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of York, whom, in 1679, he accompanied kept away from court; and, aided by his to the Netherlands, and afterwards, in countess, exerted great influence over the 1680, to Scotland, where he was much princess Anne, which circumstance, pernoticed by those who wished to pay their haps, prevented his intrigues from being court to the duke. In 1680, he had a strictly examined. On the death of queen regiment of dragoons presented to him, Mary, he was made a privy counsellor, and and married miss Sarah Jennings, a lady appointed governor to the young duke of of great beauty and good family, an at- Gloucester; and, in 1700, was created by tendant upon the princess, afterwards king William commander-in-chief of the queen, Anne. By this union he materially English forces in Holland, and also ambasstrengthened his interest at court, his lady sador plenipotentiary to the States-Genproving a valuable helpmate in all his eral. Still greater honors awaited him on schemes for advancement. In 1682, he the accession of queen Anne, in 1702, was shipwrecked, with the duke of York, when he was created captain-general of in their passage to Scotland; on which all the forces at home and abroad, and event he received a great proof of the sent plenipotentiary to the Hague, where duke's regard, who used every effort to he was also made captain-general by the save him, while many persons of quality States. In the campaign of the same perished. In the same year, through the year, he took several strong towns, among interest of his master, he obtained the title which was Liege, for which he received of baron of Eyemouth, and a colonelcy in the thanks of both houses, and was created the guards. On the accession of James duke of Marlborough, with a pension II, he was sent ambassador to France, and, granted, by the queen, for his life; and, soon after his return, was created baron moreover, carried a motion for the augChurchill of Sundridge, and, the same mentation of the army abroad, by taking year, suppressed the rebellion of the duke 10,000 foreign soldiers into British pay. of Monmouth. During the remainder of The famous battle of Hochstädt, or Blenthis reign, he acted with great prudence heim, was fought on the 2d of August, and a strict attention to his own interest, 1704, between the allied army, comand, on the arrival of the prince of Orange, manded by the duke of Marlborough and joined him at Axminster, with the duke prince Eugene, and the French and Baof Grafton, and some other officers. His varians, headed by marshal Tallard and conduct in this affair has been severely the elector of Bavaria. The victory was censured as ungrateful; but his own apol- complete; Tallard was taken prisoner, ogy (and there is no reason to dispute it) and the electorate of Bavaria became the was his attachment to the Protestant prize of the conquerors. The nation tescause, and the dictates of his conscience. tified its gratitude to the duke by the gifts On the accession of William and Mary, of the honor of Woodstock and hundred of in 1689, he was rewarded for his zeal in Wotton, and erected a palace for him, one their cause by the earldom of Marlborough, of the finest seats in the kingdom. Medand appointed commander-in-chief of the als were struck in honor of the event, English army in the Low Countries. The which Addison also celebrated in his following year, he served in Ireland, where poem of the Campaign. After the next he reduced Cork, and other places. In campaign, which was inactive, he visited 1692, he experienced a great reverse in his the courts of Berlin, Hanover and Venice, sudden dismissal from all his employ- and his conciliating manners, great pruments, followed by his commitment to the dence, and perfect

command of himself, Tower on the charge of high treason. He contributed to render him as successful in soon obtained his release; but the evi- his negotiations as in the field. The new dence against him was never legally pro- emperor, Joseph, invested him with the duced, and the author of the accusations, title of prince of the empire, which was then a prisoner, being convicted of perju- accompanied by a present of the princiry, he was entirely acquitted. By the pality of Mindelheim. On the victory of publication of Mr. Macpherson's state-pa- Ramillies, a bill was passed to settle his pers, however, it appears that the suspi- honors upon the male and female issue cions were not altogether without founda- of his daughters. He next visited the tion, and that a correspondence probably German courts in the alliance, and waited existed between the earl of Marlborough upon Charles XII of Sweden, then in Saxoand lord Godolphin, having for its object ny. His reception was cold and reserved, the restoration of the banished king. How- yet he had sufficient penetration to perever this may have been, during the life ceive that the king would not interfere of queen Mary, the earl seems to have with the allied powers. In the campaign


of 1707, his antagonist was the famous rather a man of solid sense than of genius, duke de Vendôme, over whom he gained and was gifted with great coolness and no advantage. He was also disappointed self-possession. He was not even modin his endeavors to rouse the confederacy erately conversant in literature, but so well into more activity. On his return to Eng- versed in all courtly arts, that he always land, he found that the duchess was out of acquitted himself with honor in the delifavor with the queen ; and though he was cate negotiations in which he was emreceived with the usual attentions, yet it ployed. His proficiency in the graces is was evident his popularity at court was said by lord Chesterfield to have been the on the decline. In 1708, in conjunction chief cause of these successes. But his with prince Eugene, he gained the battle fame rests chiefly upon his military talents, of Oudenard, and pushed the victory so of which he gave most illustrious proofs. far, that the French king entered into a As regards his morals, he seems to have negotiation for peace, which was of no been much guided by interest; and it does effect. In 1709, he defeated marshal not appear that he ever ceased intriguing Villars at Malplaquet ; but this action was with the Stuart family, whose restoration attended with great slaughter on both seemed at one time far from improbable. sides, the allies losing 18,000 men, which Neither does his connexion with the loss was but ill repaid by the capture of whigs appear to have been sincere, for, Mons. The prevalence of the tories in according to Macpherson, he held a corEngland rendered the French war unpop- respondence with lord Bolingbroke, hopular, and the preaching and prosecution ing to be restored to power through the of Sacheverel created a sensation unfa- influence of the tory ministry. His avavorable to its continuance. On the next rice was equally notorious with his ambivisit of the duke to England, he found tion; yet it does not appear that he ever that the duchess, by her great arrogance, made an unjust use of his ascendency. had so disgusted the queen, that a total His political enemy, the celebrated earl of breach had ensued ; and though he was Peterborough, pronounced his eulogy in still received with public honors, he could these words: “He was so great a man by no means boast of his former influence. that I have forgotten his faults”—a Early in 1710, he returned to the army, tence which, upon the whole, tolerably and, with prince Eugene, gained another well conveys the judgment of posterity. victory over Villars, and took the towns His duchess has been almost equally celeof Douay, Aire and St. Venant. During brated for her boundless ambition and avahis absence, a new ministry was chosen, rice. She died in 1744, having amassed composed of men hostile to him and his immense riches. She presented Mr. views, and, on his return, he was conse- Hooke with £5,000 to write a book, entitled quently expected to resign; but this he An Account of the Conduct of the Dowager would not do, and, dissembling his indig- Duchess of Marlborough, and bequeathed nation, again repaired to the field, and sig- £500 to Mallet to write the life of the nalized himself by the capture of Bou- duke! In 1788, a selection of curious chain. Finding that he would not resign papers was published by lord Hailes, unhis command, it was taken from him; der the title of The Opinions of Sarah and a prosecution was even commenced Duchess of Marlborough.

Marlborough. The duchess against him for applying the public mon- was the Atossa in Pope's Satire on Woey to private purposes. Disgusted by this men. gross ingratitude, he repaired to the Low CHURCHILL, Charles, a poet and satirist Countries, where he was received with of great temporary fame, was the son of the greatest honor. He returned a short the curate of St. John's, Westminster, in time before the queen's death, and, on the which parish he was born in 1731. He was accession of George I, was restored to educated at Westminster school, but made favor, and reinstated in the supreme mili- so bad a use of his time, that he was tary command. The last public transac- refused admission at the university of tion, in which he took a part, was the de- Oxford, from his want of classical knowlfeat of the rebellion, in 1715, in which his edge. He accordingly returned to school, advice was taken. Retiring from all pub- but soon closed his education by an imlic employments, his mental faculties prudent marriage with a young lady in gradually decayed, and, falling into second the neighborhood. He, however, studchildhood, he died at Windsor Lodge, ied in private, and was at length admitted in 1722, in the 73d year of his age, into holy orders by the bishop of London, leaving four daughters, who married into and received a Welsh curacy of £30 å families of the first distinction. He was year. In order to increase this scanty income, he engaged in the sale of cider, but, profession, he cultivated an acquaintance being little adapted for trade, soon became with Mr. Wilkes, and employed his pen insolvent. Returning to London, on the assiduously in the cause of opposition, and death of his father, he obtained his curacy; for his own emolument. Besides the but, owing to the smallness of his income, works already mentioned, he published, and, most likely, to his fondness for theat- within three or four years, an Epistle to rical amusements and the company of the Hogarth, the Conference, the Duellist, the wits of the day, he was soon overwhelmed Author, Gotham, the Candidate, the Times, with debt. A composition with his credi- Independence, and the Journey. Most of tors being effected by the humane media- these pieces contain detached pictures, tion of doctor Lloyd, the second master of which display a vigorous fancy and forciWestininster school, he began to think of ble sentiments, expressed with great occaseriously exerting the talents which he sional energy: In versification, Churchill was conscious that he possessed. Under avowedly imitated Dryden; and when he the title of the Rosciad, a poem, published writes with care, he well exemplifies his first in March, 1761, without a name, he appreciation of his model; but he wrote examined the excellences and defects of too hastily not to injure his composition the actors in the two houses in London, by prosaic lines, and he frequently passed with equal spirit, judgment and vivacity. off his carelessness for design. Towards The language and versification too, al- the end of the year 1764, he was seized though sometimes careless and unequal, with a fever, and died on the 4th of Novemwere far superior to the ordinary strain of ber, the same year, at the age of 34. current poetry in strength and energy, CHURCH-YARD. (See Burying-Places and the entire production bore the stamp and Cemetery.) of no common talents. The celebrity of CHYLE. (See Chyme.) this poem was very great, and the players CHYME, in animal economy. In the very weakly increased it by the impatience process of digestion, the food is subjected with which they resented its censures. to a temperature usually above 90° of Pamphlets abounded on both sides of the Fahrenheit. It is mixed with the gastric question; and the author justified himself juice, a liquor secreted by the glands of in a new satire, entitled the Apology, in the stomach, and is made to undergo a which the profession of a player was moderate and alternate pressure, by the treated with humorous contempt. These contraction of the stomach itself. It is works made him many enemies, for which thus converted into a soft, uniform mass, he cared very little, as they brought him the of a grayish color, in which the previous far more dangerous intimacy and applause texture or nature of the aliment can be no of the men of wit and pleasure about longer distinguished. The chyme, as this the town. A course of dissipation and pulpy mass into which the food in the intemperance followed, which excited stomach is resolved is termed, passes by much animadversion, and elicited from the pylorus into the intestinal canal, where him his next satire, entitled Night. The it is mixed with the pancreatic juice and Cock-lane imposture, also, formed a topic the bile, and is still exposed to the same for his muse, and he hesitated not to sati- temperature and alternating pressure. The rize doctor Johnson, in the piece entitled thinner parts of it are absorbed by the the Ghost. He next fell in with the na- slender tubes termed the lacteals. The tional ill humor against the Scotch, which liquor thus absorbed is of a white color: originated in the political occurrences of it passes through the glands of the mesenthe commencement of the reign of George tery, and is at length conveyed by the thoIII, by his Prophecy of Famine, a Scotch racic duct into the blood. This part of the pastoral, being a most acrimonious, yet process is termed chylification, and the strongly-drawn caricature of Scottish dis- white liquor thus formed, chyle. It is an advantages. This poem was received with opaque, milky fluid, mild to the taste. By great avidity, and he immediately took that standing for some time, one part of it corank as a political satirist, which he long agulates; another portion is coagulated maintained, at the expense of candor and by heat. The chyle, after mixing with the decorum, and to the deterioration of both lymph conveyed by the absorbent vessels, his poetical and moral character. Of the is received into the blood, which has relatter, indeed, he now became utterly care- turned from the extreme vessels, before less; and, dropping the clerical habit, he this passes to the heart. All traces of it parted from his wife, and even distin- are very soon lost in the blood, as it mixes guished himself in the fashionable art of perfectly with that fluid. It is probable, seduction. Being now a party writer by however, that its nature is not immediately

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completely altered. The blood passing ture had not been more favorable to him from the heart is conveyed to the lungs, than to his father; but his intelligence and where it circulates over a very extensive vivacity in his performances compensated surface presented to the atmospheric air, for his deficiencies, and he would have with the intervention of a very thin mem- been successful on the stage if his extravbrane, which does not prevent their mu- agance had not continually involved him tual action. During this circulation, the in difficulties. He was engaged, in 1757, blood loses a considerable quantity of to play at a Dublin theatre, but was shipcarbon, part of which, it is probable, is wrecked on his passage, and drowned. derived from the imperfectly assimilated The Biography of English and Irish Pochyle, as this, originating in part from ets, which appeared under his name, was vegetable matter, must contain carbon in from the pen of Robert Shiels, a Scotchlarger proportion than even the blood man, who purchased, for 10 guineas, the itself.

right of prefixing to the work the name CIBBER, Colley, a dramatic writer and of Cibber, then in prison for debt.—Cibactor, born in London, 1671, served under ber's wife, Susanna Maria, born 1716, was the duke of Devonshire, in the revolution one of the best actresses on the English which placed the prince of Orange on the stage. She was sister of the celebrated throne, and then made his appearance at doctor Arne (composer of Rule Britannia), Drury-lane theatre. He was not at first who taught her music, and introduced her, very successful; but, at length, the talent in one of his operas, at the Haymarket which he displayed in the character of theatre. In 1734, she married TheophiFondlewife, in the Old Bachelor of lus Cibber, but was soon after separated Congreve, brought him into notice. In from him. She subsequently made her 1695, appeared his first comedy, Love's appearance in tragedy. Her beauty and last Shift, which met with great success. her talents gained her universal admiraIn this piece, he played the part of tion. She died in 1766. Novelty, a fashionable fop. This charac- CIBORIUM; originally, a drinking-vessel ter is found in most of his pieces, and in made from an Egyptian plant. In the the representation of it he was likewise Roman church, it is the vessel in which distinguished. His dramatic celebrity is the consecrated host (the venerabile) is founded chiefly on the Careless Hus- preserved. band, which even obtained the approba- Cicada. (See Grasshopper.) tion of his declared enemy, Pope. This CICERO, Marcus Tullius. This celepiece is, indeed, without novelty in the brated Roman was born in the year of characters, and without invention in the Rome 647 (106 B. C.), at Arpinum. His plot, but it is a good picture of the man- family belonged to the order of equites, ners and follies of the time. His comedy but had always kept themselves aloof the Nonjuror, an imitation of Tartuffe, from public business and office. His faadapted to English manners, appeared in ther, who lived in retirement, devoted to 1717, and was directed against the Jacob- science, was the friend of the first citizens ites. It was very successful, and procur- of the republic. Amongst this number ed him a pension from the court, but was the celebrated orator Crassus, who drew upon him many enemies, whose himself attended to the education of the number he increased by his conduct as young Cicero and his brother Quintus, director of Drury-lane theatre, from 1711. selected teachers for them, and directed His appointment as poet-laureate, 1730, their studies. The perusal of the Greek gave full play to the raillery of his ene- authors, together with poetry, oratory and mies. Cibber had the good sense to join philosophy, occupied the first years of in the laugh against his own verses, and Cicero's youth. He wrote a great deal in thus to disarm them. Pope, however, Greek. His versification was good, but his did not cease to ridicule him on every op- poetical merits, on the whole, only modeportunity. In 1750, he quitted the theatre, rate. His destination was, to be the first and published the Apology for the Life of orator of Rome. In his youth, he made Colley Cibber, &c., written with spirit and one campaign under Sylla, in the Marsic candor, and containing many entertaining war. After his return, he availed himself anecdotes and judicious remarks. He of the instruction of the academician Phidied in 1757.

lo, and of the celebrated orator Molo, CIBBER, Theophilus, son of the subject and employed several years in acquiring of the preceding article, was born in 1703, the knowledge requisite for an orator. and embraced the profession of an actor. He witnessed the barbarities of Marius With respect to personal appearance, na- and Cinna, and the proscriptions of Sylla,

after which the exhausted, blood-stained exile. After this suit, Cicero was elected republic remained undisturbed under the to the office of edile. Though possessed yoke of its dictator. Cicero, at that time of only a moderate fortune, he managed, 26 years old, endowed with knowledge by well-timed liberality, to gain the afand genius, appeared before the tribunals, fections of the people whilst he held this at first in civil suits, afterwards in a crim- office. But, for the execution of his plans, inal process, in which he defended Ros- he was likewise in need of the friendship cius Amerinus, who was accused of par- of the great, to obtain which he joined the ricide by Chrysogonus, a freedman of party of Pompey, the head of the nobility Sylla. He conducted this defence with and the first citizens of Rome. 'He becourage, confuted the accusers, and came his panegyrist and most zealous obliged the judges to acquit the accused. adherent. Catiline at that time began to After this brilliant display, he remained a plan his conspiracy against the republic. year in Rome, and undertook another suit. He was accused of extortion in his govHis conduct, in both instances, must have ernment of Africa, and Cicero was on the displeased the dictator. But his debilitat- point of undertaking his defence, when ed health obliged him to travel; and he they became rivals, being both candidates went to Athens, which was still the centre for the consulship. Cicero's merit preof science. Here he resided in the house vailed over Catiline's intrigues and the of an academician, was visited by the envy of his enemies. He was chosen philosophers of all the schools, and profit- consul unanimously; and now commences ed by the instruction of the masters of the most splendid period of his political oratory. Thus he passed six months with life. He succeeded in defeating the conhis friend Atticus, in the enjoyment of spiracy of Catiline. (q.v.) At the same time, literary pursuits. His initiation into the he conducted a private suit, in a masterly mysteries of Eleusis is supposed to have speech defending Murena, consul elect for taken place about this time. He also the ensuing year, against the accusations undertook a journey to Asia, and remain- of the Stoic Cato. After Catiline's fall, ed some time at Rhodes, where he like- the Romans greeted Cicero as the father wise visited the most distinguished ora- of his country. But a factious tribune tors, and partook in their exercises. On would not consent to his rendering an achis return to Rome, his displays of el- count of his administration; and, on retiroquence proved the value of his Grecian ing from the consulate, Cicero was only instruction. Among others, he defended able to pronounce the celebrated oath, “I the celebrated actor Roscius, his friend, swear that I have saved the republic." and master in the art of elocution. At Cæsar was always his opponent, and last, at the age of 30, he engaged in public Pompey feared a citizen who loved liberbusiness. He became questor. of Sicily, ty too much to be favorable to the triumduring the prevalence of a great scarcity virs. Cicero saw his credit gradually deat Rome, and managed to convey a large creasing, and even his safety threatened. quantity of corn from thence to the capi- He therefore occupied himself more than tal, though it was difficult for him. so to ever with science, wrote the history of his do without exciting the displeasure of consulate, in Greek, and composed a the Sicilians. He afterwards returned to Latin poem on the same subject, in three Rome, and appeared as an orator, defend- books. At last the storm broke out. Cloing the causes of private individuals, mere- dius, Cicero's enemy, caused a law to be ly for the sake of fame. It was an honor- renewed, declaring every one guilty of able day for Cicero, when the ambassadors treason, who commanded the execution of from Sicily appeared before him, with a Roman citizen before the people had the request that he would conduct their condemned him. The illustrious ex-consuit against their governor Verres. He sul put on mourning, and appeared, acshowed himself worthy of the confidence companied by the equites and many young of an oppressed people, and appeared patricians, demanding the protection of against this powerful robber, after having the people. Clodius, at the head of armed himself collected proofs of his crimes in adherents, insulted them repeatedly, and Sicily. He was opposed by the celebrat- ventured even to besiege the senate. Cied Hortensius. The crimes of Verres are cero, upon this, went into voluntary exile, painted in the liveliest colors in his im- travelled through Italy, and ultimately mortal speeches. Seven are preserved, took refuge in Thessalonica, with Plancus. but only two of them were delivered. Clodius, in the mean time, procured new Hortensius was struck dumb by the force decrees, in consequence of which Cicero's of truth, and Verres went into voluntary country-seats were torn down, and a tem.

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