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summer is so great that it melts the pitch it may be asked, is the same thing true of on the vessels. At Tornea, in Lapland, the low tracts of the country? To this where the sun's rays fall as obliquely, at the great observer, Alexander Humboldt, the summer solstice, as they do in Ger- in his Tableaux de la Nature, makes the many at the equinox, the heat is some- following reply: “The comparative nartimes equal to that of the torrid zone, be- rowness of this continent; its elongation cause the sun is almost always above the towards the icy poles; the ocean, whose horizon. Under the poles, the climate is, unbroken surface is swept by the trade perhaps, the most uniform. A greater winds; the currents of extremely cold degree of cold than any we are accus- water which flow from the straits of Matomed to, seems to reign there perpetually. gellan to Peru ; the numerous chains of Even in midsummer, when the sun does mountains, abounding in the sources of not go down for a long time (at the poles rivers, and whose summits, covered with not for six months), the ice never thaws. snow, rise far above the region of the The immense masses of it, which sur- clouds; the great number of immense round the poles, feel no sensible effect rivers, that, after innumerable curves, alfrom the oblique and feeble beams of the ways tend to the most distant shores; dessun, and seem to increase in magnitude erts, but not of sand, and consequently every year. This is very remarkable; for less susceptible of being impregnated with there is the most undoubted evidence heat; impenetrable forests, that spread over that these now deserted countries were, in the plains of the equator, abounding in rivformer ages, inhabited. But, within a few ers, and which, in those parts of the country years, large portions of this continent (if that are the farthest distant from mountains we may so call it) of ice have separated, and from the ocean, give rise to enormous and floated down to southern seas. This masses of water, which are either attracted led the English government to adopt the by them, or are formed during the act of project of penetrating to the north pole. vegetation,-all these causes produce, in the Captains Ross and Parry, one after the lower parts of America, a climate which, other, have sailed as far as possible into from its coolness and humidity, is singuthe arctic ocean. (See North Polar Expe- larly contrasted with that of Africa. To ditions.)

these causes alone must we ascribe that From the general division of America into abundant vegetation, so vigorous and so lofty mountainous plateaus and very low rich in juices, and that thick and umbraplains, there results a contrast between two geous foliage, which constitute the charclimates, which, although of an extremely acteristic features of the new continent.” different nature, are in almost immediate To these remarks Malte-Brun adds (Uniproximity. Peru, the valley of Quito, and versal Geography, yol. v, book lxxv): the city of Mexico, though situated between “Assuming this explanation as sufficient the tropics, owe to their elevation the gen- for South America and Mexico, we shall eral temperature of spring. They behold add, with regard to North America, that it the paramos, or mountain ridges, covered scarcely extends any distance into the with snow, which continues upon some torrid zone, but, on the contrary, stretches, of the summits almost the whole year, in all probability, very far into the frigid while, at the distance of a few leagues, an zone; and, unless the revived hope of a intense and often sickly degree of heat north-west passage be confirmed, may, suffocates the inhabitants of the ports of perhaps, reach and surround the pole it- Vera Cruz and of Guayaquil. These two self. Accordingly, the column of frozen climates produce each a different system air attached to this continent is no where of vegetation. The flora of the torrid counterbalanced by a column of equatozone forms a border to the fields and rial air. From this results an extension groves of Europe. Such a remarkable of the polar climate to the very confines proximity as this cannot fail of frequently of the tropics; and hence winter and occasioning sudden changes, by the dis- summer struggle for the ascendency, and placement of these two masses of air, so the seasons change with astonishing differently constituted—a general inconve- rapidity. From all this, however, New nience, experienced over the whole of Albion and New California are happily America. Every where, however, this exempt; for, being placed beyond the continent is subject to a lower degree reach of freezing winds, they enjoy a of heat than the same latitudes in the temperature analogous toʻtheir latitude." eastern portion of the earth. Its eleva- (For further information, see Malte-Brun's tion alone explains this fact, as far as re- Universal Geography, book xvii, and the gards the mountainous region; but why, article Wind. Respecting the climate of

It was

the U. States, see Darby's View of the U. of medicine. Another old and very States, chap. x, Philad. 1828.)

thriving, although less known institution, CLIMAX (from the Greek klipas, a ladder was situated at Nisapour, in Persia; or stairs) and ANTICLIMAX are rhetorical and hospitals, even before the flourishfigures; in the former of which the ideas ing period of the Arabians, to whom the rise in degree; in the latter, they sink. happy idea is commonly ascribed, were Climat was also the name of several united with these medical institutions. mountains one in Arabia Felix; another The last school, founded by the

emperor in Pisidia; another in Phænicia; also of Aurelian, and superintended by Greek a castle in Galatia; also of a place in Pe- physicians, spread the doctrines of Hiploponnesus, and another in Libya. pocrates through all the East. CLINGSTONE. (See Peach.)

supported for several centuries, and in it, CLINICAL MEDICINE (from the Greek without doubt, Rhazes, Ali-Abbas, Avicenxlivn, a bed) teaches us to investigate, at the na, and the other celebrated Arabian phybed-side of the sick, the true nature of sicians, were instructed.

At the same the disease in the phenomena presented; time, the celebrated John Mesue, of Dato note their course and termination; and mascus, was at the head of the hospital to study the effects of the various modes of Bagdad. Of the mode of instruction of treatment to which they are subjected. pursued there, we know nothing; but we From this mode of study we learn the are inclined to form no very elevated opincharacter of individual cases; theoretical ion of the systems of an age which was study being competent to make us ac- devoted to all the dreams of Arabian polyquainted with species only. Clinical pharmacy. In truth, medicine shared the medicine demands, therefore, careful ob- fate of all the other natural sciences in those servation. It is, in fact, synonymous with barbarous ages. Men were little disposed experience. What advances would medi- to acquire, slowly and cautiously, the cine have made, and from how many er- knowledge of disease, at the bedside of rors would it have been saved, if public the sick, in the manner of the Greek phyinstruction had always followed this natu- sicians. It appears probable, that the ral course, so that pupils had received foundation of universities led to a renewed none but correct impressions and distinct attention to the study of medical science; conceptions of the phenomena of disease, and we find, accordingly, that in Spain, and had attained a practical knowledge even under the dominion of the Arabians, of the application of those rules and pre- there were schools and hospitals for the cepts, which dogmatical instruction always instruction of young physicians at Seville, leaves indefinite! We are unacquainted Toledo and Cordova. But, even then, clinwith the method of clinical instruction in ical studies were almost wholly neglected. medicine, which was followed by the As- Instead of studying the history of diseases, clepiades, but we cannot help admiring the pupils occupied their time with the the results of it as exhibited to us in the most unprofitable pursuits. Not much writings of Hippocrates, who augmented more advantageous were the journeys the stores of experience inherited from which were made for the same objects to them, by following in their steps. After Italy and France, in the 11th and 12th his time, medicine ceased to be the prop- centuries. The schools of Paris and erty of particular families, and the path of Montpellier were those principally resorted experience, by which it had been rendered to; but in these, the instruction consisted so valuable, was soon deserted. The slow simply in lectures and endless commentaprogress of anatomy and physiology, the ries upon the most obscure subjects; and, constant study of the philosophy of Aris- even at the close of the 15th century, when totle, and endless disputes respecting the the works of the Greek physicians began nature of man, of diseases and of reme- to be printed, men were still busied with dies, occupied all the attention of phy- verbal explanations and disputes. Two sicians; and the wise method of observing centuries elapsed before physicians reand describing the diseases themselves turned to clinical studies and instructions. fell into disuse. Hospitals, at their origin, Among the renovators of this mode of served rather as means of displaying the studying medicine may be named, in benevolence of the early Christians than Holland, William von Straten, Otho Heurof perfecting the study of medicine. The nius, and the celebrated Sylvius, about the school of Alexandria was so celebrated, middle of the 17th century; and it is said according to Ammianus Marcellinus, that that clinical instruction was given, at the a careful attendance upon its lessons en- same period, in the schools of Hamburg, titled the student to pursue the practice Vienna and Strasburg. Even Boerhaave,

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VOL. III.

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who succeeded Sylvius as clinical instruc- and it is termed polyclinic, when the in-
tor at Leyden, in 1714, has left us no jour- structer and his pupils visit together the
nals of daily observation of disease, but beds of the sick.
only academic discourses upon the gene- Clinton, sir Henry, an English gen-
ral principles of medicine. The influence eral, served in the Hanoverian war, and
of this celebrated school was first per- was sent to America, in 1775, with the
ceived at Edinburgh, and afterwards at rank of major-general, where he distin-
Vienna,--two schools which, in celebrity guished himself in the battle of Bunker
for clinical instruction, soon eclipsed their hill. He was soon after sent against New
common mother, the school of Leyden. York and Charleston, but without success.
Cullen, one of the most celebrated teachers In a second attempt on New York, he
of practical medicine at Edinburgh, was too entered the city, after having defeated the
fond of fine-spun theories upon the condi- Americans on Long Island. Being ap-
tion of the diseased structures of the body, pointed to the command of that station
and the proximate causes of disease, ever for the purpose of favoring the movements
to follow a uniform method in his lectures, of general Burgoyne, his attempts were
and to adopt the entire history of disease, rendered ineffectual by the surrender of
as observed at the bedside, as the basis of that general at Saratoga. In 1778, he
his system. From the account of what succeeded Howe in the command at Phil-
was effected in clinical medicine in Italy, adelphia, which Washington obliged him
Germany and France, in the course of the to evacuate. In 1779, he obtained pos-
18th century, we may discover both the session of Charleston. His connexion
constantly increasing attention to this de- with Arnold (q. v.), his attempt to seduce
partment of knowledge, and the diffi- the American troops by the offer of mak-
culties with which such institutions are ing up their arrears of pay, and his boast
obliged to contend. The Vienna school, that there were more American royalists
by means of the labors of Van Swieten, in the pay of the British king than there
De Haen, and, still more, of Stoll and of were soldiers in the army of Washington,
Franck, became a model of clinical study, illustrate the system of corruption then
since public lectures were given in the adopted by the British generals in Amer-
hospitals, and the simplicity of Grecian ica. In 1782, Clinton returned to Eng-
medicine successfully inculcated. The land, having been superseded by general
practice and study of medicine, in the Carleton. He died in 1795. His Narra- .
hospitals in France, was only an indirect tive of his conduct in America (1782),
mode of gaining public confidence, till was answered by lord Cornwallis ; to
the period of the general revival of science, whom Clinton replied in Observations on
and the erection of the French École de Lord Cornwallis's answer (1783). He
Santé. In that, for the first time, clinical was also the author of Observations on
instruction was expressly commanded. Stedman's History of the American War
At the present day, every good school has (1784).
its establishment for clinical medicine con- Clinton, Jamės, the fourth son of
nected with it; that is, an hospital, in colonel Charles Clinton, was born, Aug.
which diseases can be seen and studied by 9, 1736, at the residence of his father, in
those attending it. In Germany, the em- Ulster county, New York. He received
pirical or experimental mode of studying an excellent education, and acquired much
medicine was early given up for the more proficiency in the exact sciences; but his
scientific form of lectures; while in Eng- ruling inclination was for a military life.
land and France, the opposite extreme He was appointed an ensign in the second
took place, and students were carried, as regiment of the militia of Ulster county,
they sometimes are still, to the bedside of by sir Charles Hardy, the governor, and
the sick, before they had been properly rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel in
grounded in elementary studies. In Ger- the same regiment, before the commence-
many, there are very numerous journals, ment of the revolution. During the war
which contain clinical reports of cases, as of 1756, between the English and French,
there are so many clinical institutions ap- he displayed much courage, and particu-
propriated to particular classes of disease. larly distinguished himself at the capture
În the American schools, clinical instruc- of fort Frontenac, where he was a captain
tion is almost wholly overlooked, although under colonel Bradstreet, and rendered
some slight lectures of this description are essential service by taking a sloop of war
given by the physicians of hospitals.- The on lake Ontario, which obstructed the
clinical school is called ambulatory, when advance of the army. The confidence
the patients attend only at particular hours; which was reposed in his character may

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be estimated by his appointment as cap- was often called by his fellow-citizens to
tain-commandant of the four regiments perform civic duties, such as those of a
levied for the protection of the western commissioner to adjust the boundary line
frontiers of the counties of Ulster and Or- between Pennsylvania and New York, of
ange, a post of great responsibility and a member of the legislature, and of the
danger, by which he was intrusted with convention which adopted the present
the safety of a line of settlements of at constitution of the U. States, and of a sen-
least 50 miles in extent, which were con- ator; all of which offices he filled with
tinually threatened by the savages. After credit to himself and usefulness to his
the French war, Mr. Clinton married Miss country. General Clinton was of a mild
Mary de Witt, and retired from the army and affectionate disposition, but when
to private life. But he did not very long greatly provoked, displayed extraordinary
enjoy repose. June 30, 1775, he was energy. In battle, he was calm and col-
appointed, by the continental congress, lected. He died Dec. 22, 1812.
colonel of the third regiment of New York CLINTON, George, the youngest son of
forces, the American revolution being then colonel Charles Clinton, was born July 15,
on the eve of commencement. In the 1739, in Orange (then Ulster) county, New
same year, he marched with Montgomery York. His education was superintended
to Quebec; and, in 1777, having been by his father, a gentleman of a highly cul-
previously promoted to the rank of briga- tivated mind, assisted by a minister of the
dier-general in the army of the U. States, gospel, named Daniel Thain, who had
commanded at fort Clinton, when it was been educated at the university of Aber-
attacked by sir Henry Clinton, in order to deen. He evinced, at an early age, that
create a diversion in favor of general spirit of activity and enterprise which
Burgoyne. After a gallant defence, fort marked his after-life. During what was
Clinton, as well as fort Montgomery, of called the French war, he left his father's
both of which his brother George, the house, and entered on board of a priva-
governor, was commander-in-chief, were teer, which sailed from the port of New
carried by storm. General Clinton was York; and, after encountering great hard-
the last man to leave the works ; but he ships and perils, returned home, and im-
escaped with a severe wound, and reached mediately accepted a lieutenancy in a com-
his house covered with blood. An expe- pany commanded by his brother James.
dition, soon after, having been planned to He was present at the capture of fort
chastise the Iroquois on the frontier set- Frontenac, now Kingston, where the
tlements, on account of some atrocities of company to which he belonged behaved
which they had been guilty, the chief with great gallantry. After the usual
command was given to general Sullivan, time of study, he was admitted to the bar,
who was ordered to proceed up the Sus- and practised with much success in his
quehannah, while general Clinton was to native county, until his election to the
join him by the way of the Mohawk. colonial assembly, where he became the
The junction was successfully accom- head of the whig party, or minority, and
plished, and, after one engagement, in 'uniformly opposed the arbitrary course of
which the Indians were defeated with the government. April 22, 1775, he was
great loss, all resistance ceased on their chosen a delegate to the continental con-
part, and, desolation being brought into gress; and, in 1776, he was also appointed
their settlements, they fled to the British brigadier-general of the militia of Ulster
fortress of Niagara, where they died in county, and, some time after, a brigadier
great numbers, in consequence of living in the army of the U. States. At the first
on salt provisions, to which they were election under the constitution of the
unaccustomed. By this one blow, an end state, which was adopted at New York,
was put to their incursions and cruelties. April 20, 1777, he was chosen both gov-
During a considerable part of the war, ernor and lieutenant-governor. Having
general Clinton was stationed at Albany, accepted the former office, the latter was
where he commanded. He was at the filled by Pierre van Cortlandt. He con-
siege of Yorktown, and here his conduct tinued in the chief magistracy of the state
was marked by his usual intrepidity. He during six terms, or 18 years, when he
made his last appearance in arms on the declined a reelection. In consequence of
evacuation of the city of New York by the the great number of tories who resided in
British, when he bade an affectionate fare- the state of New York, and its distracted
well to the commander-in-chief, and re- condition, the situation of governor Clin-
tired to his ample estates. He did not, ton was more arduous and important than
however, enjoy uninterrupted repose, but any other in the Union, save that of the

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commander-in-chief. He, however, be- negatived. In private life, he was kind haved with the greatest energy and intre- and amiable, and warm in his friendships; pidity, not only as chief magistrate, but as as a public man, he is entitled to respectactual head of the militia ; and, for a long ful remembrance. time, resisted the attacks of the whole Clinton, De Witt, was born, March 2, British army, commanded by sir Henry 1769, at Little Britain, in Orange county, Clinton. By a vigorous exertion of au- New York. He was of English origin. thority in the impressment of flour on an His father served with great distinction important occasion, he preserved the army during the revolutionary war, and became from dissolution. His conduct at the a major-general in the army of the U. storming of forts Montgomery and Clin- States. His mother was a De Witt, a ton, in October, 1777, was particularly member of the distinguished Dutch family praise-worthy. He was greatly instru- of that name. Her parents had emigrated mental in crushing the insurrection under to America. He was educated at ColumShays, which took place in Massachu- bia college, where he highly distinguished setts, in 1787. Governor Clinton was himself. He then commenced reading unanimously chosen president of the con- law with the late honorable Samuel Jones, vention which assembled at Poughkeep- and, in due time, was admitted to the bar. sie, June 17, 1788, to deliberate on the But before he was able to acquire any new federal constitution. After remain- practice of importance, he was appointed ing five years in private life, he was elect- private secretary to his uncle George ed a member of the state legislature, at a Clinton, and continued in this office until time when the country was in an agitated the end of his relative's administration, in and critical condition, and it is affirmed 1785. In the interim, he had been chosen that his influence was the principal cause secretary to the board of regents of the of the great political revolution which university, and to the board of fortificatook place in 1801. At that period, he tions of New York. In 1797, Mr. Clinton was also induced to accept again the sta- was elected a member of the legislature tion of governor, and, after continuing in of New York, at the time when the two that capacity for three years, he was ele- great parties, which have since divided vated to the vice-presidency of the U. the country, were organized, and emStates, a dignity which he retained until braced the republican or democratic side. his demise at Washington, April 20, 1812. In 1800, he was chosen by the council of He married Cornelia Tappan, of Kings- appointment, of which body he was a ton, Ulster county, by whom he had one member, to support their cause in a conson and five daughters, of whom but two troversy between them and governor Jay. daughters are still living. The following This was finally settled by a convention, anecdotes are related of his energy and which met at Ålbany, in 1801, when the decision :—“At the conclusion of the rev- constitution of New York was modified olutionary war, when violence against the in various ways. The same year, he was tories was the order of the day, a British chosen a member of the senate of the officer was placed on a cart in the city of Union, in order to supply the vacancy ocNew York, to be tarred and feathered. casioned by the resignation of general This was the signal of violence and assas- Armstrong, and continued a member of sination. Governor Clinton, at this mo- that body for two sessions. After that ment, rushed in among the mob with a period, he was chosen mayor of New drawn sword, and rescued the victim at York, and remained in this situation, with the risk of his life." “Some years after- the intermission of but two years, until wards, a furious assemblage of people col- 1815, when he was obliged to retire, in lected, called the doctors' mob, and raged consequence of the violence of party polthrough New York, with the intention of itics. In 1817, he was elected, almost killing the physicians of that city, and unanimously, governor of the state; the pulling down their houses, on account of two great parties having combined for the their having dug up bodies for dissection. purpose of raising him to that dignity-SO The violence of this mob intimidated the high was the general sense of his talents local magistracy. Governor Clinton for- and services. This harmony continued tunately appeared in person, called out until the distribution of offices, when, of the militia, and restored peace to the course, discontent was excited, and at that city.” He discharged the functions of time commenced a systematic opposition vice-president with great dignity. It was to his administration. He was reëlected, by his casting vote, whilst in that station, however, in 1820, notwithstanding the that the renewal of the bank charter was great exertions of the opposite party, who

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