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collection of his compositions which had historical paintings, and other monuments appeared in the Wandsbeck Messenger, of antiquity. The first of his researches and other periodicals, with the addition was a History of Mexico, written in Italof some which had not been printed, and ian, of which an English translation in 2 gave the collection the title Asmus omnia vols. 4to. was published in 1787. This is sua secum portans, or Complete Works of a most comprehensive work, affording a the Wandsbeck Messenger (complete till great deal of information relative to the 1812, in 8 vols.). He wrote on a great natural and civil history, antiquities and variety of subjects. All his works are of religion of Mexico; but it displays' more a popular character. They are written in industry than judgment on the part of the a natural, intelligible, and often humorous author. style, and support the cause of good CLAVIJO Y FLAXARDO, don Joseph ; a morals, benevolence, patriotism and piety, Spaniard, who fell a sacrifice to a quarrel while they attack folly and vice with the with Beaumarchais. He lived in Madrid, weapons of ridicule and scorn. Many of where he had the reputation of an intellihis songs have been set to music by the gent scholar, and had published a journal, first composers, and have become a part El Pensador, and other useful works, of the national melodies. In the latter when his connexion with the sister of part of his life, he became a convert to Beaumarchais, whom he had loved, and religious mysticism, and died at Ham- then forsaken, gave rise to an affair of burg, Jan. 21, 1815, after having filled honor between him and the brother of the several public offices.

lady, who was formidable for talent rather CLAUSENBURG, or COLOsvar; a town than courage. This affair nearly occain Transylvania, capital of the Land of the sioned Clavijo the loss of his life, and deHungarians and of a county of the same prived him of his office and the good name, on the Samos; 145 miles N. N. E. opinion of his fellow-citizens. He passed Belgrade, 225 E. S. E. Vienna ; Jon. 23° the remainder of his life under a kind of 35 E.; lat. 46° 44' N.; population, 18,210; dishonor which the representations of his number of houses, 1200. It became the adversary had brought upon him. For seat of government of Transylvania about more than 20 years, he superintended the 1790. It is situated in a romantic valley, publication of the Mercurio Historico y surrounded on all sides by lofty moun- Politico de Madrid, with which he had tains, and has a handsome public square, been intrusted as early as 1773. He likeseveral elegant streets, fine gardens, and wise translated Buffon's Natural History public walks. It contains 5 Catholic into Spanish (Madrid, 1785–90, 12 vols.). churches, 2 Calvinist, 1 Lutheran, 1 Uni- He was vice-director of the cabinet of tarian, 2 hospitals, a Catholic college con- natural history, and director of the Theatre taining, in 1814, 232 students; a Reformed de los Sitios, when he died in 1806. Far college with 636 students ; and a Unitarian from resembling the detestable portrait college with 206 students.

which Beaumarchais draws of him, ClaCLAUSEWITZ, Charles von, Prussian vijo was of a mild disposition, upright major-general, director of the general mili- character, and a clear understanding. tary school at Berlin, born, June 1, 1780, Göthe founded his tragedy Clavigo on at Burg, entered the military service in Beaumarchais's story. 1792, and took part in the campaigns of CLAVIS (Latin for key) is often used for 1793 and 1794. He was also active in the a drawing, an index, &c., which serves as war against_Napoleon, in the service of a guide to the understanding of another Russia and Prussia, and has distinguished work; for instance, clavis Ciceronia, clavis himself by his Uebersicht des Feldzugs von Homerica, &c. 1813 (Survey of the Campaign of 1813). Clay is a mixture of decomposed min

CLAVICHORD. (See Clarichord.) erals, and hence it is by no means uni

CLAVICIMBALUM ; the name originally form in its composition. Several varieties given to the harpsichord.

soften in water, and allow themselves to CLAVI-CYLINDER. (See Chladni.) be kneaded and formed into moulds-a CLAVIGERO, Francesco Saverio; a Span- property by which they are fitted for the ish historian, who was native of Vera use so commonly made of them. Some Cruz, in Mexico. He was educated as an are easily fusible, others refractory; some ecclesiastic, and resided nearly 40 years acquire particular tints, others lose their in the provinces of New Spain, where he color and become white when exposed to acquired the languages of the Mexicans, a strong heat; upon all of which properand other indigenous nations, collected ties their applicability depends." They many of their traditions, and studied their occur in beds near the surface of the earth, or, covered by the soil, in the form- with flowers, agreeably to the petition of ations of brown and black coal. In the her loverlatter situation, they often contain remains Vous avez inspire mes vers, of vegetables, and are called slate clay, Qu'une fleur soit ma récompensewhich is intimately related to bituminous and Raoul could well interpret their meanshale and alum-earth. Alumine is the ing. He was the natural son of count basis of all clays, and imparts to them Raymond of Toulouse, and followed his their predominating characters. It is father to the war nst the emperor mixed with very variable proportions of Maximilian. In the battle of Guigenaste, silex, magnesia, lime, and oxide of iron. both were slain, and Isaure resolved to

The varieties of clay are of various im- take the veil. Before doing so, however, portant applications in pottery, in manu- she renewed the poetic festival which had facturing stone-ware and porcelain, in been established by the gay company of constructing furnaces for metallurgic ope- the seven troubadours, but had been, for a rations, &c.-Some of the principal vari- long time, forgotten, gave it the name of eties are indurated clay, or clay stone, Jeux floraux (q. v.), and assigned, as prizes which is clay in its highest state of indu- for the victors in the poetical contests, the ration. It is soft, but not easily diffused five different flowers which had served in water, and does not form with it a duc- her as means for replying to her lover's tile paste.-Porcelain clay, so named from passion. These flowers were wrought in the use to which it is applied, is white, gold and silver. Clemence Isaure approwith occasional shades of yellow and priated all her fortune to the support of gray. It is dull and opaque ; feels soft; in this institution. She was versed herself water, it falls to powder, and, when knead- in the gaye science, and, having fixed upon ed, it forms a ductile paste. It is, in gen- the 1st of May as the day for the distribueral, infusible by any heat that can be tion of the prizes, she composed an ode raised. It consists essentially of silex and on spring, which acquired for her the suralumine ; that of Cornwall contains 60 name of the Sappho of Toulouse. parts of alumine with 20 of silex.—Potter's CLEMENT, Titus Flavius (probably a clay and pipe clay are similar, but less native of Athens, but, on account of the pure, generally of a yellowish or grayish place of his residence, commonly called color, from the presence of iron.-Loam the Alexandrian), was one of the most fais the same substance mixed with sand, mous teachers of the Christian church, in oxide of iron, and various other foreign the 2d and at the beginning of the 3d ingredients.—The boles, which are of a century. He had been a heathen philosored or yellow color, are of a similar com- pher, was converted to Christianity, and, position, and appear to owe their colors after travelling a long time in Greece, to oxide of iron. They are distinguished Italy and the East, became presbyter of by their conchoidal fracture.—The ochres the church of Alexandria, and teacher are similar to the boles, containing only (catechetes) of the school in that city, in more oxide of iron.-Fuller's earth has an which place he succeeded Pantænus, his earthy fracture, sometimes slaty, is dull teacher, and was succeeded by Origen, and opaque. In water, it falls to powder, his pupil. These three instructers inwithout forming a ductile paste. It is used creased the fame of the Alexandrian to remove grease from cloth.–Tripoli is school in the 2d and 3d century. Clemfound loose or indurated; its fracture is ent was a fertile writer. The most imearthy; it feels harsh and dry; does not portant among those of his productions adhere to the tongue. It is used for pol- which have been handed down to us, are ishing the metals and glass.--The clays inscribed Προτρεπτικός, Παιδαγωγός, and Στρωμαare too generally distributed to require τείς, Or Στρώματα. The first is an exhortathe enumeration of their localities.

tion to the heathens to embrace ChristianCLEMENCE ISAURE, daughter of Ludo- ity, the second an exposition of Christian vico Isaure, born in 1464, near Toulouse, morals, and the third, which exhibits the lost her brave father when she was only most varied erudition, has the title Carfive years old. She was educated in soli- pets, on account of the variety of subjects, tude, and grew up, endowed by nature mo metaphysical, theological, historiwith beauty and talents. Near to her cal, which are here interwoven. It has garden dwelt a young troubadour, named been justly remarked that these works are Raoul, who became enamored of her, an imitation of the degrees of the Greek and communicated his passion in songs, mysteries. The first was the 'Atokábapois, in which her name and his were united. the purification from the former life; the The maiden replied, not with words, but second, the Monois, the consecration; the


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third, the 'Enontela, inspection. The works society, under the name Agape, for the of Clement are of great importance, as systematic suppression of paganism, has enabling us to judge of the state of sci- not been adopted by any other theologian. ence in his time, and because they contain CLEMENT II (Suidger, bishop of Bamfragments and accounts of lost works of berg) was placed in the papal see by the antiquity. Clement introduced the eclec- emperor Henry III, in the room of the tic philosophy into Christianity, and pro- unworthy Benedict IX. He crowned this moted the allegorical and mystical expla- emperor, and held a synod for the supnation of the sacred writings. The phi- pression of simony. His death took place losophy and erudition which gained him in 1047. He was probably poisoned by the admiration of his time, but also se- Benedict IX. (q. v.) duced him, at times, into singular spec- CLEMENT III (Guibert, archbishop of ulations, caused him, at a later period, to Ravenna, belonging to the party of the be considered a heretic, and to lose, with emperor Henry IV) was chosen pope in the orthodox, the name of saint, which 1080, with the view of supplanting Greghad been conferred on him. The first ory VII, and placed by violence in the editions of his works are that at Florence, Roman see (1084); maintained his situain 1550, and that at Heidelberg (Comme- tion as anti-pope, even after Gregory's lin.), 1592, by Frederic Sylburg, both in death, against Victor III, who was chosen folio. The most complete is that of by Gregory's adherents, and against Urban John Potter, Oxon., A Theatro Sheldon, IÍ, with various success, till 1089. He 1715, reprinted at Venice, 1757.

was expelled by the Romans, and comCLEMENT; the name of many popes.- pelled to swear to renounce all claims to CLEMENT I, of Rome, was, according

to the the papal authority ; but, in 1091, he remost probable computation, from 91 to turned to Rome with Henry's army. Be100, bishop in that city. He is counted ing again compelled to quit the city in among the apostolic fathers (see Church, 1094, he sought refuge at Henry's court, Fathers of), because St. Paul, in his epistle submitted, in 1099, to Urban's successor, to the Přilippians (chap. iv. verse 3), men- Paschal II, and died at Ravenna, in 1100. tions a Clement as a co-laborer with him, He exercised the papal authority only in and St. Peter is said to have given him those provinces of Germany and Italy the spiritual consecration. He wrote two which were under the dominion of the letters to the Corinthians, of which the emperor, and is not numbered among the first is extant almost entire, but disfig- legal popes. Consequently, the cardinalured with some corruptions and interpola- bishop Paulus of Palestine, a Roman, tions; of the second, only a fragment ex- chosen pope in 1187, was denominated ists. There is a work, pretending to be Clement III. His government was renthe autobiography of Clement, containing dered remarkable by a compact with the an account of his life, and his travels with Romans, which put an end to the disputes the apostle Peter, which, however, can be that had previously been constantly ocproved to have been written at the end of curring between them and their pontiffs, the 2d or the beginning of the 3d century. and strengthened his authority. He proIt exists in three different forms: the first moted the crusades, and supported Tanand most complete is in a Latin

transla- cred in getting possession of the Sicilian tion by Rufinus, under the title Recogni- crown. Tancred was a natural son of tiones, because Clement, after a number the duke Roger of Apulia. This pope of the strangest adventures, finds the died in 1191. members of his family, who had been CLEMENT IV (Guido of St. Guilles, in separated from him ; the second is in Languedoc); previously counsellor to the Greek, and divided into homilies, under king of France, and a lawyer. He the title Clementina; the third is a short was also the father of two daughters. epitome, relating the acts, journeys and When a widower, he became archbishop preaching of St. Peter. There is equally of Narbonne, cardinal-bishop of Sabina, little reason for considering Clement the and legate in England. He was chosen author of the body of apostolic constitu- pope in 1265, by the party of Charles of tions and canons which are ascribed to Anjou, and conferred on this prince the him, though some of them may belong to crown of both the Sicilies, then possessed him, or at least to his age. Of a far later by Manfred. Clement assisted Charles origin are the pseudo-Clementine letters against Manfred by instigating a crusade among the spurious decretals. The opin- against the latter, and did not obtain posion started by professor Kestner, 1819, session of Rome himself until 1268, after that Clement established a secret Christian a residence of two years in France (until 1267), and subsequently at Viterbo, and were denominated Clementines. (q. v.). He after the last prince of the Hohenstaufen endeavored to confirm his power in Italy stock, Conradin, had been beheaded at by a close connexion with king Robert of Naples. Not satisfied with having caused Naples, his vassal. With his assistance, the fall of the house of Hohenstaufen in he humbled Venice, on which he had Italy, he wished to decide the dispute be- imposed the interdict, in 1308, to punish tween Richard of England and Alphonso this state for having taken possession of of Spain, respecting the imperial throne Ferrara, and, in 1309, issued a new act of Germany, but died, without having ac- of excommunication, by which he procomplished his object, at Viterbo, Nov. nounced the Venetians infamous and out29, 1269. He was distinguished, as a lawed, abolished all the offices of their ruler of the church, by his power and government, released the people from resolution, as an excellent preacher, strict obedience, and annulled the laws. By a ascetic, and enemy to nepotism.*

crusade against Venice, in which his legCLEMENT V (Bertrand d’Agoust, from ate subdued Ferrara, and by the confisGascony), previous to his election, arch- cation of Venetian vessels and goods, he bishop of Bordeaux, and an adherent to reduced the republic to complete subjecBoniface VIII, who was the most invete- tion, and put an end to the war in 1313. rate enemy of Philip, king of France; but Robert rendered him still greater service on the death of Boniface VIII, Philip by restraining the power of the German gained him over by promising to promote emperor, and that of the Ghibeline party his election, and obtained from him a se- in Italy. The emperor Henry VII, alcret agreement to conform entirely to his though chosen by his influence, and bound wishes. He was indebted for his election to him by an oath of allegiance, knew well (which took place in Perugia, June 5, how to distinguish his rights in Italy from 1305) to the artifices of Philip's agents, his obligations to the pope. On his march who outwitted the Italian cardinals. He to Rome, in 1311, he found the whole of remained in France, on account of the Lombardy in a state of revolt; and Clemcivil wars in Italy, was crowned at Lyons, ent refused him assistance, and even forand then travelled about the country at bade his coronation, which Henry, howthe expense of the king and the French ever, extorted from the cardinals in Rome, clergy, until, in 1309, he finally fixed upon in 1312. Henry, having engaged in a dis Avignon as the constant residence of the pute with king Robert respecting the govpapal court With him, therefore, the ernment of Naples, put him under the ban series of French popes (or those who re- of the empire, and refused the pope's offer sided in Avignon) commences. In con- of mediation between him and his antagosideration of his agreement above-men- nist; upon which Clement issued bulls tioned, he released the king and his ser- for the protection of his vassal, and exvants from the excommunication which communicated all the emperor's allies. Boniface had pronounced against them, Upon the emperor's death, Clement apdeclared the penal bulls of this pope pointed Robert, in 1314, Roman senator against France invalid, made cardinals of and regent in Italy; but, in the midst of the king's favorites, and resigned to the his plans for the complete subjection of king the tithes of France for five years. this country, he died, April 20, 1314, at He, however, defeated Philip's plan of Roquemaure, in Languedoc. He left beplacing his brother Charles of Valois on hind him an inglorious name. Constant the throne of Germany, and, against Phil- embarrassments, extravagance and nepoip's desire, acquitted Boniface, after a te- tism, made him covetous, and led him to dious process, and long after his death, of practise the most unlimited simony. He the charge of heresy, at the council of did great injury to the church by grants Vienne. The holding of this council, of valuable benefices to laymen, allowed which sat seven months, in 1311 and his nephews to waste the money collected 1312, was the principal act of his reign. for the crusades, and Avignon to become At this same council, in obedience to the the seat of every description of vice during wishes of Philip, he abolished the order his reign, the impurity of his own morals of the Templars, and made salutary laws compelling him to overlook the faults of for the reform of the clergy and the mo- others. His establishment, at the council nastic discipline, which, in honor of him, of Vienne, of chairs for instruction in the

Oriental languages at the universities ; his * Nepotism, from nepos (nephew), denotes the encouraging the studies of the monks, and rindue partiality of the

, and their prodigal distribution of the offices and restricting, in some degree, the crying inrevenues of the church among them.

justice of the inquisition, cannot compen


sate for the flagrant faults in his adminis- writings are unimportant. During the tration of the papal see.

great schism, two popes bore the name of CLEMENT VI was a ruler not unlike the Clement, who were not accounted legitiforegoing. His name was Peter Roger. mate popes by the church. · Robert, count He was born of a noble family in 1292, at of Geneva, bishop of Cambray, and carMaumont, near Limoges ; at first a Ben- dinal, was elected pope at the age of 36, edictine monk and abbot of Fecamp, af- at Fondi, in 1478, by the French carditerwards bishop of Arras and counsellor nals, who had abandoned pope Urban VI. of king Philip, likewise archbishop of He adopted the name of Clement VII. Sens and Rouen; in 1338, cardinal, and with him the great schism commenced, in 1342, pope at Avignon. By the distri- France, and, at a later period, Scotland, bution of numberless abbeys and bishop- Lorraine, Savoy and Spain having joined rics to his favorites, by the sale of church him. He resided at Avignon, where he offices, and by ordering the jubilee to be derived his support from annates and celebrated every fiftieth year instead of from the sale of benefices, and offered to every hundredth, he soon gave proofs of allow the schism to be decided by a counhis avarice. The emperor Louis of Ba- cil of the church, but made no dispositions varia he treated with the greatest severity, to bring this about. In Italy, he had no following the footsteps of his predecessor. power, and was unable to protect the His bulls of excommunication even sur- house of Anjou, in Naples. He died withpassed those of the preceding pontiff in the out reputation, Sept. 16, 1394. Still less violence of their anathemas and their ob power had the successor of the schismatic loquy. The son of the king of Bohemia, Benedict XIII, Ægidius Muñoz, from BarCharles of Luxemburg, who had formerly celona, who was elected pope by three been his pupil at Paris, and was entirely cardinals at Peniscola, in 1424, and called devoted to him, was, by his influence, Clement VIII. He was supported by king chosen king of the Romans, in 1346, by a Alphonso of Arragon, and resided at Penispart of the German members of the em- cola until 1429, when he was induced, by pire ; but Clement was not able to get receiving the bishopric of the Baleares, to him universally acknowledged; after the give up his claims. death of Louis, in 1347, he was forced to CLEMENT VII (Julius of Medici); a natgrant to his adherents unconditional abso- ural son of Julius of Medici, prior of the lution; and, in order to gain the members knights of St. John, under pope Julius II. of the empire after the renunciation of the He was legitimated by his uncle Leo X, rival candidate Günther of Schwarzburg, made archbishop of Florence, cardinal he was obliged to consent to the reëlection and chancellor, and finally raised to the of Charles IV (9. v.), in 1349, without papal see (Nov. 19, 1523). His connexion being able to obtain the entire fulfilment with Francis I, king of France, involved of the conditions, disadvantageous to the him in a war with Charles V, to which German empire, on which he had pro- he was by no means equal. The impecured him the crown. Clement was rial army conquered and sacked Rome in more fortunate in Italy, where the revolt 1527, imprisoned Clement for the space in Rome, under Rienzi (q. v.), in 1346, was of seven months, in the castle of St. Ansoon quelled, and this remarkable man gelo, and forced him to surrender all the came into his power. The assassination strong places, and to pay a ransom of of Andrew, king of Naples, afforded him 40,000 ducats. Notwithstanding his flight an opportunity of inducing his widow, Jo- to Orvieto, in which he was assisted by the anna, who was suspected of being an ac- French marshal Lautrec, he was comcomplice in the murder, to sell Avignon pelled to perform this condition, and to to the papal see, in 1348; in consideration appoint cardinals and prelates for money, of which, she received absolution, and to enable him ultimately to conclude was left in possession of her realm. Thus peace with the emperor in 1529. He the pope gained his possessions in France crowned Charles at Bologna in 1530, and at a cheap rate. For a Spanish prince, obtained of him the reëstablishment of he founded, in 1344, the kingdom of the the family of Medici in the duchy of Canary Isles. His negotiations for a union Florence. He was not able to prevent with the Greeks and Armenians were the progress of the reformation in Gerwithout success. He died unregretted in many, and, in England, he even acceler1352. He was mild and liberal, in fact ated it, by issuing

a bull against the ditoo much so towards his relations, fond vorce of Henry VIII, which instigated of women, and not even externally devout. that monarch to a total rupture with the Petrarch praises his good memory. His pope. France received from him a per



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