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gusta, married to the late duke of Hol- ing the principle that constitutes the bastein-Augustenburg. (For an account of sis of the religion of Christ, which, in Struensee's fate, see the Mémoires de M. other respects, has been unanimously de Falckenskiold, major-general of the adopted. (See the articles Religion, Revking of Denmark, published by Secretan, elation, Rationalism, and SupernaturalParis, 1826.)

ism.) This principle appears, by its efCHRISTIANIA ; capital of the kingdom fect upon the numerous nations, differing of Norway, seat of government, and the so greatly in intellectual character and place where the storthing (Norwegian cultivation, which received Christianity parliament) meet; lon. 10°49 E.; lat. 59° at first, to have been a universal truth, 53' 46' N.' It contains 1500 houses, and adapted to the whole human race, and of 11,040 inhabitants, is situated in the dio- a divine, all-uniting power. The Jews cese of Christiania, or Aggerhuus, on the believed in a living God, the Creator of northern end of the bay of Christians- all things, and, so far, had just views of fiord, in a district where gardening is the source of religion. The Greeks, bemuch pursued. Besides the suburbs, it sides developing the principle of the contains Christiania Proper, built by king beautiful in their works of art, had laid Christian IV, in 1624, on a regular plan, the foundations of valuable sciences apthe Old City, or Opslo, and the citadel, plicable to the business of life. The RoAggerhuus, which was demolished in mans had established the principles of 1815. Among the principal buildings law and political administration, and are the royal palace, the new council- proved their value by experience. These house, and the exchange. Since 1811, a scattered elements of moral and intellectuniversity (Fredericia) has been establish- ual cultivation, insufficient, in their disued here, with a philological seminary, a nited state, to bring about the true happibotanical garden, an observatory, a libra- ness and moral perfection of man, in his ry, collections of various kinds, 18 pro- social and individual capacity, were refinfessors, and 200 students. Christiania also ed, perfected and combined by Christiancontains a military school, a bank, a com- ity, through the law of a pure benevomercial institute, an alum factory, &c. lence, the highest aim of which is that of It has much trade, chiefly in lumber and rendering men good and happy, like God, iron. Its harbor is excellent. The value and which finds, in the idea of a kingdom of the lumber annually exported is esti- of heaven upon earth, announced and remated at 810,000 guilders. In the vicinity alized by Christ, all the means of executare 136 sawing-mills, which furnish, an- ing its design. His religion supplied what nually, 20 millions of planks.

was wanting to these nationsma religious CHRISTIANITY; the religion instituted character to the science of Greece, moral by Jesus Christ. Christianity, as it now elevation to the legislative spirit of Rome, exists in our minds, has received, from the liberty and light to the devotion of the influence of the priesthood, of national Jews-and, by inculcating the precept of character, of the spirit of the time, and universal love of mankind, raised the narthe thousand ways in which it has been row spirit of patriotism to the extended brought into contact with politics and feeling of general philanthropy. Thus science, a quantity of impure additions, the endeavors of ancient times after morwhich we should first separate, in order to al perfection were directed and concenunderstand what it in reality. There trated by Christianity, which supplied, at could be no better means of attaining a the same time, a motive for diffusing correct understanding of it, than to inves- more widely that light and those advantigate, historically, the religious principles tages which mystery and the spirit of which Jesus himself professed, exhibited castes had formerly withheld from the in his life, and labored to introduce into multitude. It conveyed the highest ideas, the world, if the investigator could avoid the most important truths and principles, giving the coloring of his own views to the purest laws of moral life, to all ranks ; his explanation of the records of the ori- it proved the possibility of perfect virtue, gin of Christianity. But the most honest through the example of its Founder ; it inquirers have not entirely succeeded in laid the foundation for the peace of the so doing. Even the Christian theologians world, through the doctrine of the reconof the present age-less divided, in some ciliation of men with God and with each countries, for instance, in Germany, by other; and, directing their minds and the spirit of creeds and sects, than by the hearts towards Jesus, the Author and difference of scientific methods and phi- Finisher of their faith, the crucified, arislosophical speculations dispute respect- en and glorified Mediator between heaven and earth, it taught them to discern the tions), to preserve the prerogatives at first benevolent connexion of the future life granted them out of love and gratitude, with the present. The history of Jesus, but afterwards much extended by them: and the

preparations of God for his mis- selves, and to make themselves, gradually, sion, afforded the materials from which masters of the church. (See Bishops, Christians formed their conceptions of the Patriarchs, Popes, Hierarchy.) Their character and tendency of their religion. views were promoted by the favor of the The first community of the followers of emperors (see Theodosius the Great) (with Jesus was formed at Jerusalem, soon after slight interruptions in the reign of Julian the death of their Master. Another, at and some of his successors), by the inAntioch, in Syria, first assumed (about creased splendor and various ceremonials 65) the name of Christians, which had of divine worship (see Mass, Saints, Reloriginally been given to them by their ad- ics, Iconoclasts), by the decline of classical versaries, as a term of reproach; and the learning, the increasing superstition resulttravels of the apostles spread Christian- ing from this increase of ignorance, and by ity through the provinces of the Roman the establishment of convents and monks. empire. Palestine, Syria, Natolia, Greece, (See Convents.) In this form, appealing the islands of the Mediterranean, Italy, to the senses more than to the understandand the northern coast of Africa, as early ing, Christianity, which had been introas the 1st century, contained societies of duced among the Goths in the 4th centuChristians. Their ecclesiastical discipline ry, was spread among the other Teutonic was simple, and conformable to their nations in the west and north of Europe, humble condition, and they continued to and subjected to its power, during the 7th acquire strength amidst all kinds of op- and 8th centuries, the rude warriors who pressions. (Šee Persecutions.) At the founded new_kingdoms on the ruins of end of the ad century, Christians were to the Western Empire, while it was losing be found in all the provinces, and, at the ground, in Asia and Africa, before the enend of the 3d century, almost one half of croachments of the Saracens, by whose the inhabitants of the Roman empire, and rigorous measures hundreds of thousands of several neighboring countries, professed of Christians were converted to Mohamthis belief. The endeavor to preserve a medanism, the heretical sects which had unity of faith (see Orthodoxy) and of been disowned by the orthodox church church discipline, caused numberless dis- (see Jacobites, Copts, Armenians, Maronputes among those of different opinions ites

, Nestorians) being almost the only (see Heretics and Sects), and led to the Christians who maintained themselves in establishment of an ecclesiastical tyranny, the East. During this progress of Monotwithstanding the oppressions which hammedanism, which, in Europe, extendthe first Christians had experienced from ed only to Spain and Sicily, the Roman a similar institution—the Jewish priest- popes (see Popes and Gregory VII), who hood. At the beginning of the 4th cen- were advancing systematically to ecclesitury, when the Christians obtained tolera- astical superiority in the west of Europe, tion by means of Constantine the Great, gained more in the north, and, soon after, and, soon after, the superiority in the Ro- in the east of this quarter of the world, by man empire, the bishops exercised the the conversion of the Sclavonic and Scanpower of arbiters of faith, in the first gen- dinavian nations (from the 10th to the eral council (see Nice), 325, by instituting 12th century), than they had lost in other a creed binding on all Christians. Upon regions. For the Mohammedans had this foundation, the later councils (q. v.), chiefly overrun the territory of the Eastassisted by those writers who are honored ern church (see Greek Church), which by the church as its fathers and teachers had been, since the 5th century, no longer (see Fathers of the Church, Jerome, Am- one with the Western (Latin) church, and brose, Augustine, &c.), erected the edifice had, by degrees, become entirely separate of the orthodox system; while the superi- from it. In the 10th century, it received or portion of the ecclesiastics, who were some new adherents, by the conversion of now transformed into priests, and elevated the Russians, who are now its most powabove the laity as a privileged, sacred or- erful support. But the crusaders, who der (see Clergy and Priests), were ena- were led, partly by religious enthusiasm, bled, partly by their increasing authority partly by the desire of conquest and adin matters of church discipline, partly by ventures (1096—1150), to attempt the rethe belief, which they had encouraged, covery of the holy sepulchre, gained the that certain traditions from the apostles new kingdom of Jerusalem, not for the were inherited by them only (see Tradi- Greek emperor, but for themselves and the papal hierarchy. (See Crusades.) right to the papal chair. This dispute The confusion which this finally unsuc- was settled only by the decrees of the cessful undertaking introduced into the council of Constance (1414—1418), which civil and domestic affairs of the western were very unfavorable to the papal power. nations, gave the church a favorable op- The doctrines of the English Wickliffe portunity of increasing its possessions, and (q. v.) had already given rise to a party asserting its pretensions to universal mon- opposed to the popedom; and the revolt archy. But, contrary to the wishes and ex- of the adherents of the Bohemian reformpectations of the rulers of the church, the er (see Huss, Hussites), who was burnt at remains of ancient heresies (see Manichæ- Constance on account of similar doctrines, ans, Paulicians) were introduced into the extorted from the council of Bâle (1431 West, through the increased intercourse 43) certain compacts, which, being firmof nations, and by the returning crusaders, ly maintained, proved to the friends of a and new and more liberal ideas were reformation in the head and members of propagated, springing from the philosoph- the church (proposed, but without sucical spirit of examination of some school- cess, at the council of Bâle), what a firm men (see Abelard, Arnold of Brescia), and and united opposition to the abuses of the the indignation excited by the corruptions Roman church might be able to effect. of the clergy. These kindled an opposi- We refer the reader to the article Refortion among all the societies and sects mation, and the articles relating to it, for a against the Roman hierarchy. _(See Ca- history of the causes, progress and consethari, Albigenses, Waldenses.) The foun- quences of this great event. But that dation and multiplication of ecclesiastical this great change in the church has reorders (q. v.), particularly the Franciscans vived primitive Christianity in the spirit and Dominicans, for the care of souls and of its Founder, the most zealous Protestthe instruction of the people, which had ants will not assert, any more than the been neglected by the secular priests, did reflecting Catholic will deny the necessity not remedy the evil, because they labored, of such a reform, and the real merits of in general, more actively to promote the Protestantism in promoting it. (See Trent, interests of the church and the papacy, Council of, Roman Catholic Church, and than to remove superstition and igno- Protestantism.) The forms under which rance; and bold speculations, which would Christianity appears, in our days, are very not yield to their persuasion, were still different. The example of the south of less likely to be extirpated by the power Europe proves how easily this religion of the inquisition (q. v.), which armed it- naturalizes itself, but, also, how much it self with fire and sword. The great dif- loses, under the influence of sensuality ference of the Christian religion,

as it was and an over-active fancy, of the simple then taught and practised, from the reli- grandeur, the moral power and pure spirit gion of Jesus Christ, the insufficiency of of its original character. Protestantism what the church taught to the religious removed from the northern nations many wants of the human mind and heart of the burdens with which the predomiwas apparent to many, partly from their nance of the earthly nature had oppressed knowledge of the spirit of Jesus, derived the spirit of religion. By opening the from the Bible, which was already studi- Bible to all, it aroused the spirit of ined, in secret, by curious readers, in spite quiry, but also gave rise to an immense of the prohibitions of the church, and variety of sects, springing from the differpartly from the bold eloquence of single ent views which different men were led teachers and chiefs of sects. Ecclesias- to form from the study of the sacred voltical orders also desired to pursue their ume. The present moral and political own course (see Knights Templars, Fran- condition of Christian Europe, though ciscans); offended princes forgot the great affected by so many influences foreign to services of the papal power in promoting religion, bears the stamp of a cultivation the cultivation of nations in the first cen- springing from Christianity, and this has turies of the middle ages; and the popes been impressed upon its colonies in distant themselves made little effort to reform or lands, among which the U. States of conceal the corruption of their court and North America alone have advanced to of the clergy. They even afforded the the principle of universal toleration. But scandalous spectacle of a schism in the if we look among our contemporaries for church (see Schism, Popes, and Antipope), Christianity as it dwelt and operated in which was distracted, after 1378, for more Christ, we shall find it pure in no nation than 30 years, by the quarrels between and in no religious party ; but we perceive two candidates, who both asserted their its features in the conduct of the enlight

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VOL. III.

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CHRISTIANITY-CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS.

ened and pious among all nations, who whoever understands the gospel may love Christ, and are penetrated with his teach it. They consider Christ as the Spirit. How Christianity will develope Son of God, miraculously conceived, itself in North America, where all sects whose death was a ratification of the are tolerated, what will be the result of new covenant, not a propitiatory sacrifice; this immense variety of opinions and and the Holy Ghost or Spirit as the powcreeds, is, as yet, a matter of speculation. er or energy of God, exerted in convertThe general views of the great body of ing the wicked and strengthening the Protestant sects in this country, however, good. have so much in common, that they may CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS ; the name still be considered as forming one great of a sect of Christians on the coast of Malfamily among the principal divisions of abar, in the East Indies, to which region the Christian world. Whether this will the apostle St. Thomas is said to have be true after a considerable time has carried the gospel. They belong to those elapsed, is at least doubtful, as the Unita- Christians who, in the year 499, united to rians and Trinitarians seem to be taking form a Syrian and Chaldaic church in essentially different directions.

Central and Eastern Asia, and are, like CHRISTIANS; the general name of the them, Nestorians. (See Syrian Christians.) followers of Christ. (See Christianity.) They have, however, retained rather more

CHRISTIANS; the name of a denomina- strongly than the latter the features of tion, in the U. States, adopted to express their descent from the earliest Christian their renunciation of all sectarianism. communities. Like these, they still celeThey have become numerous in all parts brate the agapes, or love-feasts, portion of the country, the number of their maidens from the property of the church, churches, in 1827, being estimated at and provide for their poor. Their notions about 1000. Each church is an indepen- respecting the Lord's supper incline to dent body: they recognise no creed, no those of the Protestants, but, in celebrating authority in matters of doctrine: the Scrip- it, they use bread with salt and oil. At tures, which every individual must inter- the time of baptism, they anoint the body pret for himself, are their only rule of of the infant with oil. These two cerefaith: admission to the church is obtained monies, together with the consecration of by a simple profession of belief in Chris- priests, are the only sacraments which tianity: speculative belief they treat as of they acknowledge. Their priests are dislittle importance, compared with virtue tinguished by the tonsure, are allowed to of character. In New England, they sep- marry, and were, until the 16th century, arated principally from the Calvinistic under a Nestorian patriarch at Babylon, Baptists; in the Southern States, from the now at Mosul, from whom they received Methodists; and in the Western, from the their bishop, and upon whom they are Presbyterians. There was, therefore, at also dependent for the consecration of first, a great diversity of opinion and prac- their priests. Their churches contain, tice among them, each church retaining except the cross, no symbols nor pictures. some of the peculiarities of the sect from Their liturgy is similar to the Syrian, and which it seceded. In New England, the the Syrian language is used in it. When churches were established on the princi- the Portuguese occupied the East Indies, ple of close communion, which was soon the Roman Catholic clergy endeavored to abandoned. In the South and West, they subject the Christians of St. Thomas to were Pedohaptists, but have since become the government of the pope. The archBaptists. Nearly all were, at first, Trini- bishop of Goa succeeded, in 1599, in tarians; but th doctrine of the Trinity, and suading them to submit, and form a part its concomitant doctrines, are now univer- of his diocese. They were obliged to sally rejected by them. To maintain a renounce the Nestorian faith, adopt a few connexion between the different churches, Catholic ceremonies, and obey a Jesuit, one or more conferences are formed in who became their bishop. But, after the each state, consisting of members dele- Portuguese were supplanted by the Dutch gated frorn each church. In 1827, there on the coast of Malabar, this union of the were 23 of these conferences, which again Christians of St. Thomas with the Roman form, by delegation, the United States church ceased, and they returned to their General Christian Conference. They have old forms. At present, they are, under several periodical works (Christian Her- the British government, free from any ecald, Portsmouth, N. H.; Gospel Lumina- clesiastical restraint, and form among ry, N. Y.; Christian Messenger, Ky.), but themselves a kind of spiritual republic, no theological seminary, considering that under a bishop chosen by themselves, and

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in which the priests and elders administer good memory, and uncommon intellijustice, using excommunication a gence, she made the most rapid progress. means of punishment. In their political She learned the ancient languages, historelations to the natives, they belong to the ry, geography, politics, and renounced the class of the Nairi, or nobility of the pleasures of her age in order to devote second rank, are allowed to ride on ele- herself entirely to study. She already phants, and to carry on commerce and betrayed those peculiarities which characagriculture, instead of practising mechan- terized her whole life, and which were, ical trades, like the lower classes. Trav- perhaps, as much the consequence of her ellers describe them as very ignorant, but, education as of her natural disposition. at the same time, of very good morals. She did not like to appear in the female

CHRISTIANSAND ; a government and dress, made long journeys on foot or on bishopric of Norway, occupying the S. horseback, and delighted in the fatigues W: part of the country. The population and even the dangers of the chase. She of this division of the kingdom is esti- submitted reluctantly to the customs of mated at 134,000; square miles, 14,800. the court, alternately treating those who Though one of the most fertile parts of surrounded her with the greatest familiarthe country, the grain produced is not ad- ity and with haughtiness or commanding equate to the consumption of the inhab- dignity. She honored the chancellor itants, and grain is therefore one of the Oxenstiern as a father, and learned from chief imports. The inhabitants are prin- him the art of governing. She soon cipally employed in the fisheries and in showed, in the assembly of the states, a cutting trees. Timber forms the chief maturity of understanding which astonarticle of their exports.—The capital is ished her guardians. In 1642, the statesalso called Christiansand, and is situated general proposed to her to take the adminon the S. coast. The streets are broad istration into her own hands; but she exand straight, and the houses have exten- cused herself on the ground of her youth. sive gardens. It is considered as the Only two years after, she took upon herfourth town in the kingdom. It contains self the government. A great talent for about 5000 inhabitants. Its harbor is one business, and great firmness of purpose, of the best in Norway. It derives some distinguished her first steps. She terrnisupport from the trade in timber, but de- nated the war with Denmark, begun in pends chiefly on the repair of vessels 1644, and obtained several provinces by which put in there to refit. Lon. 8° 3' E.; the treaty concluded at Brömsebro, in lat. 580 8 N.

1645. She then, contrary to the advice CHRISTIANS-OE, or ERT-HOLM; a group of Oxenstiern, who hoped to gain, by the of islands, in the Baltic, belonging to Den- continuance of the war, still greater admark, named from the chief island, which vantages for Sweden, labored to reëstabhas a much-frequented port, a light-house lish peace in Germany, in order to be able and a castle ; lon. 14° 47' E.; lat. 55° to devote herself uninterruptedly to the 13 N.

sciences and the arts of peace. Christina CHRISTINA, queen of Sweden, born was fitted, by her talents and the circumDec. 9, 1626, daughter of Gustavus Adol- stances in which she was placed, to play phus and the princess Maria Eleonore of the most distinguished part in the North Brandenburg, was distinguished for beau- of Europe, and, for some time, seemed ty, and taste for the liberal arts. Gusta- sensible of the charms of her lofty station. vus, who beheld in Christina the only On many occasions, she maintained the support of his throne, took the greatest dignity of her crown and the honor of her care of her education, which was con- country. France, Spain, Holland and ducted in a masculine manner. She was England sought her friendship. She proinstructed in all the sciences adapted to moted commerce by wise legislation, and improve her mind and strengthen her patronised the learned and literary institucharacter. After the death of Gustavus, tions. The nation was devoted to her, at Lützen, in 1632, the states-general ap- and rejoiced to see the daughter of Guspointed guardians to the queen Christina, tavus at the head of the government, surthen but six years old. These were the rounded by generals and statesmen formfive highest officers of the crown, who ed by that great prince. It was the uniwere intrusted, at the same time, with the versal wish that the queen should choose administration of the kingdom. The ed- a husband; but her love of independence ucation of Christina was continued ac- rendered her averse to such a connexion. cording to the plan of Gustavus Adolphus. Among the princes who sued for her Endowed with a lively imagination, a hand, her cousin, Charles Gustavus of

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