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had induced Daniel D. Tompkins, then tremely laborious, every moment which vice-president, and, from his popularity in he could spare from his necessary duties his native state, emphatically termed the being devoted to the cultivation of his man of the people, to become his opponent. mind. No one was ever more ambitious After his reelection, great resistance was of a reputation for science and literature. made to his measures ; but, fortunately, In some of the physical sciences he was the canal scheme, of which Mr. Clinton especially versed, and his proficiency as a was one of the prime movers and most classical and belles-lettres scholar was efficient advocates, had been so firmly es- very considerable. He was a member of tablished, that it was secure from attack. a large part of the literary and scientific Having nothing to fear for this favorite institutions of the U. States, and an honobject, he proceeded in his plans of public orary member of many of the learned improvement, notwithstanding the vio- societies of Great Britain and the contilence with which he was assailed; but in nent of Europe. His productions are nu1822, he declined offering himself again merous, and consist of his speeches in the as a candidate, and retired into private state legislature and in the senate of the life. In 1810, Mr. Clinton had been ap- Union, his speeches and messages as govpointed, by the senate of his state, one of eror; his discourses before various literthe board of canal commissioners; but ary, philosophical and benevolent instituthe displeasure of his political opponents, tions; his addresses to the army during the who were, at that time, greatly predomi- late war; his communications concerning nant in the legislature, was excited by the the canal; and his judicial opinions ; beenthusiasm evinced in his favor at the sides various fugitive pieces. As a public canal celebration, in October, 1823, at Al- character, he is entitled to durable renown. bany, and they deprived him of his office. His national services were of the greatest This act, however, for which no reason importance ; the Erie canal, especially, could be assigned, occasioned a complete although his title to the merit of being the reaction of the public feeling towards him. originator of the project may be disputed, His friends did not suffer the opportunity will always remain a monument of his to escape, but again brought him forward patriotism and perseverance. He was, as a candidate for the office of governor, also, a promoter tatud benefactor of many and carried him, by a most triumphant religious and charitable institutions. In majority, over colonel Young. In 1826, the performance of judicial duties, which he was again elected, by a large majority, he was called upon to discharge whilst over judge Rochester; but he died before mayor, and as a member of the court of this term was completed. His decease errors, the highest judicial tribunal of was in consequence of a catarrhal affec- New York, his learning and ability have tion of the throat and chest, which, being received unqualified encomium. neglected, occasioned a fatal disease of magistrate, he was firm, vigilant, dignified, the heart. He expired almost instantane- and of incorruptible integrity. From none ously, whilst sitting in his library, after of his official stations did he derive any dinner, Feb. 11, 1828. His son was writ- pecuniary benefit, though he had often ing near him, and, on being informed by opportunities of acquiring affluence. As him of a sense of oppression and stricture an orator, he was forcible and manly, across his breast, immediately called in though not very, graceful. Mr. Clinton medical aid ; but before the physician was twice married. His first wife was could arrive, his father was no more. Miss Maria Franklin, the daughter of an The next day, business was suspended in eminent merchant of New York, by whom Albany. The public testimonials of re- he had seven sons and three daughters ; spect paid to his memory, throughout the of whom four sons and two daughters state and Union, were almost numberless. survive. His second wife was Miss CathHis body was interred with every honor. arine Jones, the daughter of the late docMr. Clinton was tall, finely proportioned, tor Thomas Jones of New York, a lady and of a commanding aspect. In his do- of great excellence. mestic and social relations, he was cheer- Clio; daughter of Jupiter and Mneful and kind; in his friendships, warm and mosyne; the muse of glory and history. sincere; and in his moral character, unex- Her attributes are, a wreath of laurel upon ceptionable. His manners were rather her head, a trumpet in her right hand, distant and reserved, in consequence of and a roll of papyrus in her left. (See long habits of abstraction, and a natural Mythology, Greek.) diffidence, of which he never could divest CLITUS ; son of Dropis, and brother of himself. He was an early riser, and ex- Hellanice, the nurse of Alexander the

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Great. He was one of the generals of military service, for which nature had so Philip and Alexander, and saved the life peculiarly fitted him. During two years, of the latter in the battle of the Granicus, public events gave him little opportunity by cutting off the hand of Rhosaces, who to distinguish himself; but, when the Enghad just lifted his arm to kill Alexander. lish thought proper to engage as auxiliaNotwithstanding this service, however, ries, in favor of a competitor to the reignAlexander slew him in a fit of intoxication, ing rajah of Tanjore, it was resolved to on account of some irritating words. After attack one of his forts named Devi Cotah, the act was performed, he was penetrated in which service Clive acted with great with the bitterest remorse.

bravery, and was, soon after, appointed Clive, Catharine, a celebrated comic commissary to the British troops. About actress, was the daughter of a gentleman this time, M. Dupleix, taking part with named Raftor, and was born in the north a candidate for the subahship

of the Carof Ireland, in 1711. When young, she natic, succeeded in placing him on the was married to Mr. Richard Clive, a bar- throne, on condition of raising Chundasarister; but the union was unfortunate, and, heb to the nabobship of Arcot. By this a separation taking place, she adopted the proceeding, he gained a large grant of tertheatrical profession, in which she attained ritory for the French, and the collection a distinguished rank. She filled and of all the revenues in that quarter of the adorned a variety of comic parts; and, Hindoo empire. The ostentation and whether she exhibited the woman of good insolence with which they afterwards consense, of real fine breeding, the humorous, ducted themselves roused the indignation the fantastic, the affected, the rude, the of the English, a body of whom, under awkward, or the ridiculous female, in any the command of Clive, made an attack rank of society, she was sure to fascinate upon the city of Arcot, the boldness of the audience; though her talents were which measure caused it to succeed; and, peculiarly adapted to scenes of low life. after a most complete victory, he returned Her lively, playful humor is exemplified to Madras, and, in 1753, sailed to England by the following theatrical anecdote :She for the recovery of his health. A diaperformed at Drury lane theatre under inond-hilted sword was voted to him by the management of Garrick. One night, the East India company, which he only while playing the lady in Lethe, Mrs. accepted upon condition that colonel LauClive, in turning her head towards the rence, who had similarly distinguished stage-box, chanced to encounter the eye himself in the action, should receive a of Charles Townshend. That political wit like present. He was also presented with pointed instantly to an old belle on his left, the government of St. David's, with the a very caricature of the ridiculous dame right of succession to that of Madras, and she was portraying on the stage. The a lieutenant-colonel's commission in the actress paused for a moment, and burst king's service. After a successful attack into laughter. The galleries caught the on the pirate Angria, in conjunction with jest, and joined boisterously in the mirth, admirals Pocock and Watson, he repaired clapping loudly with their hands at the to St. David's, but was soon called to Masame time. Mrs. Clive at length retired dras, to command the succors sent to from the stage, of which she had been Bengal, where the nabob Surajah Dowlong a distinguished ornament, and passed lah had attacked the English, destroyed the latter part of her life at Little Straw- their factories, taken Calcutta, and suffoberry hill, near the Gothic villa of Horace cated several of his prisoners in the black Walpole, who, as well as many other

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hole. Colonel Clive proceeded to Calsons of rank and eminence, courted her cutta, and, driving out the enemy, took society, attracted by the wit and drollery possession of the city, and, with a very with which she enlivened her domestic inferior number of men, entered the nacircle. Her death occurred in 1785. bob's camp, and seized his cannon; which

Clive, Robert, lord Clive and baron of alarmed him so much, that he offered Plassey, was born in 1725, in Shropshire. terms which were adjusted much to the He was sent to several schools, but to little advantage of the company. The state of purpose, and was said, by all his masters, things rendering it impossible for this to be the most unlucky boy in their schools. peace to last long, colonel Clive formed His father obtained for him the place of a the project of dethroning the nabob, the writer in the East India company's ser- execution of which was confided to Mr. vice, and, in his 19th year, he went in that Watts and himself; and one of the nabob's capacity to Madras. In 1747, he quitted officers, named Meer Jaffier, joined them the civil employment, and entered into the on condition of succeeding to his master's dignity. A Gentoo merchant, named but, in consequence of the shameful moOmichund, was engaged to carry on the nopolies and usurpations of the English correspondence between Jaffier and the traders, the new nabob declared the trade English; but, demanding a high sum for of the country free for all. It was, in conhis services, a double treaty was drawn up, sequence, resolved to depose him, and rein one of which his demand was inserted, store Meer Jaffier; and, after a temporaand both were signed; and the first only ry success, he was obliged to take refuge shown to Omichund, who, trusting to the with the nabob of Oude. On the news faith of the English, performed his part of these commotions reaching England, The nabob, suspecting what was going the company appointed lord Člive presiforward, commanded Meer Jaffier to swear dent of Bengal, with the command of the fidelity and join his army; and the famous troops there; and, in July, 1764, he returnbattle of Plassey ensued, in which, by ed to India, being first created a knight of comparatively a small body of troops, the the Bath. Before his arrival, major Adnabob and his army were put to flight, and ams had defeated the nabob of Oude, Suthe company's success decided. To the jah-ul-Dowlah, and obliged him to sue for deep disgrace of colonel Clive and the peace; so that lord Clive had only to settle English, on the affair being decided, Om- terms of agreement with the country powichund was informed that “the red paper ers, which he did to the great advantage was a trick, and he was to have nothing." of the company, who acquired the dispoThe disappointment drove him mad, and, sal of all the revenues of Bengal, Bahar, a year and a half after, he died in a state and Orissa. In 1767, he finally returned of idiocy. It should also be noticed, that to England, being the chief contributor to the signature of admiral Watson, who was the immense possessions of the East India too honest to sign the paper, was a for- company. In 1773, a motion, supported gery. The new nabob, Meer Jaffier, who by the minister, was made in the house of had come over at the close of the action, commons, “ that

, in the acquisition of his and had presented Clive with £210,000, wealth, lord Clive had abused the powers now wished to govern without the inter- with which he was intrusted."" The ference of the English ; but, three rebel- charges brought forward in support of this lions rising against him, he was obliged to motion had a very serious aspect, but, with solicit their aid, and colonel Clive sup- the assistance of Mr. Wedderburne, he pressed two, but made a compromise with made such a defence, that it was rejected, the third competitor, whom he thought and a resolution passed, “ that lord Clive would be a check upon the nabob's becom- had rendered great and meritorious sering too powerful. He was next appointed vices to his country,” which, however, was governor of Calcutta ; and, soon after, a · no contradiction to the motion. From large force arrived at Bengal, on pretence that time, his broken health, and probably of being sent to reënforce the garrisons his injured peace of mind, rendered him a belonging to the Dutch company. Sus- prey to the most gloomy depression of pecting that they were invited by the spirits, under the morbid influence of nabob, to destroy the English power, he which he put an end to his life and sufattacked them, both by sea

and land, with ferings, at the age of 50, in November, 1774. great success, capturing all their forces, A physiognomist would scarcely have and drawing up a treaty, signed by the been favorable to lord Clive, who possessDutch, who agreed to pay all expenses, on ed a remarkably heavy brow, which gave a the restitution of their property. For these close and sullen expression to his features ; services, he was created, by the great Mo- and he was, indeed, of a reserved temper, gul, an omrah of the empire, and received a and very silent; but, nevertheless, among grant of a revenue, amounting to £28,000 his intimate friends, could be lively and per annum from Meer Jaffier. He then pleasant. He was always self-directed, and again returned to England, where his suc- secret in his decisions, but inspired those , cess was much applauded, without much under his command with the utmost coninquiry as to the means; and, in 1761, he fidence, owing to his great bravery and was raised to the Irish peerage, by the presence of mind. Lord Chatham chartitle of lord Clive, baron of Plassey. He acterized him as a “heaven-born general, had not, however, been long in England, who, without experience, surpassed all the before a disagreement took place between officers of his time.” His talents, in fact, Meer Jaffier and Mr. Holwell, who then were as great as his political morality was officiated as governor, which ended in disputable; and, as in the case of Warren transferring the nabobship from the for- Hastings, the services done to his country mer to his son-in-law Cossim-Ally-Khan; have paralyzed the disposition to investigate too nicely into the character of them. from Haroun al Raschid in 809, to He was member of parliament from 1760 which small bells were attached, and in to his death, but seldom spoke; though, which figures of horsemen, at the hour of when roused, he could display great elo- twelve, came forth through little doors, quence. In private life, he was kind and and retired again. There is a more exact exceedingly liberal. He married the sis- description of this work of art in the Franter of the late astronomer-royal, doctor conian annals, attributed to Eginhard, in Maskelyne, by whom he had two sons and which it is particularly said to have been three daughters.

a clepsydra, and that, at the end of each CLOACE ; subterranean works in Rome, hour, little balls of metal fell upon a bell, of stupendous size and strength, construct- and produced a sound. It is not probable ed in the time of the Tarquins, for con- that the clock which Pacificus, arch-deaducting off the overflowings of the Tiber, con of Verona, is said to have invenied in the waters from the hills, and the filth of the 9th century, could have been equal the city. The cloaca maxima, or principal to our present clocks. The words on his branch, received numerous other branches, tomb are so indistinct that nothing posibetween the Capitoline, Palatine and Qui- tive can be inferred from them. The disrinal hills. It has stood nearly 2500 years, covery of clocks has likewise been attribusurviving the earthquakes which have ted to the famous Gerbert of Auvergne, shaken down the palaces, churches and who afterwards became pope under the towers of the superincumbent city, and name of Sylvester II, and died in 1003; still stands as firmly as on the day of its but Ditmar of Merseburg, a trustworthy foundation. It is formed of three concen- witness, only relates that Gerbert placed a tric rows of enormous stones, piled above horologium in Magdeburg for the emperor each other without cement. The height, Otho,

after observing, through a tube, the inside, is 18 Roman palms, and the width star which guides the seamen. This about the same.

must have been a sun-dial, which Gerbert CLOCK. For many inventions which placed according to the height of the pole. do honor to the human mind, we are in- . In the 12th century, clocks were made debted to the monks of the middle ages, use of in the monasteries, which announwho, in their seclusion, free from the ne- ced the end of every hour by the sound cessity of providing for their support, em- of a bell, put in motion by means of ployed the time during which they were wheels. From this time forward, the exnot engaged in their devotions in the pression “the clock has struck" is often practice of various arts, both useful and met with. The hand for marking the useless. Among the inventions which time is also made mention of. Of Wilwe owe to them are clocks, or time-keep- liam, abbot of Hirschau, his biographer ers, which are set in motion by wheels, relates, that he invented a horologium pendulums and steel springs. The word similar to the celestial hemisphere. Short horologium was in use, even among the as this account is, it still appears probable ancients; and it might almost be inferred, that this abbot was the inventor of clocks, from many expressions, that they possess- as he employed a person particularly in ed instruments similar to our pocket- arranging his work, and keeping it in orwatches and chamber-clocks. It is, how- der. This abbot died at the end of the ever, certain, that their time-pieces were 11th century. In the 13th century, there sun-dials, hour-glasses, and clepsydræ. The is again mention of a clock, given by sullatter Julius Cæsar brought with him from tan Saladin to the emperor Frederic II. Great Britain. It was a clepsydra which This was evidently put in motion by Cassiodorus, in the 6th century, recom- weights and wheels. It not only marked mended to his monks, when a cloudy sky the hours, but also the course of the sun, prevented them from observing their sun- of the moon, and the planets in the zodiac. dials. The gourmand Trimalchio, de- It is hardly probable that the Saracens scribed by Petronius, had a clepsydra in learned the art of clock-making from the his dining-room, and placed a trumpeter monks of European monasteries: pernear it to announce the hours. Vitruvius haps, on the contrary, they were the real mentions an Alexandrian artist, who, 140 inventors of it, and the invention was years before our era, combined spring- made known to Europeans by means of wheels with the clepsydra ; but the ac- the crusades. In the 14th century, there count is too confused and incomplete to are stronger traces of the present system afford a correct idea of its construction. of clock-work. Dante particularly menIn an old chronicle, it is related that Char- tions clocks. Richard, abbot of St. Allemagne received a clock (see Automatu) ban's in England, made a clock, in 1326, such as had never been heard of till then. makes its circuit in 100 years. Still It not only indicated the course of the more remarkable is the representation of sun and the moon, but also the ebb and the motions of the planets known at the flood tide. Large clocks on steeples, like- time of the inventor, and of the systems wise, were first made use of in the 14th of Ptolemy and Copernicus. They and century. Perhaps Jac. Dondi, in Padua, their satellites perform their revolutions in was the first who made one of this kind; exactly the same time as they actually do at least, his family was called, after him, in the heavens; and these automata not dell'Orologio. A German, Henry de only have the central motion, but their Wyck, was celebrated, in the same centu- course is also eccentrical and elliptic, like ry, for a large clock which he placed in a that of the heavenly orbs, and the motion tower built by command of Charles V, is sometimes slower, sometimes quicker, king of France. This clock was preserv- and even retrograde. This instrument ed till 1737. Watches are a much later must have been the fruit of deep knowlinvention, although they have likewise edge, indefatigable research, and the calbeen said to have been invented as early culations of years. It is much to be re as the 14th century. The general opin- gretted, that the limited means of the ion is, that Peter Hele first contrived them artist prevented his machine from being in 1510. One of their names was that of better finished, and that he was not acNuremberg eggs (Nürnberger Eier). Ac- quainted with clock-making in its present cording to some accounts, the first trust- advanced state, and with the excellent inworthy indications of their existence are struments which have been invented since found at the commencement of the 17th his time. The country where watches century. The pendulum (q. v.) Huygens are manufactured in the greatest numbers (q. v.) invented. The honor of being the is French Switzerland, particularly at Geinventor of the balance-spring in watches neva, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Locle, &c., was contested between him and the Eng- where they are made by thousands. lish philosopher doctor Hooke. To prevent Among French watch-makers, Berthoud, friction, Facio, a Genevan, invented the Breguet, Chevalier, Courvoisier, Preumethod of boring holes in diamonds or d'homme, and others, are distinguished. rubies for the pivots to revolve in, which England and France have been active in was found a great improvement. Thus perfecting the art of horology. The elechronometers had their origin, in which gant Parisian pendulum-clocks are well the English have attained great perfection. known, in which the art of the sculptor is This nation also invented repeaters. An combined with that of the machinist. individual of the name of Barlow first Elegance, however, is their principal made one, in 1676, for king Charles II; recommendation. It is much to be reand Graham was the inventor of the gretted, that the present watches, even compensation-pendulum (q. v.), in 1715. the finest

, have not the finish which gave This was perfected by Harrison, who such great durability to those of former formed the pendulum of nine round rods, times. This is particularly the case with five of which were of iron and four of French watches. We speak now of the brass. With these pendulums the astro- better sort of watches; the ordinary ones nomical clocks are still provided, and per- are hardly worth the trifling sum which fect dependence may be placed in the they cost. Wooden clocks are made regularity of their action. Amongst the chiefly in the Schwarzwald, or Black important inventions of the 18th century, Forest, in South Germany, and furnish the astronomical clocks of the clergyman an important object of manufacture for Hahn, in Echterdingen, Würtemberg, de- this mountainous and barren country. It

to be particularly named. (See is said that 70,000 of such clocks are Hahn.) He formed the idea of measur- made there annually. Perhaps this acing time in its whole extent. The princi- count is exaggerated, but great numbers pal hand in his instrument is that of uni- of the clocks are sent to North and South versal history. This turns on a table, and America, and all over Europe. The indicates the principal epochs of history, chief magazine of them is at Neustadt, in according to the chronology of the old Baden. (For information on the conTestament, and the great events of future struction of clocks and watches, see the times, according to the calculations of article Horology.) Bengel, founded on the Apocalypse. Its CLOISTER. (See Monastery.) revolution embraces a period of nearly Clpots, John Baptist von; a Prussian 8000 years. Another hand on this table baron, better known, during the revolumarks the year of the century, and tionary scenes in France, under the appel

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