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very infusible. Its specific gravity is 5.9. yellow is largely manufactured in the U. Chrome unites with oxygen in three pro- States, at Baltimore, near which place is portions, forming two oxides and one found one of the most remarkable deposacid. The protoxide is of a green color, its of ferruginous oxide of chrome in the exceedingly infusible by itself, but with world. The process consists in adding a borax, or vitreous substances, it melts, and solution of acetate of lead (or sugar of communicates to them a beautiful emerald- lead) to the rough solution of chromate of green color. Indeed, the emerald owes its potash, from which the nitrate of potash color to this oxide. The protoxide is has been just separated by crystallization. employed at the manufactory of Sèvres, The acetate of lead is added as long as in France, to give a fine deep-green to any sediment falls. The liquid is then the enamel of porcelain. It is applied filtered, and the yellow precipitate left on without a flux, and melted with the en- the filters, dried for sale. amel. Chromic acid, however, is the most Chromic Acid. (See Chrome.) important of the compounds formed by CHRONIC (from xpóvos, time); a term this metal along with oxygen. It is usu- applied to diseases which are of long dually prepared for chemical purposes by ration, and mostly without fever. It is mixing solutions of nitrate of barytes and used in opposition to the term acute, which chromate of potash, and digesting the is applied both to a pungent pain, and to a chromate of barytes that is formed in di- disease which is attended with violent lute sulphuric acid. This abstracts the symptoms, terminates in a few days, and barytes, and the chromic acid is procured, is attended with danger. On the other by evaporation, in crystals of a fine ruby- hand, a chronic disease is slow in its progred color. It is very soluble in water, has ress, and not so generally dangerous. a sour, metallic taste, and all the charac- CHRONICLE, strictly speaking, is a histers of a strong acid. It combines with tory digested according to the order of the alkalies, earths and metallic oxides, time. În this sense, it differs but little forming salts, many of which have very from annals. The term is mostly used in rich colors. The alkaline chromates are feference to the old histories of nations, soluble and crystallizable. They are of a written when they were comparatively yellow or red color, the neutral chromates rude. Chronicles belong to the sources being commonly yellow, and the bi-chro- of history, and many have been handed mates, red or deep orange. The best known down from early ages; for instance, the of these is the bi-chromate of potash, two books of the Chronicles of the Hewhich is one of the most splendid, and, brews, which belong •to the Old Testaat the same time, one of the most useful ment. With many nations, such chronisalts. The manner in which it is formed cles were written under the authority of is as follows:—Chromate of iron, or rather government, and priests, being the only ferruginous oxide of chrome, reduced to men of learning among uncultivated

tribes, fine powder, is mixed with half its weight were intrusted with this office. In the of nitrate of potash, and heated strongly early Christian ages, also, clergymen were for an hour or two in crucibles. The re- generally the authors of the chronicles ; sulting masses are then repeatedly digest- e. g., Eusebius, bishop of Cæsarea, collected with water, and the colored liquids, ed from other historical works his Chroniwhich are slightly alkaline, saturated with cle of ancient history. Hieronymus of nitric acid, and concentrated by evapora- Stridon translated it into Latin, in the tion, till no more crystals of nitre can be fourth century, and others continued it. obtained from them. The yellow liquid, Many historical works of the Byzantines being now set aside for a week or two, (q. v.) are also chronicles. We might deposits a copious crop of crystals, whose mention, likewise, the Alexandrine chroniform is that of a four-sided prism, termi- cle (Chronicon paschale), published by Du nated by dihedral summits. Their color Fresne ; also the chronicles written by is an intense lemon-yellow, with a slight monks, particularly by the diligent Beneshade of orange. 100 parts of water at dictines, in the middle ages, some of which 60° dissolves about 48 parts; but boiling embraced the whole history of the world, water dissolves almost any quantity. Its from its beginning to their own time (as solution in water decomposes most of the the Chronicle of Rhegino, of Otto of Freismetallic salts; those of mercury, of a fine ingen, &c.); others, the history of a cerred; copper and iron, of a reddish brown; tain period (as Liutprand's History of his silver, dark red, and lead, of a beautiful Time, from 891 to 946), or of a single nayellow color, now much used as a pigment, tion (as the History of the Franks, by under the name of chrome yellow. Chrome Gregory of Tours; that of the Lombards.

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by Paulus Diaconus; the English Chroni- cycles, for the illustration of history. The cles, by Stow, &c.), or the history of single principal means for marking the divisions provinces, cities and institutions (as the of time are afforded by the motions of Chronicle of the Abbey of St. Denis; the the heavenly bodies, particularly the sun Chronicle of Cologne); also the history of and the moon, which produce the natural individuals (as Eginhard's History of division of time into years, months and Charlemagne), and of single events. They days. The necessities of life, requiring have been published partly in large col- still smaller and more precise divisions of lections (for instance, Scriptores Rerum time (which can be measured only by arGermanicarum), and, until the 13th and tificial means), gave rise to hours, minutes 14th centuries, were mostly written in and seconds. This division of time is Latin. Of many of them the authors are called the artificial. Even in the natural not known. In this case, they are called division, however, there is something arafter the place where they were written bitrary, as it depends solely on the will or where they were found.

what point in the motions of the heavenly These chronicles bear the impression of bodies shall be taken as the point of betheir time, displaying the ignorance and ginning; for example, in the annual rocredulity of their authors, and abounding tation of the earth, whether we shall take in religious and moral reflections. We the longest day of summer or the shortest must admit, in their favor, however, that day of winter. The first lawgivers, therethey are not filled with political disquisi- fore, fixed the civil beginning and end of tions and superficial reasoning, of which the month, day and year, and, at the same modern histories afford so many instances. time also, the smaller divisions of these The chronicles of the middle ages were larger portions of time. From this separnot written with the purpose of supporting ation of the natural and artificial or civil certain principles, but generally give sim- division of time, arises a division of chrople facts; on account of which they are nology into mathematical, astronomical preferable, as historical records, to many and historical. Astronomical chronology modern works. Of course, they do not determines the duration of the natural equal in value the result of the deep re- portions of time by the revolutions of the searches of a Gibbon or a Niebuhr. Young heavenly bodies; historical chronology men, in search of historical knowledge, treats of the civil divisions of time, of the ought to apply themselves more frequent- methods of reckoning time among differly to these sources, and not trust so much ent nations, of ancient periods or remarkto the writers who drew from them; and we able epochs, &c. It is obvious that each can say, from experience, that they would of these divisions of chronology requires find them very interesting reading. (For the assistance of the others. All historiinformation respecting the chronicles of cal chronology is grounded on the astrothe middle ages, we would refer the read- nomical, which cannot determine the duer to the treatises by Rösler, in Latin, par- ration of the periods of time without the ticularly the preface to his Chronica Medië aid of the civil division. Mathematicians Ævi (1798), and the directories of Freher and astronomers determine the natural and Adelung.). Chronicle is also often periods of time as they are indicated by used as the title of newspapers. · The the motions of the sun and moon. most important of these is the (London) left to legislators to determine by law on Morning Chronicle, an excellent paper of what day the year shall begin, how many the whig party. (See Newspaper.) days shall constitute a month, how many

CHRONODISTICH, CHRONOGRAM; a verse a week, &c. This civil regulation is the in which certain of the letters used signify foundation of the calendar (q. v.) or almaRoman numbers, and indicate the year in Thus far must astronomical chrowhich the event happened to which the nology be connected with historical; but verse relates ; e. g., reges ConCeDant the latter only can teach us the divisions paCeM, where CCDCM make the num- adopted by different people. Historical ber 1800. It is little used at present. chronology explains, 1. the form of the

CHRONOLOGY (compounded of xoóvos, year among different nations, as it is regtime, and Xoyos, discourse) is the art of ulated by lawgivers, founders of religions, measuring time (see Time), distinguish- and other founders of civil society: 2. ing its several constituent parts, such those events which are selected by different as centuries, years, &c., by appropriate nations as eras, that is, as points from which marks and characters, and adjusting these they begin their reckoning ; e. g., the Yugs parts, in an orderly manner, to past trans- of the Hindoos, the era of Nabonassar, the actions, by means of eras, epochs and era of the Seleucidæ, among the Chaldeans,

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Syrians, Persians, Egyptians; the creation an account of a graduated pendulum for of the world, among the Jews; the birth of this purpose, proposed by doctor RobinChrist, among Christians ; the Olympiads, son; and others have since been sold at among the Greeks; the building of Rome the principal music-shops in London. and the consular era, among the Romans; The second is used by tuners of instruthe Hegira, or flight of Mohammed, among ments, to measure the velocity of beats. the Mohammedans, &c. As so many dif- On this point, the reader may consult docferent eras render the reckoning of time tor Smith's Harmonics, p. 210. difficult, it, 3dly, selects a form of the year CHRYSALIS. (See Papilio.) and an era to which it refers those of other CHRYSEIS. (See Achilles.) nations, and by which it arranges the his- CHRYSIPPUs, a Stoic philosopher of Citory of all uations and times. The Euro- licia, distinguished for his skill in dispean chronologist and historian must refer puting.. He was the principal opposer of the eras and years of all people to those the Epicureans, and is said to have writused in modern Europe. Mathematical ten 700 different works, mostly of a diaand astronomical chronology is taught in lectical character; but of these no comthe manuals of astronomy. Among these plete work is extant. He died, at a great may be mentioned the Astronomie of La- age, about 206 years B. C. lande (2d vol. p. 270, 2d ed.) The Man- CHRYSOBERYL (sometimes called cymoual of Astronomical and Technical Chro- phane, and, by the jewellers, Oriental nology (from the sources) of D. L. Ideler chrysolite) was, for a long time, only (vol. 1, Berlin, 1825, vol. 2, 1826) is an known as occurring in semi-transparent, excellent work. This savant has done rounded pieces, in the alluvial deposits of much for the advancement of this sci- rivers, along with other species of gems. ence by his extensive researches. (See Thus, in Brazil, it was found along with Epoch and History.)

the diamond and topaz, and with rubies CHRONOMETER; a time-piece of a pe- and sapphires in Ceylon. Distinct crysculiar construction, at present much em- tals were afterwards brought from Siberia, ployed by navigators in determining the but their original situation still remains longitude at sea. In general, chronom- unknown. It is now known to exist, in eters are much larger than common beautifully distinct crystals, at two places watches, and are hung in gimbals, in in the U. States—at Haddam (Conn.) and boxes six or eight inches square; but Saratoga (N. Y.) They are found, at both there are also many pocket chronometers, these localities, in a granitic rock. The which, externally, have all the appearance form of the crystal is, for the most part, a of the better sort of pocket watches, and right rectangular prism, and a low, sixinternally differ from these only in the sided table (with reëntering angles), formconstruction of the balance. The balance ed by the crossing of three prismatic crysand hair-spring are the principal agents tals. Chrysoberyl scratches quartz; is of in regulating the rate of going in a com- an olive-green color, and vitreous lustre, mon watch, being to this what the pen- and is often possessed of a bluish opalesdulum is to a common clock; and this cence. Specific gravity, 3.754. It is spring, in the former, like the pendulum composed of alumine 68.66, glucine 16.00, in the latter, is subject to expansions and silex 5.99, protoxide of iron 4.73, and oxcontractions, under different degrees of ide of titanium 2.66. heat and cold, which, of course, affect the CHRYSOLITE ; a greenish, yellowish or speed or rate of the machine; and the brownish stone, sometimes transparent, methods of correcting this inaccuracy sometimes only translucent, which posmark the difference between the watch sesses the power of double refraction in a and chronometer. These are very nu- high degree. It is composed of silex and merous. (See Horology.) With Ameri- magnesia. The chrysolite employed in can navigators, chronometers are more the arts comes chiefly from the Levant, common than with those of any other na- and is sometimes used in jewellery, but is tion. All the lines of packets between not highly esteemed. Werner thinks that the U. States and Europe have them.- the yellow chrysolite of the ancients is An instrument under the name of chro- the modern topaz. nometer is also used by musicians for the CHRYSOLORAS, Emanuel; a distinguish, accurate measurement of time. Two sorts ed Greek of Constantinople, born about have been invented for different purposes. the middle of the 14th century, the The first supplies the motion of a con- first who, in modern times, transplanted ductor, and regularly beats time. In the Greek literature into Italy. The emperor British Magazine (ii

. 283) may be found John Palæologus sent him, in 1391, to

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Italy and England, to ask for assistance the following manner :-“They rise with against the Turks. Having thus become the first crowing of the cock, or at midknown in Italy, he returned there, about night. After having read psalms and the year 1395, and was appointed profes- hymns in common, each, in his separate sor of Greek literature at Florence. He cell, is occupied in reading the Holy Scripremained about three years in Florence, tures, or in copying books. Then they where he collected around him a great proceed to church, and, after mass, return number of scholars, of all ages and ranks, quietly to their habitations. They never and excited universal enthusiasm as much speak to each other; their nourishment is by his dignity, and the grace of his elocu- bread and salt; some add oil to it, and the tion, as by the extent of his learning. invalids vegetables. After meals, they rest From his school proceeded Leonardo a few moments, and then return to their Bruno, Poggius, Francis Philelphus, and usual occupations. They till the ground, other distinguished revivers of classical fell wood, make baskets and clothes, and studies. He afterwards taught with equal wash the feet of travellers. Their bed is success in Milan, whence the Greek em- a mat spread on the ground; their dress peror Manuel, who, in 1400, had come to consists of skins, or cloths made of the Italy, sent for him to Pavia, Venice, and hair of goats and camels. They go barelastly to Rome. Pope Gregory XII em- footed, have no property, and never proployed him in public affairs, and sent him, nounce the words mine and thine. Undiswith others, to the council of Constance, turbed peace dwells in their habitations, where he died in 1415. He should not and a cheerfulness scarcely known in the be confounded with his nephew and com- world.” After four years, Chrysostom panion in Italy, John Chrysoloras. quitted these hermits to seek a still greater

CHRYSOSTOM, John, St.; a celebrated seclusion. He dwelt in a cavern, where father of the church, born in Antioch, in he remained two years without lying the year 344. Secundus, his father, had down. His penance and wakefulness, tothe command of the imperial troops in gether with the dampness of his abode, Syria. In those times, eloquence was still threw him into a severe illness, which the means of obtaining the highest honors forced him to return to Antioch (381). In in Greece. Chrysostom studied this art, the same year, he was appointed deacon with Libanius, the most famous orator of by the bishop of Antioch, and, in 386, his time, and soon excelled his master. consecrated priest

. He was chosen vicar After having studied philosophy with An- by the same dignitary, and commissioned dragathius, he devoted himself to the Holy to preach the word of God to the people. Scriptures, and determined upon quitting Till then, the bishops only had instructed the world, and on consecrating his life to the people in the gospel. His eloquence God in the deserts of Syria. At the age attracted Jews, heathens and heretics. of 20, he conducted a legal case with ex. He was, says Sozomenes, the ornament traordinary success; but he soon retired of his church, and of the whole East, from public business, and, by fasting and when the emperor Arcadius determined, penance, endeavored to obtain the mastery in 397, to place him

in the episcopal see of his passions. He remained three years of Constantinople. To prevent the inhabin Antioch. He was united, by the ties itants of Antioch from opposing his intenof an intimate friendship, with Basil

, The- tions, the emperor caused him to be seodore, afterwards bishop of Mopsuesta, cretly conveyed to Constantinople, where and with Maximus, subsequently bishop Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, orof Seleucia. Theodore having quitted dained him. He commenced his official for a time his holy vocation, Chrysostom labors by limiting the expenses of his wrote two beautiful exhortations, in order to house, founded and supported many hosrecall him to his duty. The bishops of the pitals, improved the morals of the clergy, provinces had determined on electing him and converted a number of heathens and or Basil as bishop; but Chrysostom fled, heretics. He gave so generously to the and concealed himself; consequently Ba- poor, that he was universally called John sil was elected, who complained, however, the almsgiver. He devoted himself to atmuch of his friend's withdrawal. Chrys- tendance on the sick. He sent bishops as ostom defended himself in his beautiful missionaries to the Goths, to the Scythians, work on the office of priests. He was and to Persia and Palestine. His elothen only 26 years old. In 374, he retired quence twice prevented' an insurrection. to the anchorites who dwelt on the moun- In 399, Chrysostom held a council in tains in the vicinity of Antioch. He de- Constantinople, at which several Asiatic scribed the life which he led with them in bishops were deposed as guilty of simony

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Severin, bishop of Gabala, in Syria, dared his journey, he arrived there, and continto attack Chrysostom from the pulpit, and ued to exert his pious zeal. He sent misto stir up the people against him; but sionaries to Persia and Phænicia, and his charges were rejected as calumnies. wrote 17 letters to Olympias, all of which Chrysostom had two dangerous enemies are moral dissertations. He likewise adthe empress Eudoxia, whose injustice and dressed to her his work entitled, “None extortions gave cause to many complaints ; can injure him who does not injure himand Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, self.” All Christendom beheld the pious who was jealous of his influence. The sufferer with love and admiration ; at latter assembled several bishops at Chal- which the emperor, exasperated, comcedon, who were to investigate the com- manded him to be conveyed to the shores plaints made against Chrysostom. But he of the Pontus Euxinus, to the town of refused to appear, alleging that they had Pityont, situated on its most distant boracted against the laws of the church ; and, ders. The officers who had him in charge on his part, assembled 40 bishops at Con- obliged the old man to perform this jourstantinople. His enemies, however, pre- ney on foot, with his head uncovered, in vailed. His removal was determined upon, the burning heat of the sun; but he fell a and sanctioned by Arcadius, who banished prey to exhaustion. In Comana, in Ponhim from the country. Chrysostom quit- tus, he was brought to the oratory of the ted the city secretly, that he might not be martyr St. Basil. He put on white garprevented by his adherents, and purposed ments, received the eucharist, uttered a retiring to Bithynia ; but the people fervent prayer, which he closed, as usual, threatened a revolt. In the following with the words “Praise be to God for all night, an earthquake gave general alarm. things,” crossed himself, and expired (407), In this dilemma, Arcadius recalled his or- 63 years old. His body was interred at ders, and Eudoxia herself invited Chrys- the side of that of St. Basil ; but, in 438, it ostom to return. The people accompa- was conveyed solemnly to Constantinople, nied him triumphantly to the city, his and there interred in the church of the enemies fled, and peace was restored, but apostles, in the sepulchre of the emperor. only for a short time. A feast, attended At a later period, his remains were placed with many heathen ceremonies, for the in the Vatican 'at Rome. The Greek consecration of a statue, given by the em- church celebrates his feast on the 13th of press, roused the zeal of the archbishop, November, the Roman on the 27th of who publicly exclaimed against it; and January. The name of Chrysostom (goldEudoxia, violently incensed, recalled the en-mouthed) was assigned to him, after prelates devoted to her will, and Chrysos- his death, to express the eloquence which tom was condemned, although 40 bishops he possessed in so much greater a degree declared themselves in his favor. Arca- than the other fathers of the church. dius ordered the soldiers to force him He never repeats himself, and is always from the church, which was profaned and original. The vivacity and power of his stained with blood. Pope Innocent I imagination, the force of his logic, his and the emperor Honorius declared them- power of arousing the passions, the beauty selves in favor of Chrysostom, but Arca- and accuracy of his comparisons, the nextdius refused to assemble the council, on ness and purity of his style, his clearness which the others insisted, and commanded and sublimity, place him on a level with Chrysostom peremptorily to retire to the the most celebrated Greek authors: the place of his banishment. He obeyed, and Christian church has not a more accomwas conveyed to Nice, in Bithynia (404). plished orator. The most accurate Greek Soon after his departure, the church and edition of his works is that of Henry Sathe palace where the senate used to as- ville (1612, 9 vols. fol.); the most comsemble became a prey to the flames. plete Greek and Latin, is that of MontfauMany works of art were lost in this con- çon (Paris, 1618, 13 vols. fol.) Professor fiagration, which the emperor attributed Neander, at Berlin, has written a biograto the friends of Chrysostom. The Isau- phy of this father of the church, or rather rians and Huns laid waste the empire. a history of him and his time, entitled St. Chrysostom's return was universally de- Chrysostom, a highly esteemed work, full sired; Arcadius remained inflexible. Eu- of the important results of the deep redoxia died soon after Chrysostom's ban- searches of its learned author. ishment, after having fixed upon the little CHUBB, Thomas; a writer in humble Armenian town Cucusus, in the wilds of life, who obtained great temporary disTaurus, for his abode. Exhausted by tinction as a controversialist.

He was sickness, deprivations, and the fatigues of born at East Hadham, near Salisbury, and

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