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be no other way opposed. In 1706, he judges at Serjeants' Inn, he was seized published A Letter to Mr. Dodwell
, on the with a pleuritic complaint, which carried Îmmortality of the Soul, and, during the him off, after a few days' illness, in his same year, gave an elegant Latin version 54th year. He left in manuscript, preparof sir Isaac Newton's Optics, for which ed for the press, An Exposition of the that great man presented him with £500. Catechism, which was published by his His friend, bishop Moore, now introduced brother, with 10 posthumous volumes of him to queen Anne, who appointed him sermons. The private character of doctor her chaplain, and presented him with the Clarke was extremely amiable, being uprectory of St. James's, Westminster, the right, mild and unaffected. His intellecthighest preferment he ever obtained. On ual eminence was founded on a strong this occasion, he took his degree as D. D. cultivation of the reasoning faculty, withIn 1712, he appeared as a philologist
, by out passion or enthusiasm. He closely editing a fine edition of Cæsar's Com- pursued his object, with methodical accumentaries, which he dedicated to the racy and logical acuteness, aided by a great duke of Marlborough, and, in the strongly retentive memory and indefatisame year, published work which in- gable attention. volved him in endless controversy,
entitled CLARKE, George Rogers, colonel in the The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity. service of Virginia against the Indians in In this production, that mysterious tenet the revolutionary war, distinguished himis, on critical principles, examined as de- self greatly in that post
, and, for some ducible from the words of Scripture; and time, was the protector of the people of the result of the author's reasonings was the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania so different from the opinion of the church from the inroads of the savages. În 1778, of England, that it became a subject of he was appointed to command a regiment complaint in the lower house of convoca- of infantry, and one troop of cavalry, tion. Several controversial pieces were raised for the defence of the country of written on this occasion, the chief cham- Illinois, in which was comprehended the pion of orthodoxy being doctor Water- country claimed by Virginia that had been land. In 1715 and 1716, a disputation conquered by colonel Clarke. The famiwas carried on between doctor Clarke and lies which came with him to the falls of the celebrated Leibnitz, concerning the the Ohio were the first settlers at that principles of natural philosophy and reli- place. At first, their situation was very gion, the papers of which were collected' dangerous, in consequence of the proximand :ddressed to the princess of Wales, ity of several tribes of Indians, and some afterwards queen Caroline. In 1717, he British posts; but, by the exertions of published Remarks upon Collins's Enqui- Clarke, it was soon rendered secure, and, my concerning Human Liberty, and, soon in 1779, they were enabled to remove into after, gave much offence by altering the Kentucky, where emigrants quickly flockdoxology of the singing psalms at St. ed in great numbers. In the same year, James's; on which occasior the bishop colonel Clarke descended the Ohio, and of London sent a circular to the clergy built fort Jefferson, on the eastern bank forbidding the use of them. In 1724, he of the Mississippi, and, in 1781, received published a volume consisting of 17 ser- neral's commission.—The following mons, and, on the death of sir Isaac New- anecdote is related of Clarke, in a work ton, in 1727, was offered the place of published not very long since, called master of the mint. This office he de- Notes of an Old Officer : “ The Indians clined accepting, as inconsistent with his came in to the treaty at fort Washington profession, preferment in which had, how- in the most friendly manner, except the ever, now become hopeless. In 1728, he Shawahanees, the most conceited and wrote a letter to Mr. Hoadley, On the warlike of the aborigines, the first in at a Proportion of Velocity and Force in battle, the last at a treaty. 300 of their Bodies in Motion, and, the next year, finest warriors set off in all their paint and published the first 12 books of Homer's feathers, and filed into the council-house. Iliad, with a Latin version, the remaining Their number and demeanor, so unusual books of which were published by his at an occasion of this sort, was altogether son in 1732. Doctor Clarke's reputation unexpected and suspicious. The United as a classical scholar is chiefly founded on States' stockade mustered 70 men. In this performance, which is held in high the centre of the hall, at a little table, sat esteem. He had all his life enjoyed the commissary-general Clarke, the indesound health; but, on Sunday, May 11, fatigable scourge of these very marauders, 1729, when going to preach before the general Richard Butler and Mr. Parsons.
There was also present a captain Denny, classique than Auteur classique, c'est-à-dire who, I believe, is still alive, and can attest un auteur ancien, approuvé, et qui fait authis story. On the part of the Indians, an torité dans une certaine matière : Platon. old council-sachem and a war-chief took Homère, Démosthène, Cicéron, Virgile, Tithe lead. The latter, a tall, raw-boned te-Live, &c. sont des auteurs classiques. fellow, with an impudent and villanous As regards classical, by which we mean, look, made a boisterous and threatening in this place, ancient, literature, we obspeech, which operated effectually on the serve a striking difference between it and passions of the Indians, who set up a pro- modern literature. The Greek authors digious whoop at every pause. He con- were the pupils of nature and an active, cluded by presenting a black and white energetic life. These furnished their diswampum, to signify they were pre- cipline rather than the pedantic forms of pared for either event, peace or war. schools, which are impressed with painful Clarke exhibited the same unaltered and labor upon the memory, and only half careless countenance he had shown dur- understood. They had, besides, a very ing the whole scene, his head leaning on keen sensibility for beauty, which was his left hand, and his elbow resting on fully developed by the loveliness of surthe table. He raised his little cane, and rounding nature, and by their active life, pushed the sacred wampum off the table, in which all their faculties were unfoldwith very little ceremony. Every Indian, ed. They spent their lives at the same time, started from his seat contests for liberty, and for superiority with one of those sudden, simultaneous, in physical or mental accomplishments. and peculiarly savage sounds, which star- Everything was public; every thing tle and disconcert the stoutest heart, and stimulated emulation. Nature and Liberty can neither be described nor forgotten. are the genii which presided over the laAt this juncture, Clarke rose.
The scru- bors of the Greeks; and their works are tinizing eye cowered at his glance. He classical, that is, models, as far as they stamped his foot on the prostrate and in- are the natural fruit of the circumstances sulted symbol, and ordered them to leave in which they were placed. The sucthe hall. They did so, apparently invol- cesses of the Greeks over the slaves of untarily. They were heard all that night, Asia, and the overthrow of their own tydebating in the bushes near the fort. rants, first produced poets among them; The raw-boned chief was for war, the old and these continued, in an uninterrupted sachem for peace. The latter prevailed, series, exerting a decisive influence upon and the next morning they came back rhetoric, history and the plastic arts, and and sued for peace.”—General Clarke died receiving, in their turn, á corresponding on the 13th of February, 1817, in the influence, until degeneracy, over-refine66th year of his age, at his seat near ment and political subjugation took the Louisville, Kentucky.
place of nature and liberty. The MaceCLASSIC (from the Latin classis). The donian and Roman dominion fixed the Roman people were divided into six limits of Greek classical literature. From classes, and classici was the name given that time, Greece produced only learned to the citizens belonging to the first class. inquirers and rich treasures of knowledge, From this circumstance, the Greek and but no works disti uished as models, Roman authors have been, in modern such as had been composed in the time times, called classics, that is, the excellent, of her freedom, under the joint influence the models. There is, of course, a great of her political constitution, religion, beaudiversity of value among them; but their tiful climate, and language, which containsuperiority to the writers of modern Eu- ed the elements of the highest perfection rope, at the time of the revival of letters, in a far greater degree than most other was so great, that it was very natural for languages.—The Romans, from their potheir admirers to give them, collectively, litical constitution and national character, the name of classics. The Germans soon have become models only in history and gave the word klassisch (classical) a wider rhetoric, and works on war, architecture sense, applying it more philosophically, and and law. The most active element in their making it embrace, 1. the standard works national character was always the miliof any nation, and, 2. ancient literature tary and legal spirit. But their language and art, in contradistinction to the modern acquired, from the habits of the nation, or romantic. The English and French such conciseness and precision, that they have followed this example, though but remain models in history, and, in fact, in recently. The Dictionnaire de l'Académie every branch of composition, as far as congives no other definition to the word cise expression is concerned, so difficult
and so valuable an attainment. The rapid the various branches of moral and politigrowth of their power outstripped the cal science, have had a classical educadevelopement of their literature, which tion, but also that this education has exattained its meridian soon after the over.' erted a most important influence on their throw of liberty and the establishment of minds. The beneficial effect of classical despotism. Hence it speedily degenerat- literature on the character of nations ed, and the time soon arrived when Ro- might also be easily shown. Undoubtedman literature consisted, in a great meas- ly a wrongly directed classical education ure, of descriptions of the universal cor- has, in some instances, produced injurious ruption and misery of the people, charac- consequences. So, too, has misdirected terized either by a morose bitterness or by religious instruction; but the one is no the complacency of deep-seated immoral- more an argument against classical literaity.—The style of the ancient writers is ture than the other is against religion. very characteristic, and forms a striking We shall not, in this place, enter upon a distinction between them and the mod- statement of the characteristic differences
Their language is generally simple, of ancient and modern literature, as the natural, pure, and therefore expressive; subject has not been sufficiently discussed whilst the modern writers, by reason of by English writers to give that precision their greater erudition, and the refine- to the requisite phraseology which would ments of our social life, are constantly be necessary to make a condensed view tempted to sacrifice energy and concise- of the subject intelligible. We will only ness to brilliancy and richness of illustra- remark, that the religion of the Greeks tion; so much so, that Rousseau was led to use the words of the celebrated Augusinto the paradox of declaring himself an tus William Schlegel-was the apotheosis enemy to all wit. Besides the style of of the powers of nature and of terrestrial the ancient writers, so many circum- life. Every thing, therefore, was positive, stances contributed to the excellence of clear and finished in their religion and relitheir productions; the union of knowledge gious views. Such is also the predominaand ignorance, of rudeness and refine- ting character of their literature. Moderna ment, was fitted to exercise so beneficial literature, on the other hand, is marked with an influence upon them, that the best the character of the Christian religion,which works of the Greeks and Romans have directs the mind to the mysterious and the secured to themselves a permanent place infinite. The Greek philosophy, moreamong the means of intellectual cultiva- over, sought for happiness in mental trantion, throughout Europe and the nations quillity and the well-balanced and harmoof European descent. It has often been nious action of the different faculties, said, that the knowledge of the languages The Christian encourages a struggle beand literature of Greece and Rome can tween the higher and lower powers of be of little value to us, as their condition our nature. The influence of the Chrisand character, their principles, political tian principle on modern writers is not, and religious, were so different from ours. indeed, universal. Some productions of But, without mentioning the advantages modern times are characterized by the to be derived from a knowledge of these Grecian element rather than the romantic, languages by men devoted to certain par- or, as it might properly be called, the Teuticular pursuits, we do not hesitate to af- tonico-Christian, for instance, some of the firm, that the highest degree of intellectual poems of Göthe. This cannot be said of accomplishment is not possible without Byron, notwithstanding the anti-Christian classical attainments. We ought to be character of much which he has written. thankful that we are permitted to avail We will conclude our remarks respecting ourselves of the literary treasures of these the difference between ancient and modglorious nations, without being obliged to ern writers by another remark of Schlegel. participate in the sufferings and struggles He says that the genius of the ancient powhich contributed so essentially to their ets was of a plastic character; that their richness and beauty. The very study of creations resembled those of the sculptor. their languages has a most salutary influ- Sculpture directs our attention exclusively ence on the intellectual developement of to particular object: it detaches the the students of modern times, whose na- statue from all surrounding objects, or intive languages are of a much less philo- dicates them, if at all, very slightly. This sophical construction. If it were neces- is the character of the creations of the sary to bring forward examples, it would ancient dramatists, whilst the genius of be easy to show, not only that most of the the modern drama has much more resemmen of modern times, distinguished in blance to that which fills a picture with a great variety of objects, operating, it is of Tiraboschi, Ginguené, Sismondi and true, to produce a common effect, but Bouterwek. An account of the best auhaving also much individuality of char- thors of Spanish literature is to be found acter.
in Velasquez and Nicolas Antonio, BiblioThe same difference which exists be- theca Vetus et Nova, in Sismondi's Litétween ancient and modern or classical rature du Midi de l'Europe, and in Bouterand romantic literature, prevails, to a great wek's work, of which the part relating to degree, between ancient and modern art. Spain has been lately translated into We may remark in general, respecting Spanish, under the following title : Histoclassical art, by which we mean especially ria de la Literatura Española, escrita en Greek art (the Romans having always re- Aleman por F. Bouterwek, traducida al mained, in a great measure, imitators of Castellano y adicionada por D. José Gothe Greeks), that its productions are com- mez de la Cortina y D. Nicolás Hugalde y plete in themselves, expressing, in their Mollinedo (Madrid, 1829, 8vo. vol. i, pp. beautiful forms, all which the artist in- 276). Half of vol. i. consists of additions tended to convey, while the genius of by the translators, which, however, do not modern art is characterized by aiming at add much to the value of the work. For something infinite, beyond the power of Portuguese literature, Bouterwek, Sisprecise conception and perfect representa- mondi, and, chiefly, don Barbosa Machation. For this reason, the Greeks devot- do's Bibliotheca Lusitana (Lisbon, 1731, 4 ed themselves to sculpture more than to vols. fol.), are to be recommended. The painting, and even gave to their produc- works of Ideler and Nolte, Handbücher, tions in the latter branch of art something for French, Italian, Spanish and English of a plastic character, whilst the moderns literature, are highly valuable, containing have directed their attention much more judicious selections from the best prose to painting, and have given to sculpture a writers and poets in these literatures, with character different from that which it had short accounts of each author from whom among the ancients. The same differ- extracts are made. These gentlemen are ence of feeling is apparent in the archi- distinguished literati at Berlin, of whom tecture of the two periods, and the music the former is likewise known as one of of modern times owes its excellence to the greatest chronologists of the age, and causes similar to those which have carried by his Arabian chrestomathy. For Gerpainting to such perfection.
man literature, Ersch's Handbuch der As regards the classical writers of any Deutschen Literatur (new edition, 1822 country, meaning, by this term, the stan- et seq., 4 vols.) is to be consulted. For dard writers in the different departments further information respecting the literaof literature, it would be difficult to give a ture of different countries, see the articles precise definition of what entitles an au- on these countries respectively. Augusthor to the epithet classical ; yet we find 'tus William Schlegel's works must be the judgment of nations (allowance being considered as still unrivalled for profound made for the peculiar tastes of each) and original criticism on the art and litepretty uniform and pretty correct. Still, rature of the ancient and modern nations. however, there are considerable diversi- CLAUDE LORRAINE, so called, was ties of opinion as to the writers who are one of the most distinguished landscape to be ranked as classics, in nations among painters. His real name was Claude Gelwhom the overwhelming authority of lée : he was called Lorraine from the some great learned body has not deter- province of this name, where he was mined who are entitled to this designa- born in the castle of Champagne, of poor tion. We might instance the Germans, parents, whom he lost early. His educaand even the French, as far as respects tion was much neglected. When 12 years the writers who have appeared since the old, he went to live with his brother, an publication of the Dictionnaire de l'Acadé- engraver in wood at Friburg. Aftermie.—Much information is contained on wards, a relation of his took him
to Rome, the French classics in La Harpe's Cours de where he was employed by the landscape Littérature Française, and in that of Levi- painter Agostino Tassi, as a color-grinder zac (Paris, 1807, 4 vols.); also in Bouter- and a kitchen-boy. Here he received a wek's extensive Geschichte der Poesie und little instruction in painting, having previBeredtsamkeit. For the English classics, ously acquired some skill in drawing from Johnson and Warton are to be consulted. his brother. The sight of some paintings Bouterwek's work, also, is full of valuable of Godfrey Vals enchanted him so much, information on this subject. The Italian that, in spite of his poverty, he travelled classics are to be learned from the works to Naples-to study with the artist. His
genius now unfolded itself with such ra- combined the genius of Virgil and of Hopidity, that he was soon considered one Besides several panegyrical poems of the first landscape-painters of his time; on Honorius, Stilicho, and others, we posparticularly after he had studied, in Lom- sess two of his epic poems, the Rape of bardy, the paintings of Giorgione and Proserpine, and an unfinished GigantoTitian, whereby his coloring and chiaro machia, eclogues, epigrams and occasional scuro were greatly improved. After mak- poems. He exhibits a brilliant fancy, rich ing a journey into his native country, he coloring, great variety and precision in his settled, in 1627, in Rome, where his works descriptions, but he is often deficient in were greatly sought for, so that he was taste and gracefulness of thought. The enabled to live much at his ease, until best editions of his works are those of 1682, when he died of the gout. The Gessner, Leipsic, 1759, and of Burmann, principal galleries of Italy, France, Eng- Amsterdam, 1760, 4to. land, Spain and Germany are adorned CLAUDIUS (Tiberius) Drusus Cæsar, a with his productions. His best work, and Roman emperor, the youngest son of the the one on which he himself set the elder Claudius Drusus Nero and Antonia greatest value, is the painting of a small the younger, the daughter of Augustus's wood belonging to the villa Madama (in sister, born at Lyons, grew up without Rome). Clement XI offered to purchase any education, for the most part among it for as many pieces of gold as would slaves and women, and was an object of cover its surface; but the artist would not ridicule and scorn at court. He lived as part with it, since he used it as a study. an unimportant private man, and occuClaude possessed the greatest power of pied himself with literature. Among other invention, by which he gave an inexhaust- works, he wrote a Roman history, emible variety to his paintings, united with bracing the period from the death of Cæan ardent and persevering study of nature. sar to his own time, in 43 volumes, and The truth with which he portrays the also his own life. After the murder of effect of the sun in every part of the day, Caligula, the body-guard, who were ransoft breezes playing through the tops of sacking the palace, discovered him sethe trees, and all the delicate beauties of creted in a corner, dragged him out, and nature, is surprising ; and no artist but proclaimed him emperor (41 A. D.). The Caspar Dughệt comes near him in this senate, who had determined on the restoparticular. But all his rivals fell far short ration of the republic, were forced to conof equalling the dewy humidity which he firm the appointment. Claudius, suddenly threw over dark, shadowy places. His transferred from retirement and oppresfigures are poor, and he used to say—“I sion to uncontrolled power, distinguished sell my landscapes, and give my figures the beginning of his reign by some praiseinto the bargain.” In a great part of his worthy acts; he recalled the exiles, and paintings, the figures are the work of restored their estates to them; embellished Lauri and Francesco Allegrini. Claude Rome, and erected several large buildings most frequently chooses agreeable views for the public good. He made Mauritania without fixed limits, in which the eye a Roman province ; his armies fought loses itself. He often introduces grand successfully against the Germans, and architectural structures, and makes his kept possession of several strong places landscapes the scenes of mythological and in Britain. But he soon sunk into dehistorical events. As other artists fre- bauchery and voluptuousness ; and his quently gave his name to their own pro- wives, particularly the infamous Messalina ductions, he made drawings of all his (q.v.), together with his freedmen, adminpaintings, and called the books in which istered the government, sold offices and they were contained Libri di verità. Such places of honor, and committed the greata collection, containing 200 drawings, be- est atrocities unpunished. He died of longs to the duke of Devonshire; another, poison administered by his second wife, of 130 drawings, to lord Holland. Agrippina (mother of Nero), at the age of
CLAUDIANUS (Claudius), a Latin poet, a 63, A. D.54. His deification was the cause native of Alexandria, lived under the em- of Seneca's pasquinade entitled Apokoloperor Theodosius and his sons, and was kynthosis. an experienced warrior, as well as a writer CLAUDIUS, Matthias (called Asmus, or of merit. His poems gained him such the Wandsbeck Messenger), a German poet, renown, that, at the desire of the senate, whose prose and poetry bear a peculiar the emperors Arcadius and Honorius stamp of humor, frankness and cordiality, erected a statue to his honor in the forum is born, in 1741, at Reinfeld, in Holof Trajan, with the inscription, that inv vo.17, near Lübeck. In 1775, he made a