Imatges de pÓgina
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ments, comprised 16,337 square miles and themselves from the superintendence of
35 millions of inhabitants. The legisla- the bishops, and formed a kind of spirit-
tive body, composed of a council of 80 ual republic. A high council, consisting
elders, together with another council of of the abbot of Citeaux as superior, the
160 members, and the directory (directorio abbots of Clairvaux, La Ferte, Pontigni
um), held their sessions in Milan. The and Morimond, all in France, and 20
army (French troops in the pay of the other definitores, governed the body, un-
republic) amounted to 20,000 men. In der the immediate superintendence of the
March, 1798, it was more closely con- pope. In France, they called themselves,
nected with France by a defensive and Bernardines, in honor of St. Bernard.
offensive alliance, and a commercial treaty. Among the fraternities emanating from
On the renewal of the war between Aus- them, the most remarkable are, the Bare-
tria and France, in March, 1799, it was footed monks, or Feuillans (q. v.), and the
disunited, for a short time, by the suc- nuns of Portroyal (q. v.), in France, the
cesses of the Austrians and Russians, but Recollets, reformed Cistercians, in Spain,
soon restored by Bonaparte's victory at and the monks of La Trappe (see Trap-
Marengo (June 14, 1800). The republic pists). Riches and indolence brought on
then received a deliberative body (con- the decline of this order. Many of their
sulta) of 50, and an executive council convents ceased to exist before the refor-
(governo) of 9 members. On the 6th of mation, still more afterwards, partly by
September, it was enlarged by the addi- gradual decay, partly by falling into other
tion of the Novarese and Tortonese, and, hands. The general fate of the religious
at the peace of Lunéville (Feb. 9, 1801), orders, during the period of the French
was again acknowledged by Austria. revolution, reduced the Cistercians to a
Jan. 25, 1802, it received the name of the few convents in Spain, Poland, the Aus-
Italian republic, and elected Bonaparte trian dominions, and the Saxon part of
president, and Francis Melzi d'Erile vice- Upper Lusatia. They wear white robes,
president. It was then divided into 13 with black scapularies.
departments; but, in 1805 (March 17), a CITADEL, or CITTADEL (a diminutive
deputation of the Italian republic confer- of the Italian città, city ; signifying little
red on the French emperor the dignity of city), in fortification; a kind of fort, con-
king of Italy (see Italy), after which Na- sisting of four, five or six sides, with bas-
poleon was styled empereur des Français tions, commonly joined to towns, and
et roi d'Italie.

sometimes erected on commanding emiCISPADANE REPUBLIC. (See Cisalpine nences within them. It is distinguished Republic.)

from a castle by having bastions. ČISPLATANA, with Monte-Video. (See Citric Acid (acidum citricum) exists, in Paraguay, and Plata, Republic of) variable proportions, in the lemon, orange,

CISRHENISH REPUBLIC. Several towns and the red acid fruits. This acid is white, on the Rhine, particularly Cologne, Aix- crystallizes in rhomboidal prisms, unalterla-Chapelle and Bonn, at the time when able in the air, inodorous, of a very acid so many republics were created, declared taste. Specific gravity, 1.034. Accordthemselves independent, under French ing to Messrs. Gay-Lussac and Thénard, protection, and took the title of Cisrhen- it is composed of carbon, 33.81, oxygen, ish republic, in September, 1797. But at 59.859, and hydrogen, 6.330. Heated, it the peace of Campo-Forinio. (Oct. 17, is decomposed, and is partly changed into 1797), the left bank of the Rhine, includ- a new acid, called pyro-citric. It is very ing the Cisrhenish republic, was ceded to soluble in boiling water, and in threeFrance, by a secret article, and the con- fourths of its weight of cold water. Alfederation bearing this name is, in conse- cohol dissolves a smaller proportion. The quence, hardly known.

aqueous solution, concentrated in a small CISTERCIANS; a religious order, which degree, is easily altered on exposure to the takes its name from its original convent, air. It is obtained by saturating the lemCiteaux, not far from Dijon, where the on juice with pulverized chalk, and treatsociety w formed, in 1099. Through ing the insoluble citrate which is formed, the exertions of St. Bernard de Clairvaux by diluted sulphuric acid. It is employ(q. v.), it had increased so much, 100 ed instead of lemon juice for making years after its origin, as to embrace 800 lemonade, and it acts then like the other rich abbeys, in different countries of Eu- refrigerant medicines. In large doses, and rope. The Cistercians dedicated them- concentrated, it might produce serious acselves to a contemplative life. Their rule cidents, on account of its caustic action. was severe. They succeeded in freeing CITRON. The citron, lime and lemon


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are different varieties of the fruit of a evaporated, by a gentle heat, to the consmall evergreen shrub, the original or pa- sistence of a thick extract. Sometimes it rent stock of which (citrus medica) was is crystallized into a white and acid salt; imported_from Asia into the southern but what is sold in the shops under the parts of Europe. The citron is oblong, name of essential salt of lemons, for takwith a very thick rind; the lemon is ob- ing out ink-stains and iron-mould-spots long, with a small lump or protuberance from linen, is only a preparation from the at the end; and the lime has no protuber- juice of sorel. The external part of the ance, has a very thin sind, and is about rind has a grateful aromatic and bitter the size of a small egg. These are the taste, which renders it useful in cookery. principal marks of difference betwixt these When dried, it is considered a good stofruits, but they are not quite constant. machic, promotes the appetite, and is othThe lemon shrub has large and slightly, erwise serviceable as a medicine. It is indented shining leaves, of somewhat oval often candied and made into a sweetmeat, shape, but pointed, and on the footstalks under the name of lemon chips. In distilof the leaves there is no remarkable ap- lation, it yields a light and almost colorless pendage. The flowers are large and oil, which, in smell, is nearly as agreeable white, but purplish on the outside of the as the fresh peel, and is frequently empetals. It is generally supposed that ployed as a perfume. Lemons are somethe citron-tree was first introduced from times preserved in sirup. Small ones, Assyria and Media into Greece, and with thick rinds, are converted into a thence into the southern parts of Eu- grateful pickle. Marmalade and sirup are rope, where it is now cultivated to con- also made of them. For the purpose of siderable extent. It is also raised in the keeping the fruit, it is recommended that islands of the West Indies. The fruit, a fine pack-thread, about a quarter of a partaking of the same quality as the lem- yard long, should be run through the proon, with the exception of being somewhat tuberance at the end of the lemon. The less acid, is seldom eaten raw, but, pre- ends of the string are to be tied together, served in sugar, as a sweetmeat, is much and suspended on a hook, in an airy situused by confectioners and others. It is ation, in such a manner that the lemon also occasionally employed in medicine. may hang perfectly free and detached.The lemon is a native of Upper Asia, The cultivation of the lime is much atfrom whence, like the citron, it was tended to in several parts of America and brought into Greece, and afterwards the West Indies. Its juice affords a more transplanted into Italy. The juice, which grateful acid than that of the lemon. is one of the sharpest and most agree- CITTÀ, in geography; the Italian word able of all acids, is used in cookery, con- for city, which is used in many proper fectionary, medicine, and various other names of cities, as Città Castellana, Città ways. By calico-printers, it is very ex- Ducale, Città Nuova, &c. tensively employed, as a discharger of City, in history. Mankind have been color, to produce, with more clearness twice indebted for civilization and liberty and effect, the white-figured part of color- to cities. With them civilization and poed patterns dyed with colors formed from litical institutions began, and in them were iron. The juice is procured by simply developed the principles of democracy or squeezing the fruit, and straining it of equal rights in the middle ages. The through linen or any loose filter; and in origin of cities belongs to the earliest periSicily and other parts of the Mediterrane- od of history. According to Moses, Niman, it forms an important article of com- rod built three, among which Babylon merce. Being one of the most valuable was the most important. The Jews beremedies for the scurvy with which we lieve, though without foundation, that are acquainted, it generally constitutes Shem erected the first city after the delpart of the sea-stores of ships that are des- uge. At the commencement of society, tined for long voyages. Several different the form of government was patriarchal. modes have been recommended for the The ruler was the head of the family or preserving of lemon-juice. One of these clan. Relationship, the innate wish of is, to put it into bottles with a small quan- men to live in society, and, more, perhaps, tity of oil, which, floating on the surface, than both these causes, the necessity of prevents the immediate contact of the air, providing means of defence against more and retards the decomposition of the acid, powerful clans, brought together separate though the original fresh taste soon gives families into one spot. The fertility of place to one which is less grateful. In the East, also, was an inducement to men the East Indies, lemon-juice is sometimes to give up the rambling life of nomades, and to form permanent settlements. many, having done the same long before These settlers began to barter with those in Gaul, Spain, Africa, &c. In Switzertribes who continued to wander with land, they first erected cities about A. D. their herds from place to place. Thus 70, which, however, were mostly laid cities sprung up. These were soon sur- waste by the Alemanni, and subsequently rounded with walls, to prevent the in- rebuilt under the government of the roads of the wandering tribes. The bond Franks (A. D. 496). The Germans, acof connexion between their inhabitants customed to a wild, rambling life, did not thus became closer, and their organization show any disposition to live in cities, until more complete. As by degrees the chiefs Charlemagne labored to collect them toof these family-states died away, the citi- gether in settled abodes, from his desire zens began to elect the most able or most to civilize them. Henry I distinguished popular men for magistrates, without re- himself particularly in this way, and, on spect to birth or descent. Thus polit- this account, has been called, by some, ical institutions began to assume a sys- Henry the City-builder (der Städteerbauer). tematic character. The earliest form of He gave the cities great privileges, in orgovernment succeeding the patriarchal der to induce his subjects to live in them, state was probably monarchical. In this, and thus laid the foundation of that power, the religious, paternal and political au- which, at a future period, contributed thority remained rudely mingled. The most to break down the feudal system. In authority of the king was weak, his con- many cities, imperial castles were erected nexion with the different parts of his do- to protect the inhabitants, and the insupminions imperfect, and the progress of portable oppressions and even cruelties civilization was promoted almost solely by exercised by the feudal lords upon their the growth of the cities. These gave rise peasants, or by the wandering knights and to the division of labor, the refinements robbers, drove many people into the cities. of social intercourse, the developement of The attacks of the neighboring lords gave laws caused by the conflicting interests of firmness to their union, and compelled many people living close together, the them to cultivate their resources. Comidea of equality of rights, the diminution merce and the various arts and trades of awe for a distant monarch, the growth were soon cultivated within their walls, of patriotism, springing from the sense of and their wealth and respectability inadvantages enjoyed, and the exertions ne- creased. They soon became sensible of cessary to maintain them. These were the want of a better system of laws and the salutary consequences of the establish- political administration than prevailed ment of cities. Under the mild sky of around them, and the principle of equal Asia, Africa, Greece and Italy, cities were rights and laws was quickly developed. built first, and in the greatest number.

One of the most important remnants, if The Phoenicians and Egyptians particu- not the most important, of the great fabric larly distinguished themselves by the erec- of ancient civilization, was the cities of tion of cities, which soon attained a high Italy. What the world would have bedegree of wealth, and consequently of come without them is not to be calculated. civilization. The Egyptians considered In spite of their bloody contests with each their city Diospolis Thebes) older than other, and the vices to which these gave any of the Greek cities, and Pliny says rise, they must be considered as having that Cecropia (erected in Attica by Ce- lighted the torch of modern civilization. crops, 1582 B. C., and afterwards called It was not the monarchies, it was not the Athens) was the oldest city of Greece. courts of the great princes, it was the citHeeren justly remarks, that the rise of ies of Northern Italy, which opened the cities was the most important source of way for the progress of improvement; and the republicanism of antiquity. This is the petty princes of Italy caught from particularly true of Greece. In fact, cities them the spirit which prompted their efare, by their very nature, of a republican forts to promote it. Under the reign of tendency. Several confederations of cities Conrad III (1138—52), the cities of Lom existed in the ancient world; for instance, bardy, and particularly Milan, which stood the Phænician, consisting of the cities of at their head, had acquired a high degree Tyre, Sidon, &c., and the Achæan league, of wealth and power, and had formed formed by the most important cities of themselves into a confederation. The Greece, in order to strengthen themselves struggles between the emperors and these against the power of Macedon. Under cities form one of the most important Augustus and his successors, the Romans portions of the history of the German embegan to establish colonial cities in Ger- pire and of Italy. Frederic I in vain


demolished the powerful city of Milan. Savigny, Schott, and others, have written It was soon rebuilt, and the cities of Lom- on this interesting subject. bardy, in alliance with the pope, obliged Cities, considered in regard to politics, the emperor to conclude with them a very cities, as we have already said, naturally disadvantageous peace at Constance. Two develope the democratic principle, and, other confederations of cities, highly im- on this and several other accounts, are to portant, were formed during the interreg. be considered among the firmest supports num of the German empire, between 1256 of liberty. Well-organized municipal inand 1272. One of them was the power- stitutions, in which the government is in ful Hansa, or Hanseatic league (9.v.); the the hands of the citizens, afford continother, the confederacy of the High Ger- ual nourishment to the spirit of freedom man and Rhenish cities, from the foot of throughout a country, and, in fact, are the Alps to the mouth of the Mayne, estab- more important, in this point of view, lished by Walpode of Mentz, in 1255. A than the mere possession of legislative similar confederacy, and a very important privileges. Wise nations, therefore, have one, was that of the Suabian cities, insti- bestowed the greatest attention on the tuted in 1488, to repel the outrages of the establishment of free, well-organized mufeudal lords and knights. By degrees, nicipalities, while others have neglected the cities acquired, in the different coun- this, in their zeal to secure the right of tries of Europe, the right of representa- representation to the people at large. The tion in the legislative bodies; and wealth, importance of cities, in this respect, makes industry, knowledge and equal laws, it very difficult, in a constitutional monspread from them through Europe. But archy, to combine the necessary liberty of the cities of Lombardy, though still flour- municipalities with the prerogatives of the ishing and wealthy, had fallen, for the monarchs. In France, this has been a most part, under the rule of single fami- point of contest and legislation ever since lies; their republican governments van- the establishment of the charter. ished, and their confederation was dis- Medical Statistics of Cities. [The folsolved. The associations of German lowing account of the comparative morcities experienced a similar fate. By the tality in large European cities is given peace of Westphalia, the princes of the in the October number of the MedicoGerman empire were declared sovereign Chirurgical Review, London, 1829.J. It is powers, and the more their authority in- well known, that, in' any given country, creased, the more did the relative weight the deaths in a city are more numerous of the cities diminish. These had for- than those in the rural districts. This merly suffered from the oppressions of difference is principally felt in the first the feudal lords. They were now the 5 years of life, when many more die in victims of the policy of the neighboring London than in the country. From 5 princes, whom envy often led to adopt years of age to 20, the deaths in London the most unwarrantable measures against are fewer. Between 20 and 50, many the cities, many of which had lost their more die in London, on account of the independence before Napoleon dissolv- large annual influx from the country. In ed the German empire. He took away all cities, a large portion of disease and the privileges of those which remained death is to be assigned to the constant imfree; and the congress of Vienna re- portation from the country of individuals stored freedom to Lübeck, Hamburg, who have attained to maturity, but, havBremen and Frankfort only because ing been previously habituated to frequent the different powers could not agree to exercise in a pure atmosphere, and to a whom they should be assigned. At the simple, regular diet, are gradually sacrisame time, Cracow (q.v.) was declared in ficed to confined air, sedentary habits, or independent city, with a republican for a capricious and over-stimulating diet. . of government. (For further information, These causes are not equally fatal to those see the articles Germany and Italy.). The who have passed their early years within following works contain much informa- the walls of a city; and, after the age of tion on the rise and progress of cities: 50, the proportion of deaths in London is Fr. Kortüm's History of the Origin of the smaller than in the country. Jenner, and, Leagues of the Free Cities in the Middle very recently, doctor Baron, have made Ages and in Modern Times (in German), some curious experiments on animals, Zúrich, 1829; Eichhorn On the Origin of which indicate that a loss of their open the Cities in Germany, in his periodical range and natural nourishment has, with Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rechtswis- them also, a tendency to disorganize and senschaft, vol. i, page 147 et seq. Von to destroy. Doctor Baron placed a family of young rabbits in a confined situation, sons from the provinces. But this influx and fed them with coarse green food, such is not peculiar to St. Petersburg. The as cabbage and grass. They were per- last-mentioned city and Stockholm are fectly healthy when put up. In about a the only known metropolitan cities which month, one of them died. The primary present the preponderance of death over step of disorganization was evinced in a production. The annual mortality of the number of transparent vesicles, studded Russian capital is 1 in 37.-Berlin. From over the external surface of its liver. In 1747 to 1755, the annual mortality of Beranother, which died 9 days after, the dis- lin was 1 in 28. Between 1726 and 1799, ease had advanced to the formation of tu- it improved to 1 in 2911. Here the bercles on the liver. The liver of a third, beneficial change was retarded by the which died 4 days later still, had nearly ravages, the losses, the disappointments lost its true structure, so universally was of war, and, from 1802 to 1806, it had retit pervaded with tubercles. Two days rograded to 1 in 27; but from 1816 to subsequently, a fourth died. A consider- 1822, a period of exultation and tranable number of hydatids were attached to quillity to the Prussians, the value of life the lower surface of the liver. At this took a remarkable leap, and the annual time, doctor Baron removed three young deaths fell to less than 1 in 34.–Vienna. rabbits from the place where their com- In the middle of the last century, the panions had died to another situation, dry mortality of Vienna was 1 in 20, and it and clean, and to their proper and accus- has not improved in proportion as other tomed food. The lives of these remain- cities of Europe. According to the most ing three were obviously saved by this recent calculations, it is, even now, as 1 in change. He obtained similar results from 221. Among 10,530 deaths, scarcely 38 experiments of the same nature performed persons are found to have attained the on other animals.- In Glasgow, the aver. age of 90. The spirit of excessive reguage annual mortality is about 1 in 44 lation, the dread of novelty, the restricpersons.-In Paris, the poor and the rich tions imposed on the medical profession, occupy the two extremities of the scale. and political causes which need not be The mortality in the one is nearly double enumerated, appear to have retarded the that in the other. The average is 1 in natural progress of this city. The over32. The number of violent deaths, in weening paternity of the government in1823, was 690, of which 390 were cases terferes with the trivial concerns of the of suicide. Reviewing, on one side, the citizens, in the same manner in which an great political, moral and physical events arbitrary and untaught father sometimes which have occurred at Paris during a restrains the useful impulses of his chilsuccession of years, and, on the other, the dren, while he permits an easy vent to progress of its population, Villerme has their baser propensities.- Prague, the ascertained, that whenever the people capital of Bohemia, has only one third have suffered from any cause, the deaths the population of Vienna, and is much have correspondingly increased, the births healthier. The superior longevity of the have decreased, and the mean duration Jews is strongly marked in this city. One of life has been shortened. In periods of death is annually observed among 26 of prosperity, he has found results directly the Israelites, and 1 in 224 among the opposite to these. The mean duration of Christians. Instances of considerable lonlife in Paris is 32 years and some months. gevity, especially among the women, are It was formerly estimated that one third not rare. Contrary to the usual observaof the inhabitants of Paris died in the tion, longevity is confined to poverty and hospitals; but Dupin has lately calculated married life. According to an average of that half the deaths in Paris take place in several years, no nobleman, no wealthy the hospitals and other asylums of charity. person, no bachelor, and no unmarried Not a fourth part of the inhabitants are woman, has passed the age of 95. This buried at private cost.-In Geneva, the is an interesting fact, but it is an extreme average mortality for the four years end- and an insulated one, and does not miliing in 1823 was 1 in 43, which is a tate against the general conservative tengreater mortality than in some of the dency of prosperity, which a variety of largest manufacturing towns, as Glas- evidence seems to establish.—Palermo. gow, Manchester and Birmingham.-- Pe- Mortality is here 1 in 31. January, Octotersburg. It is curious that the burials ber and November are the most fatal exceed the births in the Russian capital, months; April, May and June the most by 134 to 100. The Russians attempt to healthy.-Leghorn. The average annual explain this by the annual influx of per- mortality here is 1 in 35. Among the

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