinces, and whose healthy country than that which extends signal was the cry of the screech-owl. from the Balkan to the borders of the The revolution broke up the trade of Danube and the Pruth. This difference these men, most of whom had no other between the climate of the mountains and
Accustomed to a vagabond life, that of the plain is the most effectual defence they wandered through the country, com- which nature has given to Choumla. In mitting depredations, and were gradually the late war between Russia and Turkey, joined by others of a similar character. it was besieged by the troops of the former At first, murder and pillage was the chief power from July 20, 1828, until Oct. 25, object of these wretches, but they after- of the same year, when they retired, after wards united with the Vendeans (see Ven- the conquest of Varna, Oct. 11. On the dée) in defence of monarchy and religion, 11th of June, 1829, a decisive victory was and shared their fate. Since the return gained by the Russians over the Turks, of Louis XVIII, several of the chiefs of not far from Choumla. The grand vizier the Chouans have been honorably reward- commanded the Turks, who are said to ed for their former services.
have lost 6000 killed, 1500 prisoners, and CHOUGH, or CHOUCH (choucas, French);. 60 pieces of cannon, with large quantities the trivial name of a species of crow (cor- of ammunition and baggage. The loss of vus monedula, L.). It is about the size of a the Russians amounted only to 1400 killed pigeon, and has a sharp cry; is nearly om- and 600 wounded. nivorous, except that it does not feed up- Chrism (from the Greek xploua, salve); on carrion; is of a dark ash color about the holy oil prepared on Holy Thursday the neck and under the belly, though fre- by the Catholic bishops, and used in bapquently entirely black. The choughs live tism, confirmation, ordination of priests, together in large flocks, and make their and the extreme unction. Hence the nests in steeples, old towers, or in large name Christ, the anointed. and lofty trees. Their manners are very CHRIST (Gr. Xploròs, the anointed). Messimilar to those of the rooks, with which siah, from the Hebrew, has the same sigthey are sometimes seen flying in compa- nification. (See Christianity, and Jesus.) ny. They are exceedingly vigilant in CHRIST, PICTURES OF. , Legends exist guarding their nests and young from birds of a portrait of the Savior, which king of prey, which they attack and drive off Abgarus of Edessa is said to have po. with great vigor whenever they approach sessed. This was miraculously impressed their vicinity.
by the Savior on a napkin which he CHOUMLA, SHUMLA, or ShiUMLA ; a placed upon his face, and afterwards sent Turkish fortress in the mountains of the to the king. The handkerchief of St. Balkan. (q. v.) Varna (q. v.) and Choum- Veronica (Berenice) is said to have also la are called, on account of their great contained a portrait of Christ impressed military importance, the gates of Constan- in a similar way. A picture of Christ, tinople. The town of Choumlă, properly taken by St. Luke, is likewise mentioned. so called, is nearly surrounded by a natu- In a letter, evidently spurious, which Lenral rampart
, consisting of a portion of tulus, the predecessor of Pilate, is said to mount Hæmus, or the Balkan. The steep have written to the Roman senate, Christ slopes of this great bulwark are covered is described as being of a handsome, with detached rocks and close, thorny manly stature and countenance. Among the existing representations of Christ, the are generally from 1000 to 1200 boys and most ancient is in a basso-relievo of mar- girls at this establishment, receiving inble, on a sarcophagus, of the 2d or 3d struction, board and clothing. The great century, in the Vatican. Christ is there hall at Christ's hospital is remarkable for exhibited as a young man without beard, some very fine pictures. with Roman features, flowing and slight- CHRISTIAN II, king of Denmark, born ly curled hair, wearing a Roman toga, and at Copenhagen, 1481, was educated with seated upon a curule chair. In the same little care. While yet a youth, his violent place, there is another Christ, of the 4th character led him into great extravacentury, with an oval face, Oriental fea- gances. King John, his father, punished tures, parted hair, and a short, straight him severely, but in vain. In 1507, he beard. This representation was the model was called to Bergen, to suppress some which the Byzantine and Italian painters seditious movements, where he conceived followed until the time of Michael Angelo a violent passion for a young Dutchwoman, and Raphael. Since the 16th century, named Dyveke, whose mother kept an the Italian school has generally taken the inn. Dyveke became the mistress of heads of Jupiter and Apollo as the models Christian, who allowed her, and particufor the pictures of Christ. Different na- larly her mother, an unlimited influence tions have given his image their own over him. He was viceroy in Norway, characteristic features. The head of until the declining health of his father Christ has become the highest point of recalled him to Copenhagen. After he the art of painting among Christian na- had ascended the throne, he married, in tions; and men of the greatest genius 1515, Isabella, sister of Charles V. He have labored to imbody their conceptions afterwards remonstrated with Henry VIII of his divinity, the union of the different of England, on account of the piracies virtues of his character, his meekness and committed by the English ships, renewed firmness, and the full perfection of his the treaties which had been made with Godlike nature. The representations of the grand-duke of Moscow, and endeavthe Savior by Titian, Leonardo da Vinci, ored to deprive the Hanse towns of their Raphael, &c., are among the sublimest commerce. The hopes which this conproductions of modern art. Christ's head duct excited among his subjects were is, for the modern artist, what the head soon annihilated by the horrible scenes of Jupiter or Apollo was for the ancient, caused by the death of Dyveke. The rewith this difference, however, that it has lations of Torbern Oxe, governor of the become more especially the ideal of the castle of Copenhagen, were accused of painter, whilst the others principally fur- having poisoned her. Oxe acknowledged nished subjects for the genius of the a former passion for her, and the king sculptor ; and this circumstance shows ordered him to be beheaded. Several the difference in the character of the two other executions spread horror through the periods of art, which must, of course, be whole kingdom. Christian hated the nomost apparent in their highest productions. bility, and protected the commons and the Some of the most elevated expressions of peasantry against their oppressions. In the countenance of the Savior, e. g. the 1516, a papal legate arrived in the North, glowing love of his divine soul, cannot be in order to dispose of indulgences. Chriswell represented by the marble. There tian received him, hoping that he might exist, however, excellent statues of Christ. be useful to him in Sweden, in obtaining
The two best of modern times are that the crown, at which he was then aiming. of Thorwaldsen at Copenhagen, and that The Swedes were divided into several of Dannecker at Stuttgart.
parties. Gustavus Trolle, archbishop of CHRIST-CHURCH COLLEGE. (See Or- Upsal, a sworn enemy of Stenon Sture, ford.)
administrator of the kingdom, had secretly CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (generally known united himself with Christian; but the by the name of Blue coat school, the title Swedish states protected Sture, dismissed having reference to the costume of the Trolle, and caused his castle to be demolchildren educated there); a school in ished. The nuncio, who arrived during London, founded by Edward VI, for sup- these events in Sweden, was gained over porting poor orphans. At the same time by Sture, discovered to bim the plans of St. Bartholomew's hospital was founded, Christian, and justified the Swedes to for the wounded and diseased, and Bride- the pope against the charges of Trolle. well was assigned as a place of confine- Christian finally arrived at Stockholm in ment for vagabonds. Charles II connect- 1518, for the sake of an interview with ed a mathematical school with it. There the administrator, receiving, for his own
security, six hostages from the first fami- obtained possession of it, and formed from lies. When these hostages, among
whom it his list of proscriptions. The accused was Gustavus Vasa, arrived at the Danish were declared guilty, and 94 victims were fleet, the faithless monarch treated them executed in the presence of the king. as prisoners, and returned to Denmark. These bloody scenes continued in the He appeared in Sweden, in 1520, in the capital as well as in the provinces. Chrismiddle of winter, at the head of an army. tian justified himself by the public declaThe Swedes were beaten at Bogesund, ration, that they were necessary for the Jan. 19, and Sture was mortally wound- tranquillity of the kingdom. He then reed. The Danes pursued their advantage. turned to Denmark. His way was marked Trolle presided over the assernbly of the with blood: he garrisoned all the cities, states-general at Upsal, and proposed to and committed the same cruelties in Denthem to acknowledge Christian for their mark. He soon after went to the Netherking. Although many were disinclined lands, to request the assistance of Charles to the union, they were, nevertheless, V against Frederic, duke of Holstein, his obliged to submit to it. A general am- uncle, and against the inhabitants of Lűnesty was proclaimed, and all hastened to beck, who were always ready to assist the profit by it. The capital, to which the Swedes. On his return to Copenhagen, widow of the administrator had repaired, he found all Sweden in arms. Slagoffered some resistance. As soon as the hoek's tyranny had excited a general resea was open, Christian appeared with volt. Christian gave him the archbishhis fleet before Stockholm, which did not opric of Lund, but soon after caused him surrender to him. The summer was to be burnt alive, in order to appease the passing away; his provisions were nearly pope, who had sent a legate to Denmark, exhausted ; his troops murmured. At last, to examine into the murder of the bishops he resolved to send Swedish messengers at Stockholm. In order to reconcile the to the inhabitants. His promises, aided pope, he altered every thing in the laws by famine, effected what his arms had not which favored Lutheranism, for which he been able to accomplish. The gates were had previously shown much inclination. opened to him. He promised to maintain Meanwhile Gustavus Vasa escaped from the liberty of Sweden, and to forget the prison, and raised his standard against the past. He arrived at Stockholm near the Danes. The states-general, assembled at end of October, demanded from the bish- Wadstena, declared that Christian had ops and senators an act acknowledging forfeited the Swedish crown.
The garrihim as their hereditary king, and caused son of Stockholm revolted on account of himself to be crowned, two days after, the want of pay. Christian, exasperated by Trolle. He bestowed the honor of by these events, ordered the Danish govknighthood only on foreigners, and de- ernors to execute all the rebels. This clared that he would confer this dignity measure hastened his ruin. Norby still on no Swedish subject, because he had held Stockholm, Calmar and Abo, three conquered the country by force of arms. places which were considered as the keys In spite of the general consternation, he of the kingdom; but he was soon harassed ordered public rejoicings, during which by the inhabitants of Lübeck, who even he knew how to gain the favor of the made an attack upon the coasts of Denmultitude. He determined to strengthen mark. Christian, to revenge himself, the royal authority in Sweden, and to ef- commenced negotiations with the duke fect his purpose by the annihilation of the of Holstein, but they were soon interruptfirst families. His advisers differed only ed by his own violence. Meanwhile, he as to the means. Finally, Slaghoek, the published two codes restricting the priviking's confessor, reminded him of the ex- leges of the clergy, and extending the communication of the enemies of Trolle, rights of the peasantry. They contained and added, that, though, as a prince, he many wise laws, which are still in force, might forget the past, he ought to extir- but mixed with others which caused genpate the heretics, in obedience to the eral discontent. The nation complained commands of the pope. Accordingly, of the debasement of the currency, and Trolle demanded the punishment of the the insupportable burthen of the taxes. heretics ; the king appointed commission. The bishops and senators of Jutland, perers before whom the accused appeared. ceiving the disposition of the people, Christina, the widow of the administrator, formed the plan of revolting against the was among them. To vindicate her hus- king. About the end of 1522, they reband's memory, she produced the decree nounced their allegiance, declared Chrisof the senate passed in 1517. Christian tian to have forfeited his rights, and offered
the crown to Frederic, duke of Holstein. palatine; and Christina, who married
, ria of Brunswick, step-mother of Chriswho finally granted him a safe conduct, tian) had in vain endeavored to disunite permitting him to repair, in the Danish Christian and his wife, in order to obtain fleet, to Copenhagen, for the purpose of the direction of affairs. She now formed a personal interview with Frederic. In a connexion with some malcontents, and July, 1532, he arrived before Copenhagen. succeeded, Jan. 16, 1772, in conjunction But Frederic rejected the treaty, and the with them and her son, the hereditary senate ordered the imprisonment of Chris- prince Frederic (Christian's step-brother), tian. He was accordingly conveyed to in obtaining from the king, after a long the castle of Sonderburg, in the island of resistance, an order for the imprisonment Alsen. He there passed 12 years in the of his queen and Struensee, on pretence society, at first, of a dwarf, and afterwards that they were conspiring the deposition of an old invalid, in a tower, the door of of the king. From that time the guidance which was walled up. A stone table is of affairs was in the hands of Julia and still shown, around the edge of which is of her son Frederic. The king, whom a line worn by the hand of Christian, disease had deprived of his reason, reigned whose sole exercise consisted in walking only nominally. In 1784, the present king round it, with his hand resting on the sur- was placed, as regent, at the head of the face. He was totally abandoned. When government. (See Frederic VI.) _ Before Christian III ascended the throne, in 1543, the taking of the capital by the English, his condition was improved, by virtue of in 1807, Christian VII had been carried a treaty with Charles V. He lived, from to Rendsburg, in Holstein, where he died, 1546, at Callundborg, with a fixed in- March 13, 1808. The queen, Caroline come, and died at this place, Jan. 24, Matilda, after having been conducted to 1559. His wife, Christina, a professor of the castle of Cronborg, had been subjected Lutheranism, faithfully shared his mis- to an examination as to her connexion fortunes until her death, in 1526. He had with Struensee. She afterwards repaired three children, John, who died at Ratis- to Celle, where she died in 1775. Chrisbon in 1532, at the age of 13 years; Dor- tian had but two children, the present othea, who married Frederic, the elector king, Frederic VI, and the princess Au