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CLAN (Erse, a tribe or family), among sessed, also, a competent knowledge of the Highlanders of Scotland, consisted of Greek, Latin and Hebrew. He prosecutthe common descendants of the same ed his ecclesiastical labors at Windham, progenitor, under the patriarchal control Connecticut, from 1726 to 1739, when he of a chief, who represented the common succeeded the reverend Elisha Williams ancestor. The name of the clan was in the presidency of Yale college. He formed of that of the original progenitor was an impressive and powerful preacher, with the affix mac (son): thus the Mac- and a man of exemplary piety and singuDonalds were the sons of Donald, and lar industry. His religious sentiments every individual of this name was consid- were in accordance with the Calvinism ered a descendant of the founder of the of the Westminster assembly. He conclan, and a brother of every one of its structed the first orrery or planetarium members. The chief exercised his au- made in America, and published a History thority by right of primogeniture, as the of Yale College, a Brief History and Vinfather of his clan: the clansmen revered dication of the Doctrines received and and served the chief with the blind devo- established in the Churches of New Engtion of children. The appellation of the land, two Sermons, and Conjectures upon chiefs had, generally, a reference to the the Nature and Motion of Meteors which history of their ancestors, and denoted are above the Atmosphere. He had prelittle more than that they were the de- pared also materials for a history of Conscendants of the first father of the clan; necticut, but his manuscripts were carried thus the chief of the Macdonnells was off in the expedition against New Haven Mac Allister More (the son of the great under general Tryon. He died on the 7th Allister). They were distinguished from of January, 1767, in the 64th year of his the rest of the clan by a feather in their age, having resigned his station as presibonnets. Each clan was divided into two dent the year previous. orders, the tenants or taksmen, the near CLAPPERTON, captain Hugh, the Afrirelations of the chief, to whom portions can traveller, was born in Annan, Dumof land were assigned, during pleasure or friesshire, in 1788. After some elementary on short leases, and whose descendants instruction in practical mathematics, he were generally merged in the second was bound apprentice, at the age of 13, to class, or commoners, by the resumption the owner of a vessel trading between of the land. The taksman usually had Liverpool and North America, in which a subdivision of the clan under him, of he made several voyages. He was then which he was chieftain, subject, however, impressed into his Britannic majesty's to the general head of the sept. The ju- service, was soon after made a midshiprisdiction of the chiefs was not very accu- man, served on the American lakes in rately defined, but, as is generally the case 1815, and, in 1816, received the commisin such a state of society, it was necessary sion of lieutenant. Having retired to to consult, in some measure, the opinions Scotland, he became acquainted with of the most influential clansmen, and the doctor Oudney, who was about to emgeneral wishes of the whole body. The bark for Africa, and requested permission rebellions of 1715 and 1745 induced the to accompany him. Lieutenant (since English government to break up the con- colonel) Denham having volunteered his nexion which subsisted between the chiefs services, and it being intended that reand the clansmen. The hereditary juris- searches should be made, to the east and diction of the chiefs was, therefore, abol- west, from Bornou, where doctor Oudney ished, the people disarmed, and even was to reside as British consul, his name compelled to relinquish their national was added to the expedition by lord Badress; and but few traces of this institu- thurst. In the Recent Discoveries in Aftion now remain. (See Mrs. Grant's Su rica, made in 1823 and 1824, by Major perstitions of the Highlanders.)
Denham, Captain Clapperton and Doctor CLAP, Thomas, president of Yale col- Uudney (London, 1826), we have aclege, was born at Scituate, Massachusetts, counts of an excursion from Mourzouk to June 26, 1703. He was graduated at Ghraat, a town of the Tuarics, by doctor Harvard college in 1722, and afterwards Oudney; of a journey across the desert commenced the study of divinity. For his to Bornou, of various expeditions to the acquisitions in this and in various other southward and eastward, by major Denbranches of knowledge, particularly math- ham; and of an excursion through Souematics, astronomy, natural and moral dan to the capital of the Fellatahs, by philosophy, history, the civil and canon captain Clapperton. The expedition set law, he was much distinguished, and pos- out from Mourzouk Nov. 20, 1822, and
arrived at lake Tchad, in the kingdom of Bornou, Feb. 4, after a journey of 800 miles. Six days after they entered the capital, Kouka, Clapperton, in company with doctor Oudney, who died on the way, set out on an expedition to Soccatoo, the capital of Houssa, more than 700 miles east of Kouka, which he reached in 90 days. He was not permitted to pursue his journey to the west, and returned to Kouka, and thence to England in 1825. The information which the travellers collected, in regard to the habits and commerce of the people of Central Africa, was important, as showing the existence in that quarter of a large population of a peaceable disposition, and possessed of a considerable civilization. The geographical information collected was not without its value, although it left undecided the disputed questions of the course and termination of the Niger. They proceeded south from Tripoli (lat. 32° 30°) to Musfeia (lat. 9° 10′), being 1400 miles in difference of latitude, and from Zangalia, on the east of lake Tchad (lon. 17° E.), to Soccatoo (lon. 6° E.), making a difference of longitude of 660 miles. They thus determined the position of the kingdoms of Mandara, Bornou and Houssa, their extent, and the position of their principal cities. On his return to England, lieutenant Clapperton received the rank of captain, and was immediately engaged, by lord Bathurst, for a second expedition, to start from the Bight of Benin. Leaving Badagry, Dec. 7, 1825, he pursued a north-easterly direction, with the intention of reaching Soccatoo and Bornou. Two of his companions, captain Pearce and doctor Morrison, perished, a short time after leaving the coast, and Clapperton pursued his way, accompanied by his faithful servant Lander. At Katunga, he was within 30 miles of the Quorra or Niger, but was not permitted to visit it. Continuing his journey north, he reached Kano, and then proceeded westward to Soccatoo, the residence of his old friend Bello. Bello refused to allow him to proceed to Bornou, and detained him a long time in his capital. This conduct appears to have arisen from the war then existing between Bello and the sheik of Bornou, and to the intrigues of the pacha of Tripoli, who had insinuated that the English meditated the conquest of Africa, as they had already conquered India. This disappointment preyed upon Clapperton's mind, and he died, April 13, 1827, at Chungary, a village four miles from Soccatoo, of a dysentery. (See Journal of a Second Expedition from
Kano to the Sea-coast, partly by a more eastern Route, London, 1829; Philadelphia, 1829; to which is added the Journal of Richard Lander (the servant of Clapperton). Clapperton was the first European who traversed the whole of Central Africa, from the Bight of Benin to the Mediterranean. We have thus a continuous line from Tripoli to Badagry, which is of great importance from the assistance which it will afford to future researches. Clapperton was a man without education, but intelligent and impartial; of a robust frame and a happy temperament. He was capable of enduring great hardships. His knowledge of the habits and prejudices of the Central Africans, his frank, bold and cheerful manners, would have rendered him peculiarly useful in promoting the designs of the British government in that quarter.
CLARE, John (called the peasant of Northamptonshire), a natural poet, born, July 13, 1793, at Helpstone, near Peterborough, in Northamptonshire, England, was obliged, when very young, to maintain his father, a day-laborer, who had become crippled, and his helpless family, by manual labor. The sufferings of the most abject poverty he has described with heart-rending truth, in his poem, Address to Plenty in Winter. The scanty assistance which the father received from the parish lightened the burden of supporting the family, and John succeeded in saving money, by means of extra labor, to enable him to learn to read. He now read, by night, Robinson Crusoe, and other books that were lent him. Thomson's Seasons first excited Clare's poetic talents in his 13th year, and suggested to him his first poem, the Morning Walk, to which he soon added the Evening Walk. John Turnhill of Helpstone, whose notice this attempt had attracted, now adopted the boy, and taught him writing and arithmetic. Clare made rapid progress, and succeeded, moreover, in acquiring considerable skill on the violin, though he was obliged to devote the whole day to labor, and had no instruction, except some advice from a village musician. This accomplishment he afterwards used as a means of support. He continued to write poetry for 13 years, with no other encouragement than the pleasure which he derived from it, and sung of God and the beauties of nature, while he labored with the hoe and spade. In December, 1818, one of his sonnets fell into the hands of Edward Drury, a bookseller at Hamford. The poem was upon the setting sun.
Encouraged by Drury, Clare prepared a collection of his poems, which soon excited public interest. These Poems, descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, by John Clare, a Northamptonshire Peasant (London, 3d edition, 1820), consist of sonnets, songs, ballads and miscellaneous pieces, which describe rural life: they are simple, interesting by their truth and feeling, and full of original images, but somewhat disfigured by provincialisms. A new collection of Clare's poems appeared in 1821, under the title of the Village Minstrel and other Poems, &c., two volumes, with the author's portrait. Clare has acquired some property by his poetic productions, but continues warmly attached to his village and situation.
CLARENCE, duke of, William Henry, prince of England, second brother of king George IV, born Aug. 21, 1765, was educated for the navy, and passed through all the ranks, but received no command. In the chamber of peers, he constantly opposed the war policy of the ministers. Humanity is indebted to him for his exertions for the abolition of the slave-trade. His uniting with the opposition contributed to the overthrow of Pitt and Addington, but he still lived on the best terms with the royal family. He was passionately attached to the celebrated actress Mrs. Jordan, with whom he was connected many years, and had several children by her. She died at Bordeaux, in 1816. The duke of Clarence conducted Louis XVIII to the coasts of France in 1814. He married the princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, July 11, 1818, and was desirous of fixing his residence thenceforth at Osnabruck. He lives now with his wife in London. In 1827, under Canning's administration, the duke of Clarence was appointed lord high admiral of England (see Admiral); but he retired from that office soon after the duke of Wellington had been made premier.
CLARENDON; a village three miles east of Salisbury, where Henry II summoned a council of the barons and prelates, in 1164, who enacted the laws called the constitutions of Clarendon, by which the power of the pope in England was checked.
rity of his intentions, his attachment to the laws of his country, and the talents which he displayed, gained him the confidence of that body. Upon the breaking out of the civil war, he attached himself to the king's party; became chancellor of the exchequer and member of the privy council, and followed prince Charles (afterwards Charles II) to Jersey. Here he remained for two years, while the prince was in France, and during that time began his History of the Rebellion. He likewise composed at Jersey the various writings which appeared in the king's name, as answers to the manifestoes of the parliament. After Charles I was beheaded, the new king called him to France, and sent him to Madrid, to see if any assistance could be obtained from the Spanish court. From thence he went to Paris to reconcile the queen mother with the duke of York, and afterwards to the Hague, where Charles II appointed him lord chancellor of England, in 1657. After Cromwell's death, Edward Hyde contributed more than any other man to the happy termination of the measures which placed Charles II on the throne. He subsequently possessed the entire confidence of the king, who loaded him with favors. In 1660, he was elected chancellor of the university of Oxford; in 1661, he was made peer, and baron Hyde, viscount Cornbury, and earl of Clarendon. Many events occurred to disquiet him in the licentious court of Charles II; among these was the marriage of the duke of York, the king's brother, to his daughter. The duke, while at Breda, the residence of his sister, the princess of Orange, became acquainted with Anne Hyde, Clarendon's eldest daughter, maid of honor to the princess, and married her, Nov., 1659, without the knowledge of the king or the chancellor. Anne's pregnancy occasioned the disclosure of this union after Charles's restoration. As soon as the king had ascertained the validity of the marriage, he acknowledged Anne Hyde as duchess of York, commanded his brother to continue to love her, and, at the same time, declared that this event had not changed his sentiments towards the chanellor. Two daughters, Anne and Mary, were the fruit of this marriage, both of whom ascended the English throne. In 1663, lord Bristol made an attack upon the chancellor in the parliament. This body, however, disregarded his accusations. Attempts were also made to injure him in public opinion, while, on the other hand, his influence with the king was declining, as Charles
CLARENDON. Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon, lord high chancellor of England, probably born at Dinton, in Wiltshire, 1608, was educated at Oxford, and afterwards studied law under his uncle Nicholas Hyde, chief justice of the king's bench. He was a member of the long parliament under Charles I; and the pu
had now less regard for an able minister CLARIFICATION, or the separation of the than for the instruments of his prodigality. insoluble particles that prevent a liquid The duke of Buckingham, moreover, was from being transparent, may be performed continually laboring to make the chancel- by depuration, filtration or coagulation. In lor ridiculous in the eyes of the king, and the first of these operations, the liquid is his station as prime minister made the permitted to subside, without being in the nation regard him as answerable for all least disturbed, until all the particles which the faults of the administration. The ill were in suspension are precipitated; it is success of the war against Holland, the then decanted. This mode of clarification sale of Dunkirk, and other events, excited can only be used when the substance on public indignation. The king's displeas- which we operate is in a large quantity, ure was changed into hatred, when he or is of a nature not to be altered during saw his plan of repudiating his wife, and the time necessary to complete this operamarrying the beautiful lady Stuart, de- tion, and finally when its specific gravity feated by Clarendon, who effected a mar- is less than that of the particles which riage between this lady and the duke of render it turbid. Filtration is a process Richmond. The king deprived him of by which a liquid is strained through a his offices, and an impeachment for high body, the interstices of which are small
was commenced against him. enough to stop the solid particles conClarendon fled, and sent his apology from tained in it. Filters of wool
, linen, paper, Calais to the house of lords. Both houses powdered glass, sand or charcoal, may be ordered this writing to be burnt by the used, according as the liquid is more or common hangman, and Clarendon was less dense, or of a nature to operate upon banished forever. The hatred of the na- any one of these bodies. Finally, clarifition pursued him even to the continent. cation by coagulation is performed with At Èvreux, he was attacked by some the assistance of albumen contained in English sailors, dangerously wounded, and the liquid, or some is added to it for this with difficulty rescued from their hands. purpose, which, by the action of caloric, He lived six years at Montpellier, Moulins of acids, &c. becomes solid, forms a mass, and Rouen, at which latter place he died, and precipitates the extraneous substances. Dec., 1674. His remains were afterwards The white of eggs is generally used for carried to England, and buried in West- this purpose. minster abbey.--Lord Clarendon, as long CLARINET. A wind instrument of the as he was minister, was the friend and reed kind, the scale of which, though it supporter of the king against the factious, includes every semitone within its exand the defender of his country's freedom tremes, is virtually defective. Its lowest against the abuse of the royal power. In- note E below the F cliff, from which it gratitude and prejudice the more easily is capable, in the hands of good performruined him, as his stern and proud char- ers, of ascending more than three octaves. acter prevented his gaining affection. Its powers, through this compass, are not Among his many writings, the most im- every where equal; the player, therefore, portant is the History of the Rebellion, has not a free choice in his keys, being from 1641 down to the Restoration of generally confined to those of C and F, Charles II. It is a very able work, although which, indeed, are the only keys in which not free from prejudices. To this was the clarinet is heard to advantage. The added, in 1759, his Life and a Continuamusic for this instrument is therefore tion of his History.
usually written in those keys. There are, CLARET. (See Bordelars Wines.) however, B flat clarinets, A clarinets, D
CLARICHORD, or CLAVICHORD. A keyed clarinets, B clarinets, and G clarinets: the instrument, now out of use, somewhat in three latter are scarcely ever used in the form of a spinet, and the strings of England. which are supported by five bridges. ČLARK, John; an industrious critic and One distinction in the clarichord is, that classical commentator, who published the strings are covered with pieces of many useful works on education. He cloth, which render the sound sweeter, was the master of a grammar-school at and, at the same time, deaden it, so as to Hull, in Yorkshire, where he died in May, prevent its being heard at any considera- 1734. Among his publications are an Inble distance. On this account, it was for- troduction to making Latin, and editions merly much used by the nuns, who could of several Latin authors, with English practise on it without disturbing the dor- translations. initory. It is sometimes called the dumb CLARKE, Edward Daniel, LL. D.; a spinet.
celebrated traveller of our own times, pro
fessor of mineralogy at Cambridge, which versity Library, Cambridge (8vo., 1809); university he enriched with the fruits of Travels in various Countries of Europe, his researches in foreign countries. He Asia and Africa, Part I, containing Ruswas the second son of the reverend Ed- sia, Tartary and Turkey (4to., 1810); Part ward Clarke, author of Letters on the II, containing Greece, Egypt and the Spanish Nation, and various minor works, Holy Land (Section 1st, 4to., 1812; Secand was born in 1767. He received his tion 2d, 1814); and some other works. education at Jesus college, Cambridge, of Doctor Clarke died March 9, 1821. Afwhich society he became a fellow, having ter his death, a volume was published, taken the degree of A. M. in 1794. Soon containing his Travels through Denmark, after, he accompanied lord Berwick to Sweden, Lapland, Norway, Finland and Italy, and, in 1799, set out with Mr. Russia (London, 1823, 4to.). A complete Cripps, on an extensive and laborious tour edition of his works appeared, in 11 volthrough Denmark, Sweden, Lapland, Fin- umes, in 4to. and 8vo. (London, 1819– land, Russia, Tartary, Circassia, Asia Minor, 24), under the title of Travels in various Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Greece, and Tur- Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa. key, returning, in 1802, through Germany CLARKE, Samuel, DD., a celebrated and France. On his return, he obtained, theological and philosophical writer, was from the university to which he belonged, born at Norwich, England, in the year the honorary degree of LL. D., as a dis- 1675, of which city his father was an tinguished mark of its approbation, and alderman. He was educated at Caius in consideration of the services rendered college, Cambridge. Whilst at the unito its public libraries and institutions byversity, he diligently cultivated a knowlhis liberal contributions, among which the edge of the Scriptures, in the original langreatest, perhaps, in value, is the celebrat- guages, and, before the age of 21, had ed manuscript of Plato's works, with largely contributed to diffuse the Newtonearly 100 others, and a colossal statue of nian system. Being of opinion that the the Eleusinian Ceres. To him also the vehicle of an established work, like that of British nation is indebted for the acquisi- Rohault, would be most convenient for tion of the famous sarcophagus of Alex- the gradual introduction of true philosoander the Great, which he discovered in phy, he translated that author's Physics the possession of the French troops in for the use of young students, whom he Egypt, and was the means of its being thereby familiarized with the language surrendered to the English army. In and reasonings of Newton. On entering 1806, he commenced a course of lectures into orders, he became chaplain to Moore, on mineralogy, having brought a splendid bishop of Norwich, and first became an collection of specimens to Europe ; and, author in his own profession in 1699, in 1808, a professorship being founded when he published Three practical Essays purposely for the encouragement of that upon Baptism, Confirmation and Repentbranch of knowledge, he was elevated to ance. This work was followed by Rethe chair. A valuable collection of plants flections on a Book called Amyntor, by and medals proved, also, at once the cor- Toland, relating to the authenticity of rectness of his taste and the extent of his writings not received into the canon of industry; while a curious model of mount Scripture. In 1701, he published his Vesuvius, constructed by him, with the Paraphrase on the Four Gospels, and, assistance of an Italian artist, from the about the same time, received two small materials of the mountain it represents, livings in and near Norwich. In 1704, attests his great ingenuity. This piece of he was appointed to preach the sermon at art is now in the possession of lord Ber- Boyle's lecture, when he chose for his wick. Doctor Clarke published Testimo- subject the Being and Attributes of God, ny of different Authors respecting the and gave so much satisfaction that he was colossal Statue of Ceres, placed in the appointed to the same office the next year, Vestibule of the Public Library at Cam- when he delivered a course of sermons bridge, with an account of its removal on Evidences of Natural and Revealed from Eleusis (8vo., 1801—1803); The Religion. These sermons exceedingly Tomb of Alexander, a Dissertation on raised the author's reputation as a close the Sarcophagus brought from Alexan- and acute reasoner, although his argudria, and now in the British Museum ment a priori, for the existence of a God, (4to., 1805); A Description of the Greek was, by Pope and others, deemed too Marbles brought from the Shores of the subtle and metaphysical. He, however, Euxine, Archipelago and Mediterranean, employed it only in opposition to Hobbes, and deposited in the Vestibule of the Uni- Spinoza, and similar reasoners, who could