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minced onions are added. It is then dried, and serves as a relisher with toasted bread or bread and butter. The best caviare is that from the Crimea. From Kerch and Jenikale, in that province, 1500 barrels are annually exported to Moldavia and the countries on the Danube.
CAXAMARCA, or QUAXAMARKA; a province of Peru, bounded N. by Jaen, E. by Chacapoyas, S. E. by Caxamarquilla, S. by Huamachuco, W. by Sana and Truxillo; population, 46,000. The country is generally mountainous. It abounds in fruits and cattle. The inhabitants are, for the most part, Indians, and chiefly weavers.
Caxamarca; a town of Peru, capital of a province of the same name; about 70 miles from the Pacific ocean, 280 N. Lima; lat. 7° 3′ S.; lon. 78° 35′ W.; population, 12,000. It was, at one time, a royal city, where the emperor Atahualpa was put to death, after having been defeated and imprisoned by Pizarro.
CAXTON, William ; an Englishman, memorable for having first introduced the art of printing into his native country. He was born in Kent, about 1410, and served an apprenticeship to Robert Large, a London mercer. On the death of his master, Caxton went to the Netherlands, as agent for the mercers' company, in which situation he continued about 23 years. His reputation for probity and abilities occasioned his being employed, in conjunction with Richard Whitchill, to conclude a treaty of commerce between Edward IV and Philip duke of Burgundy. He appears subsequently to have held some office in the household of duke Charles, the son of Philip, whose wife, the lady Margaret of York, distinguished herself as the patroness of Caxton. Whilst abroad, he became acquainted with the then newly discovered invention of printing. (See Faust, John.) At the request of the duchess, his mistress, he translated from the French a work, which he entitled the Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, by Raoul le Feure, which he printed at Cologne, 1471, in folio. This book, considered as the earliest specimen of typography in the English language, is esteemed very valuable. At the famous sale of the duke of Roxburgh's library, in 1812, a copy was purchased by the duke of Devonshire, for £1060 10s. After this, he printed other works abroad, chiefly translations from the French; and, at length, having provided himself with the means of practising the art in England, he returned thither, and, in 1474, had a press at Westminster abbey, where he printed the Game and Playe of the Chesse, gen
erally admitted to be the first typographical work executed in England. Čaxton continued to exercise his art for nearly 20 years, during which time he produced between 50 and 60 volumes, most of which were composed or translated by himself. Caxton died about 1492, and was buried, according to some accounts, at Campden, in Gloucestershire; though others state his interment as having taken place at St. Margaret's, Westminster.
CAYENNE, or FRENCH GUIANA; a province or colony in South America, belonging to France; bounded N. and N. E. by the Atlantic ocean, E. and S. by Brazil, and W. by Dutch Guiana; between lat. 1° 50 and 6° N.; population, 17,331, of which only about 1000 are whites. This country was first colonized by the French in 1635; in 1654, it was taken by the English, and, in 1676, by the Dutch; but, in 1677, it was restored to the French. The coast of the country is generally low, marshy, and subject to inundation. The soil, in many parts, is very fertile, though in others dry, sandy, and soon exhausted. The climate resembles that of the West Indies, though it is more salubrious. The most noted article of produce is Cayenne pepper, the fruit of the capsicum baccatum. Other productions are coffee, sugar, cotton, cocoa, indigo, maize, cassia and vanilla.
Cayenne; an island of South America, belonging to France, on the coast of the above province, separated from the main land by the river Cayenne, which is about 300 miles in length. The island is 18 miles long and 10 broad, and has a fertile soil.
Cayenne; a town of South America, on the north point of the above island, at the mouth of the river Cayenne. It is the capital of the French colony of Cayenne, has a large and convenient port, and contains about 200 houses. Lat. 4° 56′ N.; lon. 52° 16′ W.
CAYENNE PEPPER, or CAPSICUM. Capsicum is the name of several species of South American and Indian plants, easily known by their hollow pods, of a shining red or yellow color, which contain many small, flat and kidney-shaped seeds. The principal species are, heart or bell-pepper (capsicum grossum), Guinea pepper (capsicum annuum) and bird-pepper (capsisicum baccatum). All the species of capsicum possess the same general qualities. In hot climates, but particularly in the East and West Indies, and some parts of Spanish America, the fruit of these plants is much used for culinary purposes. It is eaten in large quantities, both with animal and vegetable food, and is mixed,
in greater or less proportion, with almost all kinds of sauces. The Cayenne pepper used in cookery is made from the fruit of different species of capsicum. This fruit, when ripe, is gathered, dried in the sun, and then pounded; and the powder is mixed with a certain portion of salt, and kept for use in closely-stopped bottles. It is very generally used as a poignant ingredient in soups and highly-seasoned dishes. Its taste is extremely acrid, and it leaves a durable sensation of heat on the palate, which is best removed by butter or oil. When taken in small quantities, Cayenne is a grateful stimulant; and, in medicine, it is used both externally and internally, to promote the action of the bodily organs, when languid and torpid; and it is said to have been found efficacious in many gouty and paralytic cases. The Guinea pepper, or annual capsicum, is considered the most hardy of this whole tribe of plants; and, in many parts of the south of Europe, its fruit is eaten green by the peasants at their breakfasts, and is preferred by them to onions or garlic. The fruit of all the species may be used in domestic economy, either as a pickle, or when dried before a fire, and ground to powder in a common peppermill, as Cayenne pepper. (See Capsicin.) CAYES, LES, OF AUX CAYES; a seaport town on the south coast of Hayti; 30 miles S. S. E. Port-au-Prince; lat. 18° 13′ N.; lon. 74° 31′ W. This town, a few years since, contained 12 or 15,000 inhabitants. It is now very much reduced. The harbor is inferior, but the surrounding country is fertile.
CAYLUS (Anne Claude Philippe de Tubières, &c.), count of, an archæologist, born Oct. 31, 1692, at Paris, received an education equally solid and splendid. After having served in the army during the war of the Spanish succession, he left the service in 1715, accompanied Bonac on his embassy to Constantinople the following year, and visited Greece, Troy, Ephesus, Byzantium and Adrianople. In 1717, he returned to Paris, according to the wish of his mother, and began here to arrange his extensive collections. He commenced a great work on Egyptian, Grecian, Etruscan, Roman and Gallic antiquities, with numerous plates. He was a member of the academy of painting and of the academy of inscriptions, and divided his labors between them. He made a chemical examination of the ancient method of encaustic painting, investigated the mode of painting on marble, the art of hardening copper, the mode by which the Egyptians raised great weights, the mummies, paint
ing on wax, and many other subjects. If he has sometimes misunderstood the ancient authors, and committed some errors with respect to ancient monuments, he has, nevertheless, treated with great success of the processes and materials employed in the arts by the ancients. He died in 1765. Integrity, simplicity and disinterestedness were united in his character with occasional traits of dogmatism. He has left numerous works, tales as well as antiquarian researches. Among the latter is his Recueil d'Antiquités Egyptiennes, &c. (Paris, 1752-67, 7 vols.). Caylus was also an industrious and skilful engraver, and has furnished a collection of more than 200 engravings, after drawings in the royal cabinet, and a great number of heads, after the first masters. His mother, niece of Mad. de Maintenon, made herself known by a spirited little work-Mes Souvenirs.
CAYMAN. (See Alligator.)
CAZOTTE, Jacques, an author, distinguished by facility and liveliness of style, born in 1720, at Dijon, studied with the Jesuits, and went, in 1747, to Martinico. On his return to France, he lost $50,000 in letters of exchange upon the order of the Jesuits, to whose superior, Lavalette, he had sold his possessions in Martinico. The lawsuit which he commenced, on this occasion, may be considered as the beginning of all the proceedings against the Jesuits in France. Cazotte shone in society among the beaux esprits. His romance of chivalry, Olivier, published in 1763, and, subsequently, his Diable amoureux, the Lord Impromptu, and Euvres morales et badines, are proofs of his rich imagination, and his talent for writing with ease and precision. Being received into the order of Martines de Pasqualis, Cazotte lost himself in cabalistic dreams. With the assistance of Dom Chavis, an Arabian monk, he translated four volumes of Arabian Tales-a continuation of the Arabian Nights, forming the 37th and 40th volumes of the Cabinet des Fées. Though at the age of 70 years, he wrote them at midnight, after his return from the circles in which he had been visiting. Chavis dictated the outlines, and Cazotte wrought up the stories. He completed the task in two winters. The comic opera Les Sabots he composed in one night. In the revolution, which he opposed with all his power, he was thrown into the prisons of the Abbaye, with his daughter Elizabeth, in 1792. When the massacre of the prisoners took place, Sept. 2 and 3, Cazotte being delivered into the hands of the assassins, his daughter cast herself between him
and the murderers, and prevented the execution of their purpose; but he was again condemned to death, and executed Sept. 25. From the scaffold he cried with a firm voice to the multitude, "I die, as I have lived, faithful to God and to my king." CAZWINI, Zacharia Ben Mohammed, an Arabian naturalist, descended from a family of lawyers, who derived their origin from Anas Ben Malek, a companion of Mohammed, and had settled in Caswin, a city in Persia. From that place this author received the surname under which he has become celebrated. Of the circumstances of his life, we know only that he was cadi of Wazith and Hillah, and died in the year of the hegira 682 (A. D. 1283). His most important work is on natural history-The Wonders of Nature and the Peculiarities of Creation-of which Ideler, professor in the university of Berlin, has published the chapter on the Constellations of the Arabians, and of which there are fragments in Bochart's Hierozoikon, in Ouseley's Oriental Collections, and in Wahl's, Jahn's and De Sacy's Arab. Chrestomathias. It was the object of Cazwini, like Pliny, to describe the wonders of all nature. His work contains a comprehensive view of all that had been written before him, but in so grand and original a manner, that it is of higher value than most of the original works which treat of the same subjects. There is an abridged translation of it in the Persian.
CEBES of Thebes was a disciple of Socrates. He is said to have saved Phædon, a young slave, from moral ruin. Nothing more is known of his life. Three dialogues-Hebdome, Phrynichus, and Pinux, or the Picture-are ascribed to him; but most critics regard the latter as the work of a later Cebes, or of a Stoic philosopher under this assumed name. Since the revival of learning, this interesting dialogue has been often reprinted by itself, or in connexion with the writings of Epictetus, Theognis, Pythagoras, &c. Among the larger editions is that of Schweighäuser (Strasburg, 1806). There are many school editions.
CECIL, William (lord Burleigh). This eminent English statesman was son to Richard Cecil, master of the robes to Henry VIII, and was born at Bourne, in Lincolnshire, in 1520. He studied at St. John's college, Cambridge, whence he removed to Gray's Inn, with a view to prepare himself for the practice of the law. Having carried on a successful controversy with two Irish priests on the subject of the pope's supremacy, he obtained the no
tice of the king; and, being presented with the reversion of the office of custos brevium, was encouraged to push his fortune at court. Having married the sister of sir John Cheke, he was, by his brotherin-law, recommended to the earl of Hertford, afterwards the protector Somerset. Having lost his first wife, he took for a second the daughter of sir Anthony Cooke, director of the studies of Edward VI; and, by his alliance with this lady, herself eminent for learning, still further increased his influence. He rose, in 1547, to the post of master of requests, and, soon after, to that of secretary. He endured, in this reign, some of the vicissitudes which befell his patron Somerset, but always recovered his standing, and, in 1551, was knighted, and sworn a member of the privy council. His declining to aid the proclamation of lady Jane Grey, secured him a gracious reception from queen Mary, although he forfeited his office because he would not change his religion. In 1555, he attended cardinal Pole and the other commissioners appointed to treat for peace with France; and, on his return, being chosen knight of the shire for the county of Lincoln, distinguished himself by opposing a bill brought in for the confiscation of estates on account of religious principles. His foresight led him into a timely correspondence with the princess Elizabeth, previously to her accession; to whom, in her critical situation, his advice was exceedingly serviceable. On her accession, in 1558, he was appointed privy counsellor and secretary of state. One of the first acts of her reign was the settlement of religion, which Čecil conducted with great skill and prudence, considering the difficulties to be encountered. In foreign affairs, he showed much tact in guarding against the danger arising from the Catholic powers, and very judiciously lent support to the reformation in Scotland. The general tenor of Cecil's policy was cautious, and rested upon an avoidance of open hostilities, and a reliance on secret negotiation and intrigues with opposing parties in the neighboring countries, with a view to avert the dangers which threatened his own. This, upon the whole, was a course almost necessary, considering the situation of England, with a powerful, dissatisfied party at home, much dangerous enmity on the part of Catholic Europe, and an alliance existing between Scotland and France. On the suppression of the northern rebellion, in 1571, Elizabeth raised him to the peerage by the title of baron Burleigh, and, the following year,
made him a knight of the garter. He is charged with being deeply engaged in fomenting the troubles which caused the flight of the imprudent and unhappy Mary Stuart into England; and, after the discovery of Babington's conspiracy, he never ceased urging her trial and condemnation. He endured, for a short time, the hypocritical resentment of Elizabeth at the execution of the queen of Scots, but, after a while, recovered his former credit. At the time of the threatened Spanish invasion, he drew up the plan for the defence of the country with his usual care and ability. But, soon after, losing his wife, to whom he was warmly attached, he became desirous of retiring from public business, and of leaving the field open to his son Robert, afterwards so celebrated as earl of Salisbury. He was persuaded, however, to keep his employment, and one of his latest efforts was to effectuate a peace with Spain, in opposition to the more heated councils of the earl of Essex. This great minister died in the bosom of his family, and in the possession of all his honors, in 1598, being then in his 77th year. He left behind him the character of the ablest minister of an able reign. How far the emergencies of the period ought to excuse a portion of his dark and crooked policy, it may be difficult to determine. But it is easy to decide, that almost every school of politicians, under similar circumstances, have countenanced similar laxity under the plea of expediency. The private character of Burleigh was highly regarded; for, although he failed not to improve his opportunities as a courtier, he always exhibited a probity which conciliated esteem. He possessed, in a high degree, the solid learning, gravity and decorum, which, in that age, usually accompanied elevated station. In his mode of living, he was noble and splendid, but, at the same time, economical, and attentive to the formation of a competent fortune for his family. His early occupation as a statesman precluded much attention to literature; but he is mentioned as the author of a few Latin verses, and of some historical tracts. A great number of his letters on business are still extant.
CECIL, Robert, earl of Salisbury, second son of lord Burleigh, was born, according to some accounts, about the year 1550; but his birth may, with more probability, be placed 13 years later. He was deformed, and of a weak constitution; on which account he was educated at home, till his removal to the university of Cambridge. Having received the honor of knighthood,
he went to France as assistant to the English ambassador, the earl of Derby, and, in 1596, was appointed one of the secretaries of state. On the death of sir Francis Walsingham, he succeeded him as principal secretary, and continued to be a confidential minister of queen Elizabeth to the end of her reign. Having secretly supported the interests of James I, previous to his accession to the crown, and taken measures to facilitate that event, he was continued in office under the new sovereign, and raised to the peerage. In 1603, he was created a baron; in 1604, viscount Cranbourn; and in 1605, earl of Salisbury. The same year he was chosen chancellor of the university of Cambridge, and made a knight of the garter. He was the political rather than the personal favorite of the king, whom he served with zeal and fidelity; and, as he was certainly the ablest, so he was, perhaps, the most honest, minister who presided over the affairs of state during that reign. In 1608, on the decease of the lord high treasurer the earl of Dorset, that office was bestowed on lord Salisbury, who held it till his death, in 1612. This event took place at Marlborough, as he was returning to London from Bath, whither he had gone in a very debilitated state of health, to use the mineral waters. An interesting account of this journey, and of the last hours of this eminent statesman, drawn up by one of his domestics, may be found in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. Lord Salisbury was the author of a Treatise against the Papists; and of Notes on Dee's Discourse on the Reformation of the Calendar; and some of his letters, despatches and speeches in parliament have been published.
CECILIA. There are several saints of this name in the Catholic church. The most celebrated, who has been falsely regarded as the inventress of the organ, and who is the patron saint of music, is said to have suffered martyrdom A. D. 220. Her pagan parents, says the legend, betrothed her, contrary to her wishes, to Valerian, a young pagan. But she had internally vowed to the Lord a perpetual virginity; and, whilst the instruments sounded, she sang in her heart only to the Lord (cantantibus organis, illa in corde suo soli Domino cantabat, dicens, &c.); that is, she prayed-O Lord, allow my heart and my body to remain unpolluted. As soon as the bridegroom appeared, she forbade his approach, assuring him that an angel of the Lord protected her innocence. The unbelieving Valerian wished to convince himself of this assertion; she referred him
country the art of ship-building, and thus laid the foundation of its commerce. He died after a reign of 50 years. His monument was erected in the temple of Minerva; but, to preserve his memory always fresh in their minds, the people consecrated to him the constellation of Aquarius. (See Attica.) The researches which are making among the records of Egyptian history, since the key to their mysterious language has been discovered by the skilfully directed efforts of Young, De Sacy, Zoega, Champollion, and others, will undoubtedly throw great light on the progress of civilization from Egypt to Greece, described in the half mythological, half historical tales of the latter country. CECROPIA. (See Athens, vol. i. p. 442.) CEDAR; a name given to several species of juniper, to a species of pine, the cedar of Lebanon, and to the cupressus thuyoides. It is an evergreen, and of great durability. The most celebrated kind is the
to the bishop Urban, who was concealed among the tombs of the martyrs, and who instructed him in the Christian religion, and baptized him. When he returned to the bride, he saw the protecting angel, who presented them both with crowns of heavenly roses and lilies. Valerian now induced his brother Tubirtus to embrace the Christian faith. The Roman prefect Almachius caused both brothers to be beheaded, as zealous professors of Christianity. Life was to be given to Cecilia if she would sacrifice to the heathen gods. But she remained firm in her belief. Upon this, the tyrant caused her to be shut up in a bath of boiling water, in which she was found, the day after, unhurt. The executioner was then directed to behead her: he inflicted three blows, but was not able to separate the head from the body. She lived for three days, exhorting the faithful and giving alms to the poor. As early as the 5th century, we find a church in Rome dedicated to her. Pope Paschalis, who was very anxious to gather relics, endeavored to discover her body. She appeared to him, as he relates in his letters, while he was sleeping, and pointed out the place of her sepulchre. Paschalis caused the body to be disinterred in 821, and placed it in the church which he rebuilt, where her monument is still to be seen. How Cecilia came to be the patron-saint of music is not agreed. The various opinions, however, seem to be united in this point, that it was either through a misunderstanding, or through an allegorical interpretation of the words above cited from her legend. Her worship, in this character, is very ancient. Among the poets, Chaucer, Dryden in his Alexander's Feast, and Pope, have sung her praises. Raphael, Domenichino, Dolce and Mignard have represented her in celebrated paintings. In the picture of Raphael, she appears as the personification of heavenly devotion. This is, indeed, a heavenly picture.
CECROPS, the founder of Athens, arrived there about 1550 B. C., from Sais, at the mouth of the Nile (this emigration, however, has been questioned by some late writers, e. g. Ottfried Müller), taught the savage inhabitants religion and morals, made them acquainted with the advantages of social life, laid the foundation of the future city of Athens (Cecropia), and built 11 other places, whose inhabitants he instructed in agriculture. He also planted the olive, and consecrated it to Minerva, the patron goddess of Athens. He then introduced into his adopted
Cedar-Larch, or Cedar of Lebanon (pinus cedrus, L.), distinguished, by its strong, ramose branches, from all other trees of the same genus. The general character of the shoot, even when the tree is young, is singularly bold and picturesque, and quite peculiar to the species. The tree is a native of the coldest part of the mountains of Libanus, Amanus and Taurus; but it is not now to be found in those places in great numbers. Maundrell, in his journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, in 1696, could reckon only 16 large trees, though many small ones. The forest of Libanus seems never to have recovered from the havoc made by Solomon's forty score thousand hewers. Beautiful specimens of this noble tree are to be seen at Witton park, Zionhouse, &c., in England, where it seems to have been introduced in 1683, and where, as professor Martyn observes, there are probably, at present, more cedars than in Palestine.
White-Cedar (cupressus thuyoides) is a small or middle-sized evergreen, naturally forming an elegant head. Its branches are not pendulous. Its leaves are of a delicate green color. It is a native of North America, China and Cochin China. In the U. States, it occupies large tracts, denominated cedar-swamps. The wood is soft, smooth, of an aromatic smell, and internally of a red color. It is permanent in shape, and very durable, and is esteemed as a material for fences. Large quantities of shingles are made of it. It is a favorite material for wooden wares, or the nicer kinds of coopers' work.
Red or Common Cedar (juniperus Vir