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lation of Anacharsis Cloots. He was born death. On the scaffold, he begged the at Cleves, in 1755, and became possessed executioner to decapitate him the last, of a considerable fortune, which he partly that he might have an opportunity for dissipated through misconduct. The ex- making some observations essential to the ample of his uncle, Cornelius Pauw, who establishment of certain principles while published several popular works, inspired the heads of the others were falling. him with an inclination to become an au- Clos, Choderlos de la (his entire name thor. He travelled in different parts of was Pierre Ambroise François Ch. de la Europe, and formed an acquaintance with Clos), well known for his extraordinary many eminent individuals, among whom and dangerous novel, Les Liaisons danwas the celebrated Edmund Burke; but gereuses, born at Amiens, in 1741, was an the politics of that statesman did not suit officer in the army, afterwards secretary the irregular and ardent disposition of and confidant of the duke of Orleans, Cloots, to whom the French revolution whom he assisted in his plans during the at length opened a career which_he revolution. In 1791, he entered the Jacothought worthy of his ambition. The bin club, and edited the journal Ami de la first scene in which he distinguished him- Constitution. He died, during the consuself was the ridiculous masquerade called lar government, at Tarentum, in 1803, in the embassy of the human race, partly con- the rank of general of brigade in the artiltrived by the duke de Liancourt. On the lery in the army of Naples. 19th of June, 1790, Cloots presented him- CLOSE-HAULED (au plus pres, in French), self at the bar of the national assembly, in navigation; the general arrangement or followed by a considerable number of the trim of a ship’s sails, when she endeavors porters of the French metropolis, in for- to make progress, in the nearest direction eign dresses, to represent the deputies of possible, towards that point of the comall nations. He described himself as the pass from which the wind blows. orator of the human race, and demanded CLOSE-QUARTERS; certain strong barthe right of confederation, which was riers of wood, stretching across a mergranted him. At the bar of the assembly, chant-ship in several places. They are used April 21, 1792, he made a strange speech, as a place of retreat when a ship is boardin which he recommended a declaration ed by her adversary, and are therefore fitof war against the king of Hungary and ted with several small loopholes, through Bohemia, proposed that the assembly which to fire the small arms. They are should form itself into a diet during a likewise furnished with several small caisyear, and finished by offering a patriotic sons, called powder-chests, which are fixed gift of 12,000 livres. On the 12th of Au- upon the deck, and filled with powder, old gust, he went to congratulate the legisla- nails, &c., and may be fired at any time. tive assembly on the occurrences of the Instances are known in which close-quarpreceding 10th, and offered to raise a ters have proved highly effective. Prussian legion, to be called the Vandal Cloth. (See Cotton, Woollen, Silk, &c.) legion. The 27th of the same month, he CLOTHING. A very striking fact, exhibitadvised the assembly to set a price on the ed by the bills of mortality, is the very large heads of the king of Prussia and the duke proportion of persons who die of consumpof Brunswick, praised the action of John tion. It is not our intention to enter into any J. Ankarstroem, the assassin of the king general remarks upon the nature of that of Sweden, and, among other absurd ex- fatal disease. In very many cases, the orpressions, he said, “My heart is French, igin of a consumption is an ordinary cold; and my soul is sans-culotte.He display- and that cold is frequently taken through ed no less hatred to Christianity than to the want of a proper attention to clothing, royalty, declaring himself the “personal particularly in females. We shall

, thereenemy of Jesus Christ.” In September, fore, offer a few general remarks upon 1792, he was nominated deputy from the de- this subject, so important to the health of partment of the Oise to the national con- all classes of persons. Nothing is more vention, in which he voted for the death necessary to a comfortable state of existof Louis XVI,“ in the name of the hu- ence, than that the body should be kept in man race." This madman, becoming an nearly a uniform temperature. The Alobject of suspicion to Robespierre and his mighty Wisdom, which made the senses party, was arrested, and condemned to serve as instruments of pleasure for our death, March 24, 1794. He suffered with gratification, and of pain for our protecseveral others, and, on his way to the tion, has rendered the feelings arising guillotine, he discoursed to his compan- from excess or deficiency of heat so acute, ions on materialism and the contempt of that we instinctively seek shelter from the scorching heat and freezing cold. We spiration. Were this oily matter deficient, bathe our limbs in the cool stream, or the skin would become sodden, as is the clothe our bodies with the warm fleece. case when it has been removed-a fact to We court the breeze, or carefully avoid it. be observed in the hands of washerBut no efforts to mitigate the injurious ef- women, when it is destroyed by the solfects of heat or cold would avail us, if vent powers of the soap. The hair serves nature had not furnished us, in common as so many capillary tubes to conduct the

vith animals (in the peculiar func- perspired fluid from the skin. The three tions of the skin and lungs), with a power powers of the skin, perspiration, absorpof preserving the heat of the body uni- tion and feeling, are so dependent on each form under almost every variety of tem- other, that it is impossible for one to be perature to which the atmosphere is liable. deranged without the other two being alThe skin, by increase of the perspiration, so disordered. For if a man be exposed carries off the excess of heat; the lungs, to a frosty atmosphere, in a state of inacby decomposing the atmosphere, supply tivity, or without sufficient clothing, till the loss; so that the internal parts of the his limbs become stiff and his skin insenbody are preserved at a temperature of sible, the vessels that excite the perspiraabout 98°, under all circumstances. In tion and the absorbent vessels partake of addition to the important share which the the torpor that has seized on the nerves

tion of perspiration has in regulating of feeling; nor will they regain their lost the heat of the body, it serves the further activity till the sensibility be completely repurpose of an outlet to the constitution, by stored. The danger of suddenly attemptwhich it gets rid of matters that are no ing to restore sensibility to frozen parts is longer useful in its economy. The excre- well known. If the addition of warmth tory function of the skin is of such para- be not very gradual, the vitality of the mount importance to health, that we part will be destroyed. This consideraought, at all times, to direct our attention tion of the functions of the skin will at to the means of securing its being duly once point out the necessity of an especial performed; for if the matters that ought attention, in a fickle climate, to the subto be thrown out of the body by the pores ject of clothing. Every one's experience of the skin are retained, they invariably must have shown him how extremely caprove injurious. When speaking of the pricious the weather is in this country. excrementitious matter of the skin, we do Our experience of this great inconstancy not mean the sensible moisture which is in the temperature of the air ought to poured out in hot weather, or when the have instructed us how to secure ourbody is heated by exercise, but a matter selves from its effects. The chief end which is too subtile for the senses to take proposed by clothing ought to be proteccognizance of, which is continually pass- tion from the cold ; and it never can be ing off from every part of the body, and too deeply impressed on the mind (espewhich has been called the insensible per cially of those who have the care of cħilspiration. This insensible perspiration is dren), that a degree of cold that amounts the true excretion of the skin. A sup- to shivering cannot be felt, under any cirpression of the insensible perspiration is a cumstances, without injury to the health, prevailing symptom in almost all diseases. and that the strongest constitution cannot It is the sole cause of many fevers. Very resist the benumbing influence of a senmany chronic diseases have no other sation of cold constantly present, even

In warm weather, and particular- though it be so moderate as not to occaly in hot climates, the functions of the skin sion immediate complaint, or to induce being prodigiously increased, all the con- the sufferer to seek protection from it. sequences of interrupting them are pro- This degree of cold often lays the foundaportionably dangerous. Besides the func- tion of the whole host of chronic diseases, tion of perspiration, the skin has, in com- foremost amongst which are found scrofumon with every other surface of the body, la and consumption. Persons engaged in a process, by means of appropriate vessels, sedentary employments must be almost of absorbing, or taking up, and conveying constantly under the influence of this deinto the blood vessels, any thing that may gree of cold, unless the apartment in which be in contact with it. It is also the part they work is beated to a degree that subon which the organ of feeling or touch is jects them, on leaving it, to all the dandistributed. The skin is supplied with gers of a sudden transition, as it were, glands, which provide an oily matter, that from summer to winter. The inactivity renders it impervious to water, and thus to which such persons are condemned, by secures the evaporation of the sensible per- weakening the body, renders it incapable

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of maintaining the degree of warmth ne- clothes to the figure of the body, particucessary to comfort, without additional larly amongst females. Clothes should clothing or fire. Under such circum- be so made as to allow the body the full stances, a sufficient quantity of clothing, exercise of all its motions. The neglect of a proper quality, with the apartment of this precaution is productive of more moderately warmed and well ventilated, mischief than is generally believed. The ought to be preferred, for keeping up the misery and suffering arising from it begin requisite degree of warmth, to any means while we are yet in the cradle. When of heating the air of the room so much as they have escaped from the nurses' hands, to render any increase of clothing unne- boys are left to nature. Girls have, for a cessary. To heat the air of an apartment while, the same chance as boys, in a freemuch above the ordinary temperature of dom from bandages of all kinds ; but, as the atmosphere, we must shut out the ex- they approach to womanhood, they are ternal air; the air also becomes extremely again put into trammels in the forms of rarefied and dry; which circumstances stays. The bad consequences of the make it doubly dangerous to pass from pressure of stays are not immediately obit to the cold, raw, external air. But vious, but they are not the less certain on in leaving a moderately well warmed that account. The girl writhes and twists room, if properly clothed, the change is to avoid the pinching which must necesnot felt; and the full advantage of exer- sarily attend the commencement of wearcise is derived from any opportunity of ing stays tightly laced. The posture in taking it that may occur.—The only kind which she finds ease is the one in which of dress that can afford the protection re- she will constantly be, until, at last, she quired by the changes of temperature to will not be comfortable in any other, even which high northern climates are liable, is when she is freed from the pressure that woollen. Nor will it be of much avail originally obliged her to adopt it. In this that woollen be worn, unless so much of way most of the deformities to which it be worn, and it be so worn, as effectu- young people are subject originate; and, ally to keep out the cold. Those who unfortunately, it is not often that they are would receive the advantage which the perceived until they have become considwearing of woollen is capable of afford- erable, and have existed too long to admit ing, must wear it next the skin; for it is of remedy. in this situation only that its health-pre- CLOTILDE DE VALLON CHALIS, Marserving power can be felt. The great guerite Eléonore; born at Vallon, a castle advantages of woollen cloth are briefly on the Ardeche, in Languedoc, in the year these:—the readiness with which it allows 1405. The poems of this lady, which the escape of the matter of perspiration have been preserved, did not make their through its texture; its power of preserv- appearance till 1803. At the age of 11, ing the sensation of warmth to the skin she translated a poem of Petrarch into under all circumstances ; the difficulty verse. Fortunate circumstances, particuthere is in making it thoroughly wet; the larly her acquaintance with several disslowness with which it conducts heat; tinguished female poets of her time, unthe softness, lightness and pliancy of its folded her poetical talents. In 1421, she

Cotton cloth, though it differs but married Berenger de Surville, a young little from linen, approaches nearer to the knight, who was soon obliged to follow nature of woollen, and, on that account, the dauphin (Charles VII) to Puy-en-Vemust be esteemed as the next best sub- lay. On the occasion of this separation, stance of which clothing may be made. she composed a beautiful poem, which Silk is the next in point of excellence, but takes the first rank amongst her works. it is very inferior to cotton in every re- After being married seven years, she lost spect. Linen possesses the contrary of her husband, who fell before 'Orleans. most of the properties enumerated as ex- After this, she occupied her time with the cellences in woollen. t retains the matter education of young females possessed of of perspiration in its texture, and speedily poetical talent. Among these were Sobecomes imbued with it; it gives an un- phie de Lyonna and Juliette de Vivarez. pleasant sensation of cold to the skin; it is By chance, she became acquainted with very readily saturated with moisture, and Margaret of Scotland, wife of the dauphin it conducts heat too rapidly. It is, indeed, Louis. In consequence of a poem which the worst of all the substances in use, be- she composed in praise of duke Philip the ing the least qualified to answer the pur- Good, Margaret sent her a crown of artifiposes of clothing. There are several pre- cial laurel, with silver leaves, and interwovailing errors in the mode of adapting ven with 12 golden flowers; but Clotilde would not listen to the pressing invitations president of the chamber rings his bell, and which she received to appear at court. sometimes closes the session, because he In 1495, she commemorated, in a poem, cannot restore order. The réglement of the the triumphs of Charles VIII. The year chambre does not appear to be the cause of of her death is not known. Her poems, this disorder. It is dated June 25, 1814, which are distinguished for delicacy and and is an imitation of the English usages. grace, appear to have been lost, when This body of rules, with those for the one of her descendants, Joseph Etienne chamber of peers, given July 2, 1814, and de Surville (who, in 1798, was shot as a the law of Aug. 13, 1814, respecting the secretly returned emigrant), a man himself forms in which the king communicates possessed of a talent for poetry, on search- with the chambers, and they with each ing the archives of his family, discovered, other, are not in the Bulletin des Lois; they in 1782, the hand-writing of Clotilde. are contained in Lanjuinais' Constitutions With difficulty he deciphered the writing, de la Nation Française, Paris, 1819. studied the language, and soon found his CLOUD. The clouds are aqueous vapains richly rewarded. On his emigra- pors, which hover at a considerable height tion, in 1791, he left the manuscript of above the surface of the earth. They Clotilde behind him, which, with many differ from fogs only by their height and less other family records, became a prey to degree of transparency. The cause of the flames. The copies, which had been pre- latter circumstance is the thinness of the viously taken of several pieces, came from atmosphere in its higher regions, where his widow into the hands of the present the particles of vapor become condensed. publisher, M. Vanderbourg. The genu- The varieties of clouds are numerous. ineness of these poems is not to be doubt- Some cast a shade which covers the sky, ed, although it is apparent that, in some and, at times, produces a considerable instances, M. de Surville has ventured to darkness; others resemble a light veil, and make alterations.

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permit the rays of the sun and moon to CLÔTURE, LA (the close); the term used pass through them. Clouds originate like in the French chamber of deputies, when fogs. The watery evaporations which rise one party insists upon having a discussion from seas, lakes, ponds, rivers, and, in fact, closed, and the vote taken. Though it from the whole surface of the earth, ascannot be denied, that the French improve cend, on account of their elasticity and in parliamentary skill, yet they are very lightness, in the atmosphere, until the air far from parliamentary order, we might becomes so cold and thin that they can say decency, compared with the example rise no higher, but are condensed. Phiof England and the U. States. This is losophers, however, are of very different principally owing to two causes: the first opinions respecting the way in which the is want of experience. Parliamentary condensation and the whole formation of proprieties are things which cannot be the clouds proceed. De Luc, whose theregulated by orders and decrees, because ory is considered the most probable, begreat strictness of rule injures the freedom lieves that the water, after its ascent in the which gives value to parliamentary pro- form of vapors, and before it takes the ceedings. They must be learned by prac- shape of clouds, exists in a gaseous state, tice, and rest on the convictions of the not affecting the hygrometer, which is the opposition, as well as of the other party. reason why the air, in the higher regions, The second cause is the violence of par- is always dry. He explains the clouds ties. Neither in England nor in the U. to be collections of small vesicles, in the States do there exist parties so entirely and transformation of which from the gaseous essentially opposed as in France. No po- state, he believes that caloric operates, in litical partisan in England or the U. States part at least, because, according to his thinks of destroying the constitution. The opinion, clouds communicate a degree of animosity, therefore, between parties can- heat to the body which they render damp. not be, in either of these countries, so great According to Hube, clouds are collections as in France. The consequence of this of precipitated bubbles, and differ by their is, that the opposition, or liberal party, in negative electricity from fogs, the electricithe French chambers, give vent to their ty of which is generally positive. If clouds feelings, and the administration party will and fogs lose their electricity, rain is pronot listen, buť call, Aux voix ! La clôture ! duced. These explanations are, however, during the speeches of their opponents, by no means perfectly satisfactory. More and not unfrequently make a noise similar on this subject is to be found in Mayer's to that of the Polish diet, and very much Lehrbuch über die Physische Astronomie, out of place in a deliberative body. The Theorie der Erde und Meteorologie, Göt

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VOL. III.

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tingen, 1805. The change of winds con- ceive much humidity, but not in perfect tributes essentially to the formation of solution. The humidity becomes collectclouds and fogs. In countries where this ed, and shows itself in masses rising conichange is small and infrequent, as be- cally, and resting on the third region. The tween the tropics, these phenomena of appearance, increase and disappearance humidity in the atmosphere must be com- of the cumulus, in fine weather, are often paratively rare, but, when they happen, periodical, and correspondent to the dethe more violent, because a great quantity gree of heat. Generally, it forms a few of vapor has had time to collect. The dis- hours after sunrise, attains its highest detance of the clouds from the surface of the gree in the hottest hours of the afternoon, earth is very different. Thin and light and decreases and vanishes at sun-set. clouds are higher than the highest moun- Great masses of cumulus, during high tains; thick and heavy clouds, on the con- winds, in the quarter of the heavens totrary, touch low mountains, steeples, and wards which the wind blows, indicate ap

The average height of proaching calm and rain. If the cumulus the clouds is calculated to be two miles does not disappear, but rises, a thunderand a half. Their size is likewise very storm is to be expected during the night. different. Some have been found occu- If the upper region, with its drying power, pying an extent of 20 square miles, and predominates, the upper parts of the cumutheir thickness, in some cases, has been lus become cirrus. But, if the lower reascertained, by travellers, who have as- gion predominates (into which the densest cended mountains, to be a thousand feet: vapors are attracted and dissolved into others are very thin, and of small dimen- drops), the basis of the cumulus sinks, and sions. The natural history of clouds, not the cloud becomes stratus, which is of as respects their chemical structure, but moderate density, and its lower surface their forms, their application to meteorol- rests generally upon the earth or the waogy, and a knowledge of the weather, has ter. This is the proper evening cloud, and been well treated by Lucas Howard, in appears first towards sunset. To this behis Essay on Clouds. He distributes clouds long also those creeping fogs, which, in into three essentially different formations. calm evenings, ascend from the valleys, and These formations are—1. cirrus, consisting extend themselves in undulating masses. of fibres which diverge in all directions; The stratus remains quiet, and accumulates 2. cumulus, convex and conical aggre- layers, till at last it falls as rain. This phegates, which increase from a horizontal nomenon—the dissolution of clouds into basis upwards ; 3. stratus, layers vastly rain-is called nimbus. Howard further extended, connected and horizontal. The makes subdivisions, as, cirro-cumulus, cirroclouds are generally assigned to three stratus, &c. Also the real stratus, the atmospherical regions, the upper, the mid- horizontal layer of clouds, sometimes rises dle and the lower one, to which a fourth, higher than at other times, which depends the lowest, may be added. In the upper on the season, the polar height of the place, region, the atmosphere is in such a state, or the heights of mountains: the cumulus that it can receive and sustain aqueous is also sometimes higher and sometimes matter dissolved into its integrant parts. lower. On the whole, however, the difThis state of the atmosphere corresponds ferent kinds remain one above another. to the highest state of the barometer. To Th. Forster has followed Howard in his this region belongs the cirrus, which has investigations respecting the clouds, and the least density, but the greatest height, Göthe, the German poet, has made an apand variety of shape and direction. It is plication of this theory in his work entitled the first indication of serene and settled Zur Naturwissenschaft, vol. i. weather, and first shows itself in a few Cloud, St.; a charmingly situated vilfibres, spreading through the atmosphere. lage, two leagues E. from Paris, in the deThese fibres by degrees increase in length, partment of Seine-and-Oise, with a royal and new fibres attach themselves to the castle and magnificent garden, which were sides. The duration of the cirrus is un- much embellished by Napoleon. On the certain, from a few minutes to several 7th of September, and some days followhours. It lasts longer, if it appears alone, ing, perhaps a sixth part of the population and at a great height; a shorter time, if of Paris is assembled here, full of gayety, it forms in the neighborhood of other attending the fair, which affords a striking, clouds. The middle region is the seat of picture of a certain class of the French cumulus, which is generally the most con- people. As the residence of the mondensed, and moves with the stream of air arch of France, St. Cloud is historically nearest to the earth. This region can re- interesting. Many events in the civil dis

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