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them, and they never awoke. (Herodot. i, 31.) The Argives placed the statues of Cleobis and Biton in the temple at Delphi, and in a temple at Argolis they were represented drawing the chariot of their mother. (Pausan. ii, 20.)
CLEOBULUS; one of the seven wise men, as they were called; a native of Lindus, or, according to some, of Rhodes, or Caria. He travelled to Egypt to learn wisdom, like many of the sages of Greece. He was king of Rhodes, and was succeeded on the throne by his daughter Cleobulina. Several of his sayings are
CLEOMBROTUS; son of Pausanias, king of Sparta. During his reign began the Theban war, in which he commanded the Spartans against Epaminondas and Pelopidas. He was killed in the battle of Leuctra, which happened July 8, 371 B. C., according to the Julian calendar. (See Epaminondas.)
CLEOMENES; the name of three kings of Sparta, the most distinguished of whom is Cleomenes III, son of Leonidas. He intended to reform Sparta, and to restore the institutions of Lycurgus, after the example of Agis, his brother, who had lost his life in a similar attempt. Cleomenes distinguished himself in a war against the Achæans, commanded by Aratus. Returning to Sparta with a part of the army, he put to death the ephori, made a new division of lands, and introduced again the old Spartan system of education, made his brother his colleague, and provided that in future two kings should always sit on the throne of Sparta. He lived very simply, was just and friendly towards every body. He treated his enemies with generosity; for instance, the Achæans, who had begun a new war and were conquered. He showed himself an able general, in a war against the Macedonians and Achæans united, but, at last, lost the important battle of Sellasia. Cleomenes fled to Egypt, where he was supported by Ptolemy Euergetes, but his son Ptolemy Philopator kept Cleomenes in confinement; upon which he and 12 fellow-prisoners killed each other. With Cleomenes expired the race of the Heraclide which had sat on the throne of Sparta.
CLEON. (See Pericles.)
CLEOPATRA. Amongst several Egyptian princesses of this name, the most renowned was the eldest daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, wife to his eldest son Ptolemy, with whom she shared the throne of Egypt. Both were minors at the death
of their father, and were placed under the guardianship of Pothinus and Achilles, who deprived Cleopatra of her share in the government. She went to Syria, and was forming plans for obtaining her rights by force, when Cæsar (q. v.) came to Alexandria, and, captivated with her youthful charms, seconded her claims; and though the people of Alexandria were excited to a revolt by the arts of her brother, Cæsar succeeded in pacifying them, and procured Cleopatra her share of the throne. But Pothinus stirred up a second revolt, upon which the Alexandrian war commenced, in which the elder Ptolemy losing his life, Cæsar proclaimed Cleopatra queen of Egypt; but she was compelled to take her brother, the younger Ptolemy, who was only 11 years old, as her husband and colleague on the throne. Cæsar continued some time at Cleopatra's court, and had a son by her named Cæsarion. After Cæsar's departure, she governed undisturbed. She subsequently made a journey to Rome, where Cæsar received her magnificently, and erected a statue to her, next to the statue of Venus, in the temple consecrated to that deity. This act, however, excited the displeasure of the people, and Cleopatra soon returned to her own dominions. When her brother, at the age of 14, demanded his share in the government, Cleopatra poisoned him, and remained sole possessor of the regal power. During the civil war in Rome, she took the part of the triumvirs, and, after the battle of Philippi, she sailed to join Antony at Tarsus. She was then 25 years old, and combined with extraordinary beauty great wit and the highest elegance of manners. She appeared in a magnificently decorated ship, under a golden canopy, arrayed as Venus, surrounded by beautiful boys and girls, who represented Cupids and Graces. Her meeting with Antony was attended by the most splendid festivals. After having accompanied him to Tyre, she returned to Egypt. Antony followed her, and gave himself up to the most extravagant pleasures. She accompanied him on his march against the Parthians, and, when he parted from her on the Euphrates, he bestowed Cyrene, Cyprus, Colesyria, Phoenicia, Cilicia and Crete on her, to which he added part of Judea and Arabia, at her request. After this, Antony conquered Armenia, returned triumphantly to Egypt, and made his three sons by Cleopatra, and also Cæsarion, kings. Now commenced the war between Octavius and Antony; but, instead of acting prompt
ly against his adversary, Antony lost a whole year in festivals and amusements with Cleopatra at Ephesus, Samos and Athens, and at last determined to decide the contest by a naval battle. At Actium (q. v.) the fleets met. Cleopatra, who had brought Antony a reinforcement of 60 vessels, suddenly took to flight, and thus caused the defeat of her party; for Antony, as if under the influence of frenzy, immediately followed her. They fled to Egypt, and declared to Octavius that if Egypt were left to Cleopatra's children, they would thenceforth live in retirement. But Octavius demanded Antony's death, and advanced towards Alexandria, which Antony hastened to defend. Cleopatra determined to burn herself with all her treasures, but Octavius pacified her by private messages. These communications, however, did not remain concealed from Antony, who, supposing Cleopatra treacherous, hastened to her, to avenge himself by her death. She, however, escaped, and took refuge in the monument destined for her sepulchre, which she had erected near the temple of Isis, and caused the report of her suicide to be circulated. Antony now threw himself upon his sword, but before he expired was informed that Cleopatra was still living, upon which he caused himself to be carried into her presence, and breathed his last in her arms. Octavius succeeded in getting Cleopatra into his power, who still hoped to subdue him by her charms; but her arts were unavailing, and, becoming aware that her life was spared only that she might grace the conqueror's triumph, she determined to escape this ignominy by a voluntary death. She ordered a splendid feast to be prepared, desired her attendants to leave her, and put an asp, which a faithful servant had brought her, concealed amongst flowers, on her arm, the bite of which caused her death almost immediately (B. C. 30). Octavius, in his triumphal procession, had a portrait of the queen, with a serpent on her arm, carried before him. Her body was interred near that of Antony. At the time of her death, she was 39 years old, and had reigned 22 years.
CLEPSYDRA (Greek, «λɛ‡údoα, from «XÉT, I steal, and dwo, water) was the name of an instrument intended to measure time by the falling of drops of water, and not unlike our hour-glasses. The length of time which it measured was not uniform. (Plin. Ep. ii, 11.) They were an important instrument in the Greek and Roman courts. To prevent the lawyers from
speaking too long, a particular period was assigned to them, to be determined by the clepsydra, and, in Greece, an ipiowo was appointed to watch the instrument and to prevent fraud. If the laws, quoted by the advocate, were read, the clepsydra was stopped (aquam sustinere). Sometimes advocates petitioned for more time; hence the expression, dare or petere plures clepsydras, or clepsydras clepsydris addere. Pompey, in his third consulate, introduced these instruments into the Roman courts. They were also used for domestic purposes. The horologia ex aqua was of a more artificial construction.
CLERFAYT (Francis Sebastian Charles Joseph de Croix), count of, an Austrian general, born in 1733, in the castle of Bruille, near Binche, in Hainault, distinguished himself in the seven years' war, particularly in the battles of Prague, Lissa, Hochkirchen and Liegnitz, and was among the first who received the order of Maria Theresa, in 1757. During the insurrection in the Netherlands, in 1787, he rejected every proposal to betray the cause of Joseph II. In 1788 and 1789, he fought against the Turks as lieutenant-general field-marshal, and received the appointment of general of the artillery, and the grand cross of the order of Maria Theresa, in 1790. In 1792, he commanded an army of 10,000 men in the Netherlands, and lost the famous battle of Jemappes, no less honorable to the vanquished than to the victor. His subsequent retreat towards the Rhine, with a handful of followers, closely pursued by the enemy, added much to his reputation. He gained advantages over the French at Nerwinden, Quievrain, Famars, Le Quesnoi, &c. In 1794, he was opposed to Pichegru in West Flanders, and yielded to superior force only after seven well-contested combats. In 1795, he received the baton of field-marshal, and the supreme command of the imperial troops on the Rhine. He afterwards resigned his command to the archduke Charles, became a member of the Austrian council of war, and died at Vienna, in 1798, where a superb monument was erected to him by the city. Clerfayt united with the talents of a general all the qualities of a good citizen, and of an excellent man. His tenantry found in him the mildest master. purse was always open to those of his dependents who needed and deserved his assistance; and all the obligations which they had given him for repayment, he burned on the day before his death. He was simple in his dress, but, when engaged against the enemy, he was never
seen otherwise than in his full uniform, and with the badges of the orders to which he belonged. "The day of battle," he said, "is the day of honor to the warrior."
CLERGY (from the Latin clerus, derived from the Greek λpos, the share or heritage) signifies the body of ecclesiastical persons, in contradistinction to the laymen. The Greek word was applied in this sense, in order to indicate that this class was to be considered as the particular inheritance and property of God-a metaphor taken from the Old Testament. The clerus was divided, in the ancient church, into the high and low. To the former belonged the bishops, presbyters and deacons; to the latter, all the other ecclesiastical persons. The support of the clergy in different countries constitutes an interesting subject in political economy, and has been investigated in a work entitled, Remarks on the Consumption of the Public Wealth by the Clergy of every Nation; London, 1822, 2d ed. (See Church, and Ecclesiastical Establishments.) When a Catholic priest receives the tonsure, he repeats a part of the 16th psalm, "The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance," &c. The Catholic clergyman, according to the doctrine of the Roman church, is endowed, in his spiritual character, with a supernatural power, which distinguishes him essentially from the layman, as the power to forgive sins, and to consecrate the bread, so as to convert it into the real body of Christ, &c. CLERGY, BENEFIT OF. (See Benefit of Clergy.)
CLERK, John, of Eldin; the inventor of the modern British system of naval tactics, which is the more remarkable, as he was a country gentleman, not acquainted with navigation. In 1779, he imparted to his friends his new system of breaking through the line of the enemy. Lord Rodney first made use of it, in his victory of April 12, 1782, over the French, under De Grasse, between Dominica and Les Saintes. Since then, Clerk's principles have been applied by all the English admirals, and lords Howe, St. Vincent, Duncan and Nelson owe to them their most signal victories. (See Playfair's Memoir, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. ix., p. 1; also the article Naval Tactics.)
CLEVELAND; a post-town of Ohio, and capital of Cuyahoga county, on lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, at the point where the Ohio canal reaches lake Erie, 60 miles E. of Sandusky, 180 W. S. W. of Buffalo, 160 N. E. of Columbus; lon. 81° 46′ W.; lat. 41° 31′ N. It is a flour
ishing town, important from its situation at the termination of the Ohio canal, and from its connexion with the steam-boat navigation from Buffalo, and is one of the most considerable commercial places on lake Erie.
CLEVES, formerly the capital of the dukedom of Cleves, now the chief place of the Prussian circle of the same name (1080 square miles, with 210,000 inhabitants), is situated in a pleasant plain, a league from the Rhine, with which it is connected by a canal. The city contains 1000 houses, with 6000 inhabitants. It has many manufactures, particularly of wool, cotton and silk. The iron sarcophagus of a prince Maurice, of Nassau-Siegen, buried here, is surrounded by Roman urns, inscriptions, lamps, &c., which are found in the neighborhood. Prussia acquired Cleves as early as 1609; and, after it had changed masters several times, it came again into the possession of this government. It is now a strong fortress, lying on the small river Kermisdal, over against the Netherlands. The German dialect spoken here much resembles the Dutch.
CLIENTS, in ancient Rome, were citizens of the lower ranks, who chose a patron from the higher classes, whose duty it was to assist them in legal cases, to take a paternal care of them, and to provide for their security. The clients, on the other hand, were obliged to portion the daughters of the patron, if he had not sufficient fortune; to ransom him, if taken prisoner and to vote for him, if he was candidate for an office. Clients and patrons were under mutual obligation not to accuse each other, not to bear witness against each other, and, in general, not to do one another any injury. Romulus, who had established this relation, in order to unite more firmly the patricians and plebeians, made a law that he who had omitted his duty as client or patron might be slain by any body. During a period of 600 years, no instance was known of a disagreement between the clients and patrons. This relation continued till the time of the emperors. It is certainly among the most interesting and curious which history mentions, and must be considered as one of the first attempts at a regular government; as the transition from a patriarchal state, in which family relations are predominant, to a well-developed political system, securing the rights and independence of the individual.-In modern times, the word client is used for a party to a lawsuit, who has put his cause into the hands of a lawyer.
CLIFFORD, George, the third earl of Cumberland of that family, eminent both for his literary and military abilities, was born in Westmoreland, in 1558. He studied at Peterhouse in Cambridge. His attention, at this period, was principally directed to mathematics and navigation, in both which he became a great proficient. In 1586, he took part in the trial of queen Mary Stuart; and, in the course of the same year, sailed to the coast of South America, having under his command a small squadron, which sensibly annoyed the Portuguese trade in that part of the world. Two years afterwards, he commanded a ship in the ever memorable action with the "invincible armada;" and subsequently fitted out, at his own expense, no fewer than nine expeditions to the Western Islands and the Spanish Main, in one of which he succeeded in capturing a valuable plate-ship. His skill in martial exercises and knightly accomplishments on shore was no less distinguished than his naval tactics; and queen Elizabeth, with whom he was in great favor, not only appointed him her champion in the court tournaments, but employed him in the more serious task of reducing the headstrong Essex to obedience. He was made a knight of the garter in 1591. He died Oct. 30, 1605, in London.
CLIFFORD, Anne, a spirited English lady, the only daughter of the above, was born in 1589. Her first husband was Richard, lord Buckhurst, afterwards earl of Dorset, by whom she had three sons, who died young, and two daughters. Her second husband was the eccentric Philip, earl of Pembroke, by whom she had no issue. This lady wrote memoirs of her first husband, as also sundry memorials of herself and progenitors, all of which remain in manuscript. In the course of her life, she built two hospitals, and erected or repaired seven churches. She also erected monuments to the poets Spenser and Daniels, the latter of whom was her tutor. She is, however, more celebrated for a high-spirited reply to sir Joseph Williamson, secretary of state, after the restoration, who had presumed to nominate a candidate for her borough of Appleby: "I have been bullied," she writes, "by a usurper; I have been neglected by a court; but I will not be dictated to by a subject: your man sha'n't stand."
CLIFFS, or CLAVES; certain indicial characters placed at the beginning of the several staves in a composition, to determine the local names of the notes, and the sounds in the great scale which they are
intended to represent. The three cliffs now in use, viz., the F, or bass cliff, the C, or tenor-cliff, and the G, or treble cliff, by the several situations given them on the stave, furnish us with the means of expressing all the notes within the usual compass of execution, both in vocal and instrumental music, without a confused addition of leger lines, either above or beneath the stave.
CLIFTON, William, was the son of a wealthy mechanic of Philadelphia, and was born in that city in 1772. He early discovered great vivacity and intelligence, and a fondness for literature, but he was brought up in the manners and principles of the stricter order of Quakers, his parents being of that sect. The rupture of a blood-vessel, at the age of 19, debilitated his naturally feeble constitution so much that he was incapacitated for business, and was thus enabled to devote himself more particularly to the literary pursuits, of which he was fond. His first effusions, both in prose and verse, appeared in the newspapers, and other fugitive publications. He afterwards commenced a poem, entitled the Chimeriad, which he did not finish. In this the genius of false philosophy is personified with much spirit and boldness of imagination, under the character of the witch Chimeria. But the best of his productions is perhaps the Epistle to Mr. Gifford, published anonymously in the first American edition of Mr. Gifford's poems. It exhibits the author's poetical thought and power of versification to great advantage. But the hopes of future excellence, which these productions afforded, were not to be gratified. The pulmonary complaints of the author assumed a more decided character, and he died in December, 1799, in the 27th year of his age.
CLIMACTERIC (annus climactericus); a critical year or period in a man's age, wherein, according to astrologers, there is some notable alteration to happen in the body, and a person is exposed to great danger of death. The word comes from
ako, derived from <λíμaš, a ladder or stairs. The first climacteric is, according to some, the seventh year. The others are multiples of the first, as, 14, 21, &c. 63 and 84 are called the grand climacterics, and the dangers attending these periods are supposed to be great. Some held, according to this doctrine, every seventh year a climacteric; others allowed this title only to the product of the multiplication of the climacterical space by an odd number, as 3, 5, 7, 9. Others considered every
ninth year as a climacteric. The idea of climacterics is very ancient.
CLIMATE. The ancients denoted by this name the spaces between the imaginary circles, parallel to the equator, drawn in such a manner over the surface of the earth, that the longest day in each circle is half an hour longer than in the preceding. According to this division, there were twenty-four climates from the equator, where the longest day is 12 hours, to the polar circle, where it is 24 hours. From the polar circle, the longest day increases so rapidly, that, only one degree nearer the pole, it is a month long. The frigid zones, so called, that is, the regions extending from the northern and southern polar circles to the corresponding poles, some geographers have divided again into six climates. We have learned from a more accurate acquaintance with different countries, that heat or cold depends not merely on geographical latitude, but that local causes also produce great variations from the general rule, by which a region lying near the equator should always be warmer than one remote from it. By the word climate, therefore, we understand the character of the weather peculiar to every country, as respects heat and cold, humidity and dryness, fertility, and the alternation of the seasons. The nature of a climate is different according to the different causes which affect it, and the observations hitherto made have led, as yet, to no definite result. In general, however, geographical latitude is the principal circumstance to be taken into view in considering the climate of a country. The highest degree of heat is found under the equator, and the lowest, or the greatest degree of cold, under the poles. The temperature of the intermediate regions is various, according to their position and local circumstances. Under the line, the heat is not uniform. In the sandy deserts of Africa, particularly on the western coast, also in Arabia and India, it is excessive. In the mountainous regions of South America, on the contrary, it is very moderate. The greatest heat in Africa is estimated at 70° of Réaumur, or 1893° of Fahrenheit. The greatest degree of cold at the poles cannot be determined, because no one has ever penetrated to them. The greatest altitude of the sun at noon, and the time of its continuance above the horizon, depends altogether on the latitude. Without regard to local circumstances, a country is warmer in proportion as the sun's altitude is greater and the day longer. The elevation of any region above the
surface of the sea has likewise an important influence on the climate. But the nature of the surface is not to be disregarded. The heat increases as the soil becomes cultivated. Thus, for the last thousand years, Germany has been growing gradually warmer by the destruction of forests, the draining of lakes, and the drying up of bogs and marshes. A similar consequence of cultivation seems to be apparent in the cultivated parts of North America, particularly in the Atlantic states. The mass of minerals, which composes the highest layer of a country, has, without doubt, an influence on its temperature. Barren sands admit of a much more intense heat than loam. Meadow lands are not so warm in summer as the bare ground.* The winds, to which a country is most exposed by its situation, have a great influence on the climate. If north and east winds blow frequently in any region, it will be colder, the latitude being the same, than another, which is often swept by milder breezes from the south and west. The influence of the wind on the temperature of a country is very apparent in regions on the sea-coast. The difference in the extremes of temperature is least within the tropics. The heat, which would be intolerable when the sun is in the zenith, is mitigated by the rainy season, which then commences. When the sun returns to the opposite half of the torrid zone, so that its rays become less vertical, the weather is delightful. Lima and Quito, in Peru, have the finest climate of any part of the earth. The variations in temperature are greater in the temperate zones, and increase as you approach the polar circles. The heat of the higher latitudes, especially about 59° and 60°, amounts, in July, to 75° or 80° of Fahrenheit, and is greater than that of countries 10° nearer the equator. In Greenland, the heat in
*The cultivation of a new country is often attended by most disastrous consequences, which ought not, always, to be imputed to the improvidence of colonists. The new soil, the moment that it is broken up by the plough, and penetrated by the rays of the sun, must necessarily undergo a strong evaporation, and its exhalations, which are not always of a harmless kind, little elevated in the air, are condensed by the cold, which still continues to be sharp, particularly during the night. Hence arise those epidemic maladies which ravage colonies newly established. The destruction of forests, when carried too far, is followed by pernicious effects. In the Cape de Verd islands, it is the burning of the forests which has dried up the springs, and rendered the atmosphere sultry. Persia, Italy, Greece, and many other countries, have thus been deprived of their delightful climates.