Imatges de pÓgina


was instructed only in reading, writing probably only fortifications to secure the
and accounts. He was apprenticed to a conquests of Quito and Chile.
glover, but, at length, became journeyman CHUQUISACA, or La Plata; a city of
to a tallow-chandler, and employed his South America, and capital of Bolivia;
Jeisure in the acquisition of knowledge, lat. 19° 40'S.; lon. 66° 46 W.; population,
from the best English books which he 18,000. The inhabitants consist of In-
could procure. In 1715, he published dians and Spaniards. It stands on a plain,
The Supremacy of the Father asserted, environed by eminences, which defend it
&c., the perspicuity and argumentative from all winds. The temperature of the
skill of which obtained for it much notice. air, in summer, is very mild ; nor is there
Of course, a production, assailing a part any considerable difference throughout the
of the orthodox fajth, did not pass without year. The houses have one story besides
reply, and a controversial warfare com- the ground floor. They are covered with
menced, which lasted as long as his life. tiles, and are very roomy and convenient,
In 1730, he offered to the world his with delightful gardens, planted with Eu-
thoughts on a variety of topics, moral and ropean fruit-trees; but water is so scarce as
theological, in 34 tracts
, collected in a 4to. hardly to supply the

necessary purposes of
volume, of which book Pope, in a letter life, and is brought from the several public
to Gay, speaks with great respect. Vari- fountains dispersed in the different parts
ous publications followed, e. g., A Dis- of the city. The town had the name of
course concerning Reason, The true Gos- La Plata from its being built near silver
pel of Jesus Christ asserted, Inquiry into mines. It was erected into a bishopric in
the Ground and Foundation of Religion, 1551, the place having then the title of
&c., which manifest his disposition to city, and, in 1608, was raised to an arch-
question many points of orthodoxy, He, bishopric. The cathedral is large, of good
however, adhered to the general con- architecture, and finely adorned with
clusion, that Jesus was sent from God paintings and gildings. The city has also
as an instructer to mankind, and reg- a university, dedicated to St. Francis Xa-
ularly attended public worship at his par- vier, the chairs of which are filled indif-
ish church until his death. Chubb seems ferently with secular clergy or laymen;
never to have sought to emerge from the but the rector was formerly always a
humble condition in which fortune had Jesuit.
placed him, although he met with some Chur. (See Coire.)
powerful patrons. He died suddenly in CHURCH is, in the widest sense of the
February, 1747, aged 68.

word, the collective body of those who CHULUCANAS'; the name of an ancient declare themselves to be followers of ruined city of Peru, on the ridge of the Christ. In this sense, the founder of the Cordilleras, at the height of 8943 feet above church is Jesus Christ himself; for, the level of the sea, and on the Paramo of though his followers did not separate Chulucanas, between the Indian villages themselves from the community of the of Ayavaca and Guancabamba. Hum- synagogue until after his death, yet he boldt says, that the great causey of the had, by preaching a doctrine essentially Incas, lined with freestone-one of the different from Judaism, and by collecting most useful and stupendous works ever disciples and friends around him, laid the executed by man, and which may be foundation of a new religious body, compared with the finest Roman roads is Moreover, he ordered his disciples, at the still in good preservation, between Chulu- time of his departure from the world, to go canas, Guamani and Sagique; and Fran- forth and preach the gospel through the cisco Coreal found it perfect in two other earth, and established two religious cereplaces, and states that it yields in nothing monies, by which his followers were to be to the most magnificent European road. distinguished. These circumstances, maIt runs from Quito, through Cuzco, to La ny have thought, must be taken as indiPlata, or from the equator to 20° of S. lat- cating his intention to found'a church. itude. On the summit of the Andes, Judaism, too, may be considered as having wherever this road passes, ruins of great paved the way for the establishment of a buildings are every where seen. Hum- Christian church or organized religious boldt counted nine in less than half a de- . community.—But the word church is not gree of latitude; and Pedro de Cieca de so often taken in the sense just described Leon, who wrote in 1541, describes sev- as in a much narrower one, in which it eral which he saw in the province of Los signifies a body of Christians, which difCanares. They are now called, by the fers in doctrines, constitution and usages Peruvians, palaces of the Incas, but were from the remainder. From the 11th cen

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tury, the Greek or Oriental Christians tion of their places of worship, seem to were separated from the Latin Christians, have had almost exclusively in view the or Christians of the West ; and thus orig- accommodation of the hearers, particularinated the difference between the Greek ly in England and America. This fact is Catholic church, whose chief is the patri- easily explained from the circumstance that arch of Constantinople, and the Roman they do not celebrate, in their churches, Catholic church, whose chief is the Roman divine service, in the sense in which the bishop, or the pope. In the 16th cen- Catholics use the phrase, but chiefly meet tury, the reformation caused another di- to hear the Bible explained to them, and vision in the Western church, one part of to be instructed in their duties ; on acits members seceding from the govern- count of which the churches of a large ment of the Roman see, and adopting dif- portion of Protestants are often, or even ferent doctrines from those professed by the usually, called meeting-houses, and their rest. Thus arose the difference between sermons discourses.—În New England, the Catholic and Protestant churches. It the word church is used to denote the might reasonably be asked, whether some members of a religious society, who have Protestant sects do not differ from each made a public profession of the Christian other as much as from the Catholic religion, in contradistinction to the other church ; for instance, the Quakers from individuals belonging to the same relithe English Episcopal church. But, for gious society, who have not made such a the purpose of this article, it is sufficient profession. There are various derivathat, in the common use of language, tions of the word church, which, of course, they are all called Protestants. There has the same origin with the German is, moreover, one point which distin- Kirche, and the Scottish kirk. Some deguishes all Protestant sects, or the whole rive it from the Greek Kuplakòv, from kupios, Protestant church, from the two Catholic lord, a house appropriated for the service ones, namely, that the Protestants declare of the Lord. Others think the German the Bible their only ground of belief, and word is a translation of the Latin ecclesia, permit it to be freely read and examined in which case it would be derived from into.—In a third sense, the word church küren, to elect, and imply the idea of the is sometimes used for the whole Christian elect people of God. community of a country, e. g., the French As it is the natural course of things that church, Italian church, &c.-In a fourth the different branches, powers, or, in gensense, this word signifies the building in eral, the component parts of every establishwhich Christians assemble for the worship ment, are at first confounded, and separated of God. The Christians of the 1st centu- only by degrees, with the progress of imry worshipped in private houses, or in the provement, and after long struggles, so it open air, in remote places, because they has been with the church and the state. were not acknowledged by the state, and The violent contentions which took place were often persecuted. It was not till the at first between the emperor of Germany, 3d century, that they could venture to give who considered himself emperor of Chrismore publicity to their service, and to tendom, and the pope, were repeated in build churches. Since the 4th century, many countries, and still continue in some. the churches have become large and mag- It would far exceed our limits to give even nificent edifices. Such were erected by a sketch of these disputes, and of the theoConstantine and, more particularly, by ries which have been advanced on the Theodosius and Justinian. Many heathen different sides respecting this question : temples, also, were changed into Christian we will only mention, that, in all Proteschurches. In the middle ages, many tant countries, the monarchs have usurped splendid edifices were erected for the per- the highest ecclesiastical power, without formance of divine service, which, in any support from history or Scripture. loftiness and grandeur, were never sur- Three equally untenable theories have passed. Some of the most famous been advanced to justify this assumption:churches at present are St. Peter's, at 1. the episcopal system, so called, according Rome; Notre Dame, at Paris ; St. Ste- to which the episcopal rights are said to phen's, at Vienna; the church of Isaac, at have been transferred to the sovereign by St. Petersburg; the minsters at Strasburg the reformation; 2. the territorial system, and Cologne; and St. Paul's church, in which maintains that the worldly ruler is, London. (See Cathedrals.) Excepting ipso facto, spiritual chief of the church the last mentioned edifice, Protestantism of his country ; 3. the collegial system, nas produced no very splendid church. which considers the members of a church n fact, the Protestants, in the construc- as a society, whose rights rest upon a con

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tract, by which a part of them has been CHURCH, Latin, or WESTERN. (See
conferred upon the sovereign. History Roman Catholic Church.)
and reason prove how unfounded these CHURCH, Roman Catholic. (See Ro-
theories are, which are properly to be con- man Catholic Church.)
sidered as defences of usurpation. The Church, FATHERS OF THE (patres ec-
United States of America are the only clesiæ); teachers and writers of the ancient
Christian country in which there is no church, who flourished after the time of
established religion; but, notwithstanding the apostles and apostolic fathers (the im.
all the advantages springing from this mediate disciples of the apostles), from the
state of things, it is not entirely free from 2d to the 6th century. This name is also
evils.—The revenue of the church is a sometimes given to the teachers and
subject of great importance in political writers of the following centuries, down to
economy. The following table, showing the schoolmen, who begin with the 12th
the annual amount of the income of the century. A large number of their writ-
clergy in all parts of the Christian world, ings have been preserved, and have been
is copied from the Catholic Miscellany. published by modern scholars. The
It will be perceived, that the revenue of knowledge of their lives and their works
the clergy of Great Britain, according to constitutes a particular science, called pa-
this statement, is greater, by £44,000 ster- tristics. The fathers of the church intro-
ling, than that of all the other Christian duced the Greek and Roman learning into
clergy in the known world ; while the Christian treatises, and many of them
number of hearers attending on their min- were as able as they were learned. Most
istry, compared with the aggregate num- of the earlier fathers of the church, be-
ber belonging to the Christian flocks in fore their conversion to Christianity, were
other nations, is as 1 to 32.

rhetoricians or advocates, which accounts

for several peculiarities, as well in their Amount. Hearers.

method of disputing as in their style. The French Catholic and Prot

object of their writings is to defend the estant churches, £1,050,000 30,000,000 Christian religion and the Christian comUnited States,

776,000 9,600,000 Spain, 1,000,000 11,000,000

munity, refute the Jews, pagans and herePortugal,

300,000 3,000,000

tics, explain the Holy Scriptures, set forth Hungary, Catholics, 220,000 3,000,000

the doctrines of their faith, and the rules Calvinists, 63,000 1,050,000 of their morality, also the history of Chris

Lutherans, 26,000 650,000 tianity and the Christian church, and imItaly,

776,000 19,391,000 part instruction to the people. The conAustria,

950,000 16,918,000 tents of these writings, therefore, are apolSwitzerland,

87,000 1,720,000 ogetic, exegetic, dogmatic, moral, historiPrussia,

527,000 10,563,000 cal, polemical, or ascetic. The fathers of German small states, 765,000 12,765,000 the church are divided into two chief Holland,

160,000 2,000,000

classes, Latin and Greek. The most celNetherlands,

105,000 3,000,000

ebrated Denmark, 119,000 1,700,000

among the Greek fathers are, Sweden,

238,000 3,371,000

Clement of Alexandria, the first who phiRussia, Greek church, 510,000 34,000,000 losophized on Christianity; Origen, dis

Cath. and Luth., 480,000 8,000,000 tinguished for his homilies and his apoloChristians in Turkey, 180,000 6,000,000 getic and exegetic writings; Eusebius,

dispersed elsewhere,

who wrote the first history of Christianity ; 520,000 21,000,000

Athanasius, who had a decided influence

upon the formation of the Christian dog£8,852,000 198,728,000 mas; and Chrysostom, the most admired

of the ancient Christian orators. The England, Wales, and Ireland, 8,896,000 6,400,000 most distinguished among the Latin fa

thers are, Tertullian, a writer of great Income of the established clergy of

originality; Augustine, a man of a pethe whole Chris8,852,000

culiar and vehement mind, the oracle of tian world beside,

the Western church; Ambrose, distin

guished as a Christian orator; and Jerome, clergy

a man of much learning, and particularly

happy in explaining the Holy Scriptures, Church, EASTERN. (See Greek Church.) whose efforts, however, contributed much CHURCH OF ENGLAND. (See England, to awaken in the West an admiration for Church of.)

the renunciation of the world and the CHURCH, GREEK. (See Greek Church.) celibacy of priests. The fathers of the

under their

Balance in favorereof, } £44,000

church are now very much studied by popes made under the influence of the the German Protestants, and many parts king of France seldom or never obtained of their works have been translated. We the assent of the Romans and Germans, do not hesitate to say that they are too antipopes were elected by the latter, and little studied in England, as well as in the the welfare of the church, as well as of the U. States, containing, as they do, great state, suffered by their mutual hostilities. stores of knowledge relating to the early The return of the popes to Rome was fahistory of Christianity, and elucidating its vorable to the aggrandizement of their character. The work of doctor Neander, power, although the German councils ofDenkwürdigkeiten aus der Geschichte des ten expressed themselves in bold and inChristenthums und des Christlichen Lebens dependent language. Julius II added (Berlin, 18256), in which great use has Bologna to the papal dominions in 1513, been made of the writings of the fathers, and Ancona in 1532. The Venetians affords abundant evidence of their value. were obliged to cede Ravenna. Ferrara

Church Music. (See Music, Sacred.) was wrested from Modena in 1598, and

CHURCH, STATES OF THE; the pope's Urbino was bequeathed to the papal chair, dominions in Italy. They originated with in 1626, by its last duke, Francis Maria, of the grant of Pepin, king of the Franks, in the house of Rovera. At the same time, 754, who bestowed on Stephen II, bishop the popes lost a great part of their tempoof Rome, some districts, which the Lom- ral and spiritual influence, to the diminubards, against whom Stephen II solicited tion of which the rapid progress of the Pepin's assistance, had taken from the reformation from the year 1517, greatly exarchate. Charlemagne confirmed this contributed. The wise administration of grant in 774, and, in return, received the Sixtus V restored internal order towards title of Roman emperor from Leo III, in the end of the 16th century ; but the ex800. The suspicious charters of Louis-le- travagance and family partialities of his Débonnaire, Otho I and Henry II, the successors created fresh disorder. Clemgenuineness of which the papal chamber- ent XIV was forced to abolish the order lain, Marino Marini, has lately (Rome, of the Jesuits, in 1773. Subsequently, 1822) endeavored to establish, are the only Naples renounced her feudal obligations proofs of these grants of Pepin and Charle- to the papal chair, and even the journey magne to the popes. The temporal pow- of Pius VI to Vienna, in 1782, could not er of the popes over the States of the prevent the great changes which Joseph II Church, or the dominion of St. Peter, is was making in the ecclesiastical affairs of founded on these documents, of which his kingdom. After the successes of the there only exists a copy, received of the French in Italy, the pope was forced, at the papal chamberlain Cancio, towards the peace of Tolentino, Feb. 13, 1797, to cede end of the 12th century. The wise policy Avignon to France, and Romagna, Bologna of the popes, in conferring favors on the and Ferrara to the Cisalpine republic. An Normans in Lower Italy, secured to them, insurrection in Rome against the French, in these vassals, stanch protectors of the Dec. 28, 1797, caused the occupation of holy see. The structure of the papal the city, Feb. 10, 1798, and the annexapower was fully completed in 1075, under tion of the States of the Church to the RoGregory VII. The crusades contributed man republic. Pius VI died in France. more to promote the views of the popes in The victories of the Russians and Austrithe commencement than in the sequel. ans in Italy favored the election of pope The dominions of Mathilda (q. v.) were Pius VII, March 14, 1800, who, under added to the States of the Church, and the protection of Austrian troops, took the popes maintained possession of them possession of Rome. By the concordat against all the claims of the German em- concluded, in 1801, with the first consul perors. The papal chair removed a dan- of the French republic, the pope again gerous neighbor belonging to the house lost a great part of his temporal power. of Hohenstaufen, by raising the house of In 1807, the holy father was urged to inAnjou to the throne of Naples, in the troduce the Code Napoléon, and to declare year 1265. The tyranny of the heads of war against England. He refused; and, on the church, added to their corrupt life, at the 3d of April, France was declared to be Jast provoked the Romans to opposition, at war with the pope, and the provinces and the popes were obliged to transfer of Ancona, Urbino, Macerata and Cametheir residence, from 1305 till 1376, torino were added to the kingdom of Italy. Avignon, which Clement VI bought of The possessions of the church beyond the Joanna, queen of Naples and countess of Apennines were all that remained to the Provence, in 1348. As the choice of the pope. (See the correspondence of Pius

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VII with Napoleon, in Staudlin's Historical the five ports, Rome, Cività Vecchis, Archives of the States of the Church, Ancio, Terracino and Ancona, of which 1 vol., 1815.) Feb. 2, 1808, a French 1052 belonged to the papa), and 2267 to corps of 8000 men entered Rome; the the other Italian states. The fair of Siniremainder of the papal states were added gaglia is much frequented. to France, and a pension of 2,000,000 of CHURCH, Benjamin, who distinguished francs settled on the pope, whose ecclesi- himself in the Indian wars of New Engastical power was to continue. The de- land, was born at Duxbury, Massachusetts, cree of May 17, 1809, at length put an end in 1639. He was one of the most active to the ecclesiastical state. The pope was and indefatigable opponents of the Indian detained in France until the events of king Philip, and was once very near losing 1814 again permitted him to take posses- his life, while in pursuit of him. He comsion of his states. (See Pius VII). The manded the party which killed Philip, in States of the Church (Slato della Chiesa) August, 1676. In 1704, the spirit of the 17,185 square miles, with 2,460,000 inhab- old warrior was roused by the burning of itants, occupying 90 towns, 212 market- Deerfield, and he immediately rode 70 miles places, and 3500 villages are situated in on horseback, to tender his services to govthe centre of Italy, between Lombardy, ernor Dudley. The offer being accepted, be Tuscany, Naples, and the Tuscan and undertook an expedition against the eastAdriatic seas. The Apennines (which ern shore of New England, and inflicted include the Somma, 6800 ft., and Velino, considerable injury upon the French and 7872 ft. high) traverse the country from Indians. The rupture of a blood vessel, N. S. É. The rivers are small, with occasioned by a fall from his horse, putan the exception of the Po (which touches the end to his life, Jan. 17, 1718, in the 78th northern boundary, and forms the marshes year of his age. He published a narrative of Commachio) and its branches. The of king Philips war, 1716; and left a most considerable is the Tiber, navigable character of great integrity and piety. from Perugia. Pope Leo XII (Genga) CHURCHILL, John, duke of Marlborough, reigned from 1823 till Feb. 15, 1829. a distinguished general and statesman, was Pius VIII (cardinal Castiglione) succeed- the son of sir Winston Churchill, and was ed him. The revenue is estimated at born at Ashe, in Devonshire, in 1650. He 12 millions, and the national debt at 200 received his education at home, under a millions of florins. There is a standing clergyman, from whom he derived little army of 9000 men. The navy consists of instruction, but imbibed a strong attach2 frigates and a few small vessels. The ment for the church of England. At the emperor of Austria has the right to garri- age of 12, he was taken to court, and son the citadel of Ferrara. Internal tran- became page to the duke of York, and, at quillity is not yet restored. In 1816, 16, received from him a pair of colors. the States of the Church, with the excep- The first engagement at which he was tion of Rome, Tivoli and Subiaco, which present was the siege of Tangier, which are under the immediate administration of seems to have decided him in his choice the pope, were divided into 17 delegations of a profession. On his return, he rewhich, when under the government of mained for some time about the court, cardinals, are called legations. Protes- and, being very handsome, was a great tants, Greeks and Jews are tolerated. The favorite with the ladies there. The religious orders and the Jesuits have been king's mistress, the duchess of Cleveland, reëstablished, as was also, in 1826, the in particular, was much attached to him, university of Urbino. This fertile coun- and presented him with £5,000, with try is not very well governed. It pro- which he purchased a life annuity. In duces all kinds of corn, the finest fruits, 1672, he accompanied the duke of Monsuch as oranges, lemons, figs, dates, &c.; mouth, as captain of grenadiers, when the a great quantity of oil, good wines, and duke went with a body of auxiliaries to the mulberries, &c. The hills are covered continent, to assist the French against the with thick forests; the finest marble is Dutch. He there fought under the great found here; and there are, likewise, traces Turenne, with whom he went by the of vario metals ; but these advantages name of the handsome Englishman. At are not sufficiently estimated. Mining is the siege of Maestricht, he distinguished not known; agriculture is neglected;

but himself so highly as to obtain the public the breeding of cattle and sheep is more thanks of the king of France. On his recarefully attended to. Manufactures are turn to England, he was made lieutenantlimited to Rome, Bologna, Ancona and colonel; also gentleman of the bed-chamNorcia. In 1824, 3030 vessels entered her and master of the robes to the duke

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