Imatges de pągina

nicious present in the person of his niece, Catharine of Medici (q. v.), whom he married, at Marseilles, in 1533, to the duke of Orleans, second son of king Francis I. He was intent on new schemes against Charles V, when he died, at the age of 56, Sept. 25, 1534. His morals have been commended; but as a ruler, he was weak, faithless, irresolute, unwise, and, in his enterprises, unfortunate. His main object was, the elevation of the house of Medici, and his reign brought no advantage to the church.

CLEMENT VIII (Hippolito Aldobrandini) ascended the papal throne by the influence of Spain, Jan 30, 1591. His refusal to acknowledge the French king Henry IV, whom he did not absolve till 1595, occasioned the limitation of his power in France; nor was he able to accomplish his wish of rendering Venice dependent on the papal see. On the other hand, he obtained sufficient political influence to maintain possession, without opposition, of the duchy of Ferrara, taken by force from the house of Este, in 1598; to mediate a peace between France and Spain, at Vervins, in 1598; and, having passed over in silence the edict of Nantes, and given his consent to the divorce of Henry IV from Margaret, he was able to prevent another war between the same powers in 1600. By favoring the Dominicans at the commencement of the dispute de auxiliis gratia (see Grace), and by denying canonization to Loyola, he brought on a rupture with the Jesuits, whose intrigues he counteracted in England. They were therefore suspected of having occasioned his death, which took place March 5, 1605. Clement, in 1592, caused a second edition of the Vulgate of pope Sixtus V to be prepared, with material alterations. His credulity was abused by an impostor, who pretended to bring an offer of submission to the papal see from the patriarch of Alexandria; and he was unsuccessful in an attempt to unite the Christians of St. Thomas (q. v.), in the East Indies, with the Roman Catholic church.

Clement IX (Julius Rospigliosi), born at Pistoia, in 1600, was, for 11 years, nuncio to Spain, in the service of the papal court, and cardinal and secretary of state under Alexander VII. He was elected pope June 20, 1667, distinguished himself, by his wisdom and mild and benevolent spirit, amongst the popes of his century. He endeavored to improve the finances of the Roman government; secularized the possessions of several ecclesiastical orders (the canons of St. Gregory, in Alga, at Venice; the Jesu

its, and the brothers of St. Jerome of Fiesole) and convents, to procure means to enable the Venetians to equip themselves against the Turks, and even assisted them with troops and galleys; contributed to bring about the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, put an end to the disputes with the Jansenists, by a compromise, in 1668, which, in honor of him, was called the Clementine peace; and likewise terminated the differences between Portugal and the papal chair, which had lasted many years, by confirming the bishops nominated by king Pedro. He banished the Jews from Rome, with few exceptions, and prohibited the missionaries from carrying on trade. He died, Dec. 9, 1669, of grief at the taking of Candia by the Turks. His court was splendid; his character noble, mild and rich in princely virtues, which ensured him universal love.

CLEMENT X (Emilio Altieri), born, 1589, of a patrician family of Rome, was admitted into the college of cardinals Nov. 26, 1669, at the age of 80, and came to the papal throne April 29, 1670. The first use which he made of his authority was to patronise his relations, one of whom, cardinal Paluzzi Altieri, completely governed him. He endeavored to diminish the taxes, and allowed the nobility to carry on wholesale trade; but was obliged to recall a decree which exempted the foreign ambassadors, in Rome, from the payment of duties. He had little influence in foreign countries. His reign was rendered remarkable by the commencement of the dispute with the king of France, concerning the right to dispose of benefices and church lands, which was claimed by that monarch, and had serious consequences under Innocent XI. He was an enemy to the diffusion of learning, and prohibited many useful writings. The festivities of the jubilee, which he celebrated in 1675, were increased by the presence of queen Christina of Sweden. He refused to countenance a league of Russia and other Christian monarchs against Turkey. His death, which took place July 22, 1676, was regretted only by his relations.

CLEMENT XI (John Francis Albani), born at Urbino, July 23, 1649, became cardinal in 1690, and was distinguished by his knowledge of business and enterprising spirit-qualities peculiarly valuable in a ruler during a period of great political perplexity, occasioned by the disputed succession in Spain. He was accordingly elected pope by one party to the dispute, Nov. 23, 1700. Rome had cause to rejoice that he showed himself an enemy to

nepotism, and succeeded in his severe regulations against the privileges claimed by foreign ambassadors for the quarter of the city in which they resided, on the ground that it ought to be considered as foreign territory. In the government of the church, and in the management of foreign affairs, he evinced more passionate violence than actual courage; and, with a striking want of political tact, more obstinacy and prejudice than decision of character. He resisted in vain the creation of the royal dignity in Prussia, and his partiality to the Bourbons, in the Spanish war of succession, proved injurious to him, particularly as he gave the imperial court other causes of dissatisfaction. He not only refused the request of the emperor Joseph to acknowledge his brother Charles in Spain, but likewise protested against the imperial right of the first bull, viz. the right claimed by the emperors, on their accession to the throne, of presenting candidates on the first vacancies which occurred in the ecclesiastical establishments of Germany, called Stifter. Neither threats of excommunication nor preparations for war prevented the imperial troops from entering the States of the Church and garrisoning Comacchio. Clement was compelled, in 1709, to cede Comacchio to the emperor, to dismiss 5000 of his troops, to grant to the imperial troops a free passage to Naples, and to acknowledge Charles III as king of Spain. He was thus completely separated from Philip V of Spain, who, for some years, gave up all connexion with Rome. He effected nothing by his protestation against the peace of Altranstädt and the election of king Stanislaus, and his nuncio was not admitted to the deliberations which resulted in the peace of Utrecht. Ingratitude and vexation were his rewards from the Jesuits, as well as from the Bourbons. Whilst in China, the Jesuits bade defiance to his prohibition of introducing heathen forms into Christian worship, illtreated his envoys, and finally compelled him to comply with their wishes: they led him, from a spirit of revenge towards the Jansenists in France, into measures injurious to the church and the papal authority. (See Unigenitus.) Clement entered into a contest, in 1713, respecting the rights of the crown of Sicily in church affairs, which neither his abolishment of the privilege nor his excommunication of Sicily could terminate, and he was at last compelled to yield, on account of the burdensome obligation of supporting the many priests and monks who had fled

from Sicily, and looked to him for aid as martyrs in his cause. None but the English pretender, whom he supported in Rome from the year 1717, and the king of Portugal, for whom he established a patriarchate in Lisbon, were sincerely devoted to him. In the government of the States of the Church, he proved himself well disposed. He enriched the library of the Vatican with Oriental manuscripts, and by the addition of his private library. In Bologna, he founded an academy of the fine arts, and was a general friend and patron of science. He was himself versed in theology, and occasionally preached at St. Peter's church. He died of an illness occasioned by excessive indulgence in confectionary, March 19, 1721. This pope lived at a time when the decline of the papal authority was becoming evident.

CLEMENT XII (Laurentius Corsini), a native of Florence, was born April 7, 1652, and created pope July 12, 1730. His relations with the Catholic powers were attended with as much trouble and vexation as those of his predecessor. He was forced to bestow on the infant of Spain, only eight years of age, the cardinal's hat and the archbishopric of Toledo; to submit to the levying of troops by the Spaniards in the States of the Church, and, after a commotion thereby created, to admit a Spanish garrison into his dominions, and to allow Parma, long a papal fief, to pass, first to an infant and then to the German emperor, without gaining any thing by his submission but some advantageous reservations in the concordat made with Spain, 1737. He had a dispute with Venice concerning the privilege claimed by the ambassadors, of having their quarter of the city exempt from the jurisdiction of the Roman government, and at last submitted. Nor was his opposition to the royal right of patronage over the ecclesiastical benefices in Savoy more effectual, notwithstanding his threat of excommunicating the king. He did not even succeed in obtaining the little republic St. Marino. Convinced that he could gain nothing from the Catholics, Clement bent his thoughts seriously to the conversion of heretics, and therefore omitted the annual proclamation of the bull In cœna Domini. Another bull, in which, unacquainted with the particular circumstances of the case, he promised the Protestants in Saxony to leave them the property of the church, which had been secularized during the reformation, if they would become Catholics, like their elector, only exposed him to ridicule. His preachers

of repentance in Silesia made no impression on the Protestants. The submission of the patriarch in Constantinople was prevented by the Greeks, and the gratification of the sanguine hopes of the pope was limited to the conversion of a prince of Morocco, whom he then had to maintain, and of a Swedish count Bielke, whom he made Roman senator. He provided for future conversions by instituting an ecclesiastical seminary for young Greeks in Calabria, which was named, after him, the Corsinian seminary. He improved the police of Rome, by abolishing the asylums, and by prohibiting articles of luxury; supported the pawn-house; erected a foundling hospital, and buildings for the embellishment of Rome; collected statues in the capitol, and Oriental manuscripts in the Vatican (where, at that time, Syriac manuscripts were published), and promoted learning in general. Notwithstanding a state lottery, of which he received the chief profits, and also three jubilees held during his reign, which yielded large sums, his nepotism, his love of splendor, and his luxurious habits, greatly exceeded his means, and he died in debt, Feb. 6, 1740.

CLEMENT XIII (Charles Rezzonico),born in 1693, at Venice, was made pope July 6, 1758, by the influence of the empress Maria Theresa and the Jesuits. In acknowledgment of the aid of the former, he conferred on her the title of apostolic majesty, and promoted the interests of the latter at the expense of his honor and peace. During his government, they were expelled from Portugal, Spain, France, Naples, Sicily and Parma, and took refuge with him. Though these fugitives were a great burden to him, he still favored their order in a particular bull, in 1765, without, however, being able to prevent its decline. The persecution of his favorites happened at a time when he was engaged in disputes respecting the privileges of the church in Parma, and, by his arrogance towards the Bourbons, had lost Avignon, Venaissin and Benevento; when his reservation of benefices in Spain was rejected, the tribute of Naples refused, and Germany was instructed, by Justus Febronius, respecting the limits of the papal authority. During this period, too, Rome twice suffered from famine, viz. in 1764 and 1766. He was governed entirely by his secretary of state, Torreggiano, and the general of the Jesuits, Ricci, and even ventured, in 1768, by repeating the bull In cona Domini, in a threatening brief to Parma, to irritate all the Catholic courts,

and died in the midst of contentions, Feb. 2, 1769. He was a weak, desponding old man, whose untimely zeal gained the appearance of energy only by the violent measures of his two counsellors.

CLEMENT XIV (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli), son of a physician, born at St. Arcangelo, near Rimini, in 1705, entered the order of Minorites in his 18th year, studied philosophy and theology, soon became a teacher himself, and gained the affection and esteem of his pupils. He instilled into them exalted sentiments and feelings, and endeavored to free them from all monkish habits and narrowminded ideas. The keen-sighted Benedict XIV, we are told, once laid his hand on Ganganelli's head, and said to the general of his order, "Take good care of this brother; I recommend him particularly to your charge." During the government of this pope, Ganganelli obtained the important station of counsellor of the holy see. Benedict, who beheld in him German phlegm joined to Italian vivacity, often consulted him. "He unites," he said, "solid judgment to deep knowledge, and is a thousand times more modest than an ignorant man, and as cheerful as if he had never lived in retirement." Clement XIII bestowed the cardinal's hat upon Ganganelli; but, great as were his virtues and talents, there was not the most distant prospect of seeing him in the chair of St. Peter. The freedom with which he expressed himself on the necessity of submitting wisely to the will of monarchs seemed little calculated to gain the favor of the rest of the cardinals. In the congregations of cardinals, held under the eye of the pope, relating to the duchies of Parma and Piacenza, and to the affairs of the Jesuits, he gave his opinion so directly in opposition to the pope and the secretary of state, that his advice was no longer asked. "If the Roman court is not to be precipitated from its exalted station,” he often exclaimed, "it is necessary to preserve the favor of monarchs; for their arms extend beyond the bounds of their dominions, and their power reaches over the Alps and the Pyrenees." These sentiments were displeasing at Rome, but ensured him powerful supporters on the occasion of a vacancy in the papal chair. Clement XIII died; the conclave was violent and disunited, until the eloquence of the cardinal Bernis prevailed, and Ganganelli was proclaimed, May 19, 1769, head of the church, although he was not a bishop. No pope, perhaps, had ever been elected under more difficult circum

stances. Portugal, which was on ill terms with the holy see, wished to put itself under the government of a patriarch; the manner in which the duke of Parma had been treated had displeased the kings of France, Spain and Naples; Venice was determined to reform the ecclesiastical orders without the pope's interposition; Poland was endeavoring to reduce the papal authority; even the Romans murmured. Clement began his reign with laboring to reconcile the monarchs; sent a nuncio to Lisbon; suppressed the bull In cœna Domini, which had incensed the potentates, and negotiated with Spain and France. When called on to abolish the order of the Jesuits, he wrote, "I am the father of all believers, and particularly of ecclesiastics. I dare not dissolve a distinguished order without reasons to justify the act before God and posterity." Finally, after several years of negotiation, he issued the famous brief, July 21, 1773, termed Dominus ac Redemtor noster, which abolished the order. But from that time he led a life of anxiety, fear and repentance; his strength declined. "I am going into eternity," he said, “and I know the cause. ." He died Sept. 22, 1774. The words of the pope gave rise to suspicions of his having been poisoned; which were the more readily admitted as the pope himself countenanced them by taking antidotes. But these suspicions are negatived by the opinion of physicians, and it is believed that his saying, above quoted, refers to the grief he felt for having yielded to the wishes of the sovereigns in abolishing the Jesuits without being convinced of the necessity of the measure. Carlo Giorgi, one of his officers, honored the memory of his benefactor by erecting a marble monument to him in the church of the apostles in Rome, which Canova executed according to a plan of Volpato. Since Sixtus V, no pope has sat in the chair of St. Peter, who has governed with more wisdom and independence. Clement was distinguished for his enlightened spirit, political sagacity and erudition, excellence of character, firmness and activity. He was a patron of the arts and sciences, and the founder of the Museo Clementino, a great ornament of the Vati


CLEMENT, Jacques, the assassin of Henry III, king of France, born at the village

*The story that the proper name of Ganganell was John Gottfried Lange; that he was born Oct.22, 1702, at Lauban; had been a printer, and quitted Breslau without ever giving information of what had become of him, is by no means proved.

of Sorbon, in the archbishopric of Rheims, had been but a short time a member of the order of Dominicans, and was only 25 years old, when the party-spirit of the League (q. v.) instigated the weak-headed enthusiast to assassinate the king. (See Henry III.) His prior, Bourgoing, in particular, to whom he confided his project, encouraged him, and exhorted him to pray and fast, that the will of God might be made known to him. It is said that a nocturnal voice, which he was made to hear, called upon him to free his country from the tyrant. The duchess of Montpensier, sister of the Guises (see Guise, Henry), is accused of having confirmed him in his determination, and of having encouraged him by the assurance that, if he escaped, he should be raised to the cardinalship by the pope, and if he perished, he should be placed amongst the saints. The enthusiast repaired, in July, 1589, from Paris to St. Cloud, where the king resided. The procureur-général, to whom he was conducted, suspected him, and caused him to be watched at night, when he was discovered fast asleep, with the place treating of the murder of Holofernes by Judith lying open in the breviary before him. The following morning, he was brought before the king, and pretended to be the bearer of important despatches from Paris; but, whilst the king was reading the letter handed him by the traitor, Clement stabbed him, and left the knife in the wound. Two courtiers, Lognac and Guesle, who entered upon hearing the king's cries, instantly stabbed the assassin. Clement's corpse was placed on a hurdle, and drawn to the place of execution, where it was torn by four horses, and burnt. The wild madness of party-spirit, of which he was made the instrument, considered him as a martyr. His mother, some time after, appearing at Paris, the monks exhorted the people to go to meet the holy mother of the saint. His image was placed on the altars, and the earth which had drank his blood at St. Cloud was collected. Even the pope Sixtus V pronounced the eulogy of the assassin in the assembly of the cardinals, and compared him to Judith and Eleazar.

CLEMENTI, Muzio; one of the greatest performers and composers for the pianoforte now living, and the only distinguished performer on this instrument, among the Italians, who can be opposed to Bach. The French have called him, in jest, the papa of the living piano-forte players, partly on account of his age, and partly from

his having been the instructer of many distinguished performers of the present generation (Cramer, Field, &c.), and the founder of a new school. He was born in Rome, in 1752. His father, a silversmith, was himself fond of music, and had his son instructed as well as his means allowed, young Clementi showing great talent and inclination for this art. Buroni, one of his relations, was his first master. In his 7th year, an organist, Cordicelli, instructed him in thoroughbase, and, in his 9th year, he passed an examination as an organist. He then received instruction from the famous singer Santarelli, and from Carpini, the celebrated contrapuntist. At this time, in his 12th year, he wrote a mass for four voices, which was received with great applause. He had made such progress in his performance on the piano-forte, that an Englishman, Mr. Beckford, was anxious to take him to England. The father at length consented, and young Clementi studied at the country-seat of Mr. Beckford, in Dorsetshire, and soon made himself master of the English language. In his 18th year, he far excelled all his contemporaries in skill and expression, and published his Opus II, which formed a new epoch in this species of composition. It has furnished the basis of all modern sonatas for the piano-forte, and its simplicity and novelty have attracted the admiration of all connoisseurs and amateurs. After leaving Dorsetshire, he was engaged as director of the orchestra of the opera in London. His fame increased rapidly. In the year 1780, he went to Paris, where he was received with enthusiasm. From thence he proceeded, in the summer of 1781, to Vienna, where he became acquainted with Mozart and Haydn, and played before the emperor Joseph II with the former. He likewise published several compositions. In 1784, he repeated his visit to Paris, but, after that, remained in England till 1802. The loss which he sustained from the failure of a large commercial establishment induced him to give lessons in music for a time. In his leisure hours, he occupied himself with playing on the piano-forte, and the improvement of this instrument. He had previously published his famous Introduction to the Art of Piano-forte Playing. In the year 1802, he went to Paris, for the third time, with his scholar Field; from thence to Vienna and to St. Petersburg, where Field remained. Clementi was universally admired. From Petersburg, the piano-forte


player Zeuner followed him to Berlin and Dresden. From Dresden, he was accompanied by Klengel the organist, who was anxious to improve under his care. Berlin, Clementi married his second wife, whom he took with him into Italy, but lost on his return to Berlin. He then went anew to St. Petersburg, with the distinguished piano-forte performer and instructer Berger, and afterwards returned again to Vienna. In the following year, family concerns carried him to Rome and Milan. In the summer of 1810, he ventured, notwithstanding the closure of the continental ports, to return to England, where he arrived safely, and married his third wife. In the mean time, he continued to compose, and wrote some grand symphonies for the philharmonic society. One of his most valuable works is his Gradus ad Parnassum, which occupied him a long time. He has likewise superintended the construction of instruments, and this business has been very lucrative to him. He has one of the principal musical establishments in London, his instruments being highly esteemed. In 1820, he again went to the continent, and remained at Leipsic till Easter in 1821, where two new symphonies of his were performed. Notwithstanding his great age, he possesses all his former liveliness and activity. His compositions are as pleasing as they are thoroughly correct and pure in their style. His performance has great execution, and he plays extempore with distinguished ability.

CLEMENTINES; the name given to certain ordinances proceeding from popes of the name of Clement, chiefly such as were given at the council of Vienne, in 1311, by Clement V (q. v.), and which form a part of the corpus juris canonici. (See Canon Law.)

CLEOBIS and BITON. Herodotus relates an affecting story of these two youths, the sons of Cydippe, chief-priestess of Juno at Argos. At the Hoaia, a feast in honor of Juno, it was customary for the chiefpriestess to be drawn by two white oxen. On one occasion, the procession had already begun to move, and the oxen had not arrived; upon which Cleobis and Biton drew the chariot of their mother, for the distance of 45 stadia, up the mountain where the temple of Juno stood. The people applauded, and the mother was so affected by this instance of filial affection, that she begged the goddess to grant her sons the best gift which could be conferred on mortals. While the youths were yet in the temple, a soft sleep fell upon

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