Imatges de pÓgina


turbances of that countryare connected with having, in the middle of them, the leaves this place. Here Henry III was murdered of the petals folded over each other, and by Clement (q. v.), Aug. 2, 1589; and, in forming a small head about the size of a modern times, it has been rendered famous pea, they are in a fit state to be gathered. by the revolution of the 18th of Brumaire, This operation is performed betwixt the which destroyed the directory, and estab- months of October and February, partly lished the consular government. Napoleon by the hand, partly by hooks, and partly chose St. Cloud for his residence; hence by beating the trees with bamboos. "The the expression, cabinet of St. Cloud. Under cloves are either received on cloths spread the former government, the phrase was beneath the trees, or are suffered to fall cabinet of Versailles, or cabinet of the Tuiler- on the ground, the herbage having been ies. In 1814, St. Cloud was besieged, March previously cut and swept for that purpose. 31, by the van-guard of the army of the They are subsequently dried by exposure allies under Langeron. April 7, the head- for a while to the smoke of wood fires, quarters of the allied armies were there, afterwards to the rays of the sun. When and remained there until June 3. In 1815, first gathered, they are of a reddish color, Blücher had his head-quarters at St. Cloud; but, by drying, they assume a deep-brown and here also was concluded the military cast. This spice yields a very fragrant: convention (July 3, 1815), by which Paris odor, and has a bitterish, pungent, and fell a second time into the hands of the warm taste. It is sometimes employed as allies. Bignon, Guilleminot and count a hot and stimulating medicine, but is Bondi acted on the part of France, general more frequently used in culinary preparaMüffling (the same who was, in 1829, a tions. When fresh gathered, cloves will mediator between Russia and Turkey, at yield, on pressure, a fragrant, thick, and Constantinople, sent there by the king of reddish oil; and, by distillation, a limpid Prussia) for Prussia, colonel Hervey for essential oil. Oil of cloves is used by England. The dubious sense of several many persons, though very improperly, points determined in the convention after- for curing the tooth-ache; since, from its wards occasioned mutual reproaches. pungent quality, it is apt to corrode the

Clove. The clove is the unexpanded gums and injure the adjacent teeth. flower-bud of an East Indian tree (caryo- When the tooth is carious, and will admit phillus aromaticus), somewhat resembling of it, a bruised clove is much to be prethe laurel in its height, and in the shape ferred. of its leaves. The leaves are in pairs, ob- CLOVE BARK, or CULILAWAN BARK long, large, spear-shaped, and of a bright- (corter lauri culílawan) is furnished by a green color." The flowers grow in clus- tree of the Molucca islands. It is in pieces ters, which terminate the branches, and more or less long, almost flat, thick, fihave the calyx divided into four small and brous, covered with a white epidermis, of pointed segments. The petals are small, a reddish-yellow inside, of a nutmeg and rounded, and of a bluish color; and the clove odor, and of an aromatic and sharp seed is an oval berry. In the Molucca taste. It is one of the substitutes for cinnaislands, where the raising of different mon, but not much used. We find, also, in spices was formerly carried on by the commerce, under the name of clove bark, anDutch colonists to great extent, the cul- other bark furnished by the myrthus caryoture of the clove-tree was a very important phillata (Lin.). It is in sticks two feet long, pursuit. It has even been asserted, that, formed of several pieces of very thin and in order to secure a lucrative branch of hard bark, rolled up one over the other, commerce in this article to themselves, of a deep brown color, of a taste similar they destroyed all the trees growing in to that of cloves. It possesses the same other islands, and confined the propaga- properties as the former barks, and may be tion of them to that of Ternate. But it considered as a substitute for them. appears that, in 1770 and 1772, both clove CLOVER (trifolium).

The clovers are and nutmeg-trees were transplanted from a very numerous family. Some botanists the Moluccas into the islands of France reckon no less than 55 species belonging and Bourbon, and subsequently into some to the genus of which cultivated clovers are of the colonies of South America, where varieties. The following are most used:they have since been cultivated with great 1. Pratense, or common red clover. This

At a certain season of the year, is a biennial, and sometimes, especially on the clove-tree produces a vast profusion chalky soils, a triennial plant. This is of flowers. When these have attained the kind most commonly cultivated, as it the length of about half an inch, the four yields a larger product than any of the points of the calyx being prominent, and other sorts. The soil best adapted to clo





ver is a deep, sandy loam, which is favor- the box advances. The box is fixed on able to its long tap-roots; but it will grow an axle-tree, supported by small wheels, in

any soil not too moist. So congenial is with handles fixed to the hinder part, by calcarious matter to clover, that the mere which the driver, while managing the strewing of lime on some soils will call horse, raises or depresses the fingers of into action clover-seeds, which, it would the machine, so as to take off the heads appear, have laid dormant for ages. It is of the grass. The other machine, called a recommendation of this grass, that it is a cradle, is made of an oak board about adapted to a soil suitable to scarcely any 18 inches in length and 10 in breadth. other kind of grass—to land which is dry, The fore part of it, to the length of 9 Jight, sandy, or composed mostly of gravel. inches, is sawed into fingers ; a handle is Clover-seed should be sowed in the spring, inserted behind, inclined towards them, except in climates where there are no and a cloth put round the back part of the severe winter frosts. The young plants board, which is cut somewhat circular, which come up in autumn cannot bear and raised on the handle; this collects the frost so well as those which have had the heads or tops of the grass, and prea whole summer to bring them to matu- vents them from scattering as they are rity. Spring wheat is a very good crop struck off by the cradle, which may be with which to sow clover and other grass- made of different sizes,-being smaller in seed. It is recommended to sow the gr proportion for women and children, who, seed, and plough or harrow it in with the by means of it, may likewise collect large wheat. If it be scattered on the surface quantities.—2. Trifolium repens, or white without being well covered, a part does clover. This also thrives best in light not vegetate, and that which does will be land. It is a natural grass of the U. States, liable to injury from drought. Clover- but, when sown by itself, it rarely grows seed may also be sown in the spring on tall enough to be well cut with a sithe. winter grain, and harrowed in. European When mixed with timothy or green grass writers agree with American cultivators, (poa viridis), it makes excellent hay. Clothat the harrowing will do no damage, ver requires much attention to make it but will be of service to the grain. The into hay. Its stalks are so succulent, that author of a valuable work, entitled a the leaves, which are the best part, are apt Treatise on Agriculture, lately published to crumble and vaste away before the in Albany, directs 10 or 12 pounds of clo- hay is well dried. It has, therefore, been ver-seed to be sown on an acre, if the soil recommended to cart it to the mow or he rich, and double that quantity if it be stack before the stalks are dry, and either poor. He condemns the practice of mix- to put it up with alternate layers of hay ing the seeds of timothy, rye, grass, &c. and straw, or to salt it at the rate of from with that of clover, “because these grasses half a bushel to a whole bushel per ton. neither rise nor ripen at the same time.” Green clover is good for swine. The late Another practice, equally bad (according judge Peters, of Pennsylvania, observed, to this writer), “is that of sowing clover- “In summer, my hogs chiefly run on seed on winter grain before the earth has clover. Swine feeding on clover in the acquired a temperature favorable to vege- fields will thrive wonderfully; when those tation, and when there can be no doubt (confined or not) fed on cut clover will fall but that two thirds of the seeds will per- away.” (Mem. Penn. Agr. Soc. vol. č. p. 33.) ish.” Clover-seed of a bright yellow, with Clovis, king of the Franks, born 465, a good quantity of purple and brown col- succeeded his father, Childeric, in 481, as ored seed amongst it, which shows its chief of the warlike tribe of Salian Franks, maturity, should be preferred. When who inhabited a barren country between perfectly ripe and well gathered, its power the sea and the Scheldt. This tribe, at a of vegetation will continue for four or five former period, had made incursions into years. Two sorts of machines are de- the neighboring territories, but were driven scribed in the Transactions of the New back into their forests and morasses. CloYork Agricultural Society, for gathering vis, therefore, united with Ragnacaire, king clover-seed. One of these machines con- of Cambray, and declared war upon Syasists of an open box about four feet square grius (son of Aetius), the Roman governor at the bottom, and about three feet in at Soissons. The Romans were entirely height on three sides; to the fore part, routed near Soissons, in 486. Syagrius which is open, fingers are fixed, about fled to Toulouse, to the court of Alaric, three feet in length, and so near as to king of the Goths, whose cowardly counbreak off the heads from the clover-stocks sellors delivered him up to Clovis, by between them, which are thrown back as whom he was put to death. Soissons

now became the capital of the new king- he tarnished his glory, by murders and dom of the Salian Franks. The unculti- cruelties. He died Nov. 26, 511, having vated Clovis governed his new subjects reigned 30 years. His four sons divided with wisdom and moderation : he was his dominions between them. 25 years particularly desirous to obtain the good later, the kingdom of_Burgundy came will of the clergy. All the cities in Belgia under the power of the Franks, the OstroSecunda submitted to him. Paris yielded goths were obliged to yield to them Arles to the victor in 493, and, 507, was se- and Marseilles, and Justinian conceded to lected for the capital of his kingdom. In . them the sovereignty of Gaul. In the last order to obtain assistance in withstanding year of his reign, Clovis had called a the powerful Visigoths in Gaul, Clovis council at Orleans, from which are dated married Clotilda, niece of Gundebald, king the peculiar privileges claimed by the of Burgundy. This princess, who had kings of France in opposition to the pope. been educated in the Catholic faith, was CLUB; a society which meets on cerdesirous that her husband, also, should tain times at certain places, for various embrace it. Her efforts were fruitless, purposes ; for instance, chess clubs, racing till, on an occasion when he was hard clubs, &c. The political clubs originated pressed in a battle against the Allemanni, in England, and thence passed to France near Zülpich (496), Clovis called on the and to other countries. They were proGod of Clotilda and the Christians. Vic- hibited by a law of the German empire, tory declared in his favor; and the part made in 1793. The French clubs, during of the territory of the Allemanni lying on the revolution, must be considered as its the Upper Rhine submitted to the king focus. An accurate acquaintance with of the Franks. The victor's conversion their history is indispensable for the underwas now an easy matter for the elo- standing of a great part of the revolution. quent St. Remigius, archbishop of Rheims. They were connected and regularly orClovis was solemnly baptized at Rheims, ganized, and their resolutions were pubDecember 25, 496, with several thousand lished. In the minuteness of their ramifiFranks, men and women. St. Remigius, cation throughout the country, they reat the same time, anointed him. The sembled the corresponding committees in cities of Armorica (Bretagne) then sub- the American colonies before the Ameri

itted to his sceptre, in 497. There now can revolution. These French clubs deremained in Gaul only two independent stroyed the constitution of 1795. They powers besides the Franks, viz. the Bur- were afterwards prohibited. (See Jacobin gundians and Visigoths. The former had and France.) two kings, Godegisele and Gundebald. Clue of a sail (in French, point) is the Clovis made an attack upon the latter, lower corner; and hence clue-garnets whose territories extended from the Vos- (cargues-point, Fr.) are a sort of tackles ges to the Alps and the sea-coast of Mar- fastened to the clues of the mainsail and seilles. Gundebald, deserted by the faith- foresail, to truss them up to the yard, less Godegisele, was routed near Dijon, which is usually termed clueing-up the compelled to surrender Lyons and Vienne sails. Clue-lines are used for the same to the victorious Clovis, and to flee to purpose as clue-garnets, only that the latAvignon, where he concluded a peace. ter are confined to the courses, whilst the Clovis returned home loaded with spoils. clue-lines are common to all the squareGundebald afterwards violated the treaty; sails. but Clovis, fearing the Goths, entered into CLUNY; a town of France, in the Saa new alliance with him. Hostilities soon ône-and-Loire, lying between two mounbroke out between Alaric, king of the tains, on the Grône; 9 miles N. W. Maçon, Goths, and Clovis. In the battle near 21 miles S. Châlons-sur-Saône; populaPoictiers, between the rivers Vonne and tion, 3400. Here was a Benedictine abClouére, the latter gained a complete vic- bey, founded by William, duke of Aquitory, slaying his enemy with his own taine, at one time the most celebrated in hand, and conquered Aquitania. After France. Its funds were vast, and its edithis conquest, Clovis received the honor fices had the appearance of a well built of the consulship from the emperor Anas- city. The

church is one of the largest in tasius. The king of the Franks, having France. The town contains 3 parishes. his head adorned with a diadem, appeared (See Abelard.) in the church of St. Martin of Tours, clad CLYDE (anciently Glota); a river in Scot in the tunic and purple robe, and was sa- land, which rises in the south part of Lan · luted by the people as consul and Augus- erkshire, passes by Lanerk, Hamilton, tus. He strengthened his authority, while Glasgow, Renfrew, Dumbarton, &c., and forms the arm of the sea called the Frith strained to fly for safety. His services in of Clyde, at the southern extremity of the cause of liberty seemed, indeed, to the island of Bute." It is 70 miles long, have rendered him peculiarly obnoxious and becomes navigable at Glasgow. It to the British ; for, when they took poshas romantic falls, particularly at Corra- session of Philadelphia, a numerous body house and Stonebyres, of 84 and 80 feet proceeded to tear down the house of his perpendicular.

aunt, supposing it to be his, and only deCLYMER, George, one of the signers of sisted when informed of their mistake. In the

declaration of independence, was born the year 1780, Mr. Clymer was a member in Philadelphia in 1739, of a respectable of an association which made an offer to family. His father emigrated from Bristol, congress of establishing a bank for the England. The death of his parents left sole purpose of facilitating the transportaGeorge an orphan at the age of 7 years; tion of a supply of 3,000,000 of rations but he was well taken care of by his uncle, and 300 hogsheads of rum to the army, William Coleman, who bequeathed to him which was on the point of disbanding, in the principal part of his fortune. Af- consequence of its distressed condition. ter the completion of his studies, young Congress received the offer, and pledged Clymer entered into his uncle's counting- the faith of the U. States to the subscribers house, though his inclination for cultivating to the bank for their full indemnity, and his mind was much greater than for mer- deposited in it, as well for that purpose as cantile pursuits. When discontent had in support of its credit, bills for £150,000 been excited in the colonies by the arbi- sterling, on the American ministers in Eutrary acts of the British parliament, he rope. Mr. Clymer was one of the gentlewas among the first in Pennsylvania to men selected to preside over the instituraise his voice in opposition, and was tion, the good effects of which were long named by a meeting held in Philadelphia, felt. In Nov., 1780, Mr. Clymer was Oct. 16, 1773, chairman of a committee again elected to congress, and strongly appointed to demand of the commissioners advocated there the establishment of a nafor selling the tea which had been im- tional bank. He was chosen, in May, ported into America, on account of the 1782, to repair, with Mr. Rutledge, to the East India company, their resignation of Southern States, and make such representhe office. The demand was complied tations as were best adapted to procure with. Mr. Clymer was afterwards chosen from them their quotas for the purposes a member of the council of safety, when of the war, which were very remissly furthe increasing troubles rendered such a nished. In the autumn of 1784, during body necessary. In 1775, he was appoint- which year party spirit had raged with ed one of the first continental treasurers, great violence in Pennsylvania, he was but he resigned his office shortly after his elected to the legislature of that state, to first election to congress, in Aug., 1776. assist in opposing the constitutionalists, His zeal in the cause of his country was who were so termed in consequence of displayed by subscribing, himself, as well their upholding the old constitution, which as by encouraging the subscriptions of was justly deemed deficient. Pennsylvaothers, to the loan opened for the purpose nia is greatly indebted to his exertions for of rendering more effective the opposition the amelioration of her penal code, which to the measures of the British; and also by had previously been of so sanguinary a the disinterested manner in which he ex- nature as to produce extreme and almost changed all his specie for continental cur- universal discontent. Mr. Clymer was rency. In July, 1776, he was chosen, to- also a member of the convention which gether with doctor Benjamin Rush, James framed the present constitution of the fedWilson, George Ross and George Taylor, eral government, and was elected to the esquires, to supply the vacancy in congress first congress which met when it was occasioned by the resignation of the mem- about to be carried into operation. After bers of the Pennsylvania delegation, who serving throughout the term, he declined a had refused their assent to the declaration reëlection. In 1781, a bill having been of independence. The new members passed in congress, imposing a duty on were not present when the instrument was spirits distilled within the U. States, he agreed upon, but they all affixed to it their was placed at the head of the excise designatures. In the autumn of 1777, his partment, in the state of Pennsylvania. In house in Chester county, in which his the year 1796, he was appointed, together family resided, was plundered by a band with colonel Hawkins and colonel Pickens, of British soldiers, his property greatly to negotiate a treaty with the Cherokee and damaged, and his wife and children con- Creek Indians of Georgia. He subsequently

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became the first president of the Philadel- were therefore known to the ancients; but phia bank, and of the academy of arts. they were not acquainted with coaches, or He died Jan. 23, 1813, in the 74th year of carriages suspended on leathers. These his age, at Morrisville, Bucks county, are said to have been invented in Hungary, Pennsylvania.

and their name, which, in the language CLYTEMNESTRA; daughter of king Tyn- of that country, signifies covered, to be also darus and Leda, and twin-sister of Helen. of Hungarian origin. Others derive the She bore her husband, Agamemnon, two German name of the coach, Kutsche, from . daughters, Iphigenia and Electra, and one Gutsche, which signified, formerly, a bed ; son, Orestes. During the absence of Ag- or from Kitsee or Kutsee, considering this as amemnon, in the war against Troy, she the place where the vehicle was invented. bestowed her favors on Ægisthus, and, in Others think that coaches were invented connexion with him, murdered Agamem- in France. Charles V is said to have used non on his return from Troy, and, together such a conveyance, when afflicted with with her paramour, governed Mycene for the gout, and to have slept in it. The seven years. Orestes killed them both. invention of coaches in Hungary is said to (See Agamemnon and Orestes.)

have taken place in 1457 ; but Isabella, Cnidus, or GNIDUS; a town in Caria, a the wife of Charles VI of France, is said province of Asia Minor, and a favorite to have made her entrance into Paris, in place with Venus, who was, therefore, 1405, in a covered carriage, suspended surnamed the Gnidian goddess. She had on leathers. As, at first, none but ladies there three temples. The first, probably used these carriages in France, they were erected by the Lacedæmonian Dorians, called, from this circumstance, chariots dawas called the temple of Venus Doris. merets. Under Francis I, the construction The second was consecrated to her under of coaches was much improved. They the name of Venus Acræa. The third, were called carrosses; and the openings called the temple of the Gnidian Venus, were furnished with leather curtains. The and, by the inhabitants, the temple of Ve- first man who made use of one of these nus Euplæa, contained Praxiteles' marble carriages was Raimond de Laval, a cavastatue of the goddess, one of the master- lier of the court of Francis I, who was so pieces of art. This was afterwards re- large, that no horse could carry him. His moved to Constantinople, where it perish- coach, and that of the celebrated Diana of ed in a conflagration, in 1461.

Poitiers, duchess of Valentinois (q.v.), were Coach. The coach is distinguished made about 1540, and were the first carfrom other vehicles chiefly as being a cov- riages on springs in Paris; and, 10 years ered box, hung on leathers. In the most after, there were not more than three such ancient times, kings and princes had par- vehicles in that city. Under Henry III ticular vehicles which they used on sol- (1574–89), the fourth coach was introemn occasions, but these were not covered. duced. This was kept by a private perWe find in the Bible, that such carriages son. Before that time, they were considwere used in Egypt in the time of Joseph. ered as belonging exclusively to the royal Covered

wagons also appear to be of great family, or to very distinguished officers. antiquity ; for, even in Moses' time, such Henry IV, who is known to have been wagons were used for carrying loads, and murdered in a coach, kept but one carriage the

wandering Scythians are said to have for himself and his wife, as appears from a had wagons covered with leather, to pro- letter, in which he tells a friend, as an extect them from the weather: so, likewise, cuse for his absence, that his wife was had the Spartans, who called these car- using the coach. The marshal Bassomriages kanāthron. The seat of the coach- pierre, in 1599, brought the first coach man is also a very ancient invention of with glass windows from Italy into Oxylus, an Ætolian who took posses- France. In 1658, there were 520 coaches sion of the kingdom of Elis 1100 years in Paris, and the number went on continuB. C. The Romans had both open and ally increasing. In Germany, the empecovered carriages, the latter being used rors and princes used coaches as early as to transport sick soldiers and aged people: the 15th century. The emperor Frederic The covered carriage, called carruca, first III, for instance, went in one to Frankfort mentioned by Pliny, was invented later. in 1474. In 1509, the wife of the elector It was adorned with ivory, brass, and, Joachim I of Brandenburg had a gilded finally, with gold and silver, and used only coach, and 12 others ornamented with to convey magistrates, and distinguished crimson. Coaches are said to have been individuals of both sexes. The carrucæ introduced into Spain in 1546, and into were drawn by mules. Covered carriages Sweden in the last half of the 16th centu

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